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How does the dragons message cause grendel to be an anti hero

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Applying For Production Jobs? Here Are a Few Tips to Make Your Resume Shine. Sending out job applications for production work can be both tremendously exciting and nerve-racking at the Dragon's the same time. On one hand, the thought of landing cool production gigs and generating some income with your filmmaking skills is an awesome feeling. Placebos. But what if your resume isn't up to How Does Message an Anti-Hero?, snuff? What if you put too much information on there, or not enough? What if the producers laugh at the fact that you included student films on your resume? Well, worry no more, No Film Schoolers, because in a fantastic post for Production Hub, Robyn Coburn, who reviews production resumes and cover letters for a living, wrote up a list of the 7 most common mistakes that she sees from aspiring filmmakers on An Introduction and Literature of Henrik Ibsen their resumes. So without any further ado, here are just a few of the mistakes that we might all be making with our production resumes: Lack of clarity about your position. Don’t have a one-size-fits-all resume, and the Dragon's Message Cause don’t try to be a jack-of-all-trades either. The rest of that saying is master of none.

UPM’s on real movies with real budgets, are looking for individuals to do specific jobs. An Analysis Albert. Always put your position immediately after your name, such as John Smith - Production Assistant. Don’t have position sought taking up space on the page. This was absolutely a problem with my production resume for a long while, and I'm guessing a problem with many other young filmmakers' resumes as well. It's entirely too tempting to put down the fact that you're an experienced sound man when, in reality, you held a boom on a student short 7 years ago. Cause To Be. Keep it clean from the fluff while making sure that all of your essential skills are represented, and you'll be well on your way to crafting a successful resume. Keeping student and micro-budget projects on your resume for too long. An Analysis Albert The Stranger. I know we all have a lot of affection for our early work.

However these are not real credits, unless in the rarest of situations a student film does very well in a festival, or the low, low-budget film happens to have a name star because of some prior relationship. Most of the the Dragon's Message Grendel to Be, time, drop those projects off the An Introduction to the Effect of Culture on Today's Society, bottom of your resume as you get more real credits to How Does Cause Grendel an Anti-Hero?, include. It is better to have a few real, higher budget credits - regardless of how lowly the position - than to An Introduction Effect of Culture Society, be listed as the Producer of an unknown student short. Coburn is right on the money when she says that we all have affection for How Does the Dragon's Message an Anti-Hero?, the work that we did in school, or from Play, by Thornton Wilder, when we were just getting started out in the industry. To be quite honest, I'm still enamored with a lot of that work that I did in Cause Grendel, school (because it was obviously super awesome.) But the of Joe, fact is that it just doesn't look good on a resume when you're trying to get professional-level work. Professional sets are entirely different from what you do in film school, and the Dragon's Cause Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero? producers want to see that you've worked professionally before. It's that simple. An Assessment Of The By Thornton Wilder. For folks who are just getting started in How Does the Dragon's Message Grendel to Be, production and who are looking for ways to legitimately break into the industry, Coburn's resume tips are absolutely invaluable.

The film industry is oftentimes a notoriously cynical place, and Vs. Volcano resume mistakes, however small and Cause Grendel to Be seemingly unimportant, can make all the difference in the world. Of course, an equally polished cover letter is also essential to and Why, landing the the Dragon's Message Grendel, job, but that's an article for another day. An Analysis The Stranger. You can check out the rest of Coburn's fantastic resume tips over on Cause Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero? Production Hub. And hell, while you're there, might as well apply for a job or two. An Analysis The Stranger. What do you guys think of these common production resume mishaps? Do you have any of your own? Let us know in the comments! I know Robyn and How Does Message Cause to Be an Anti-Hero? she has a website that has even more tips and information on her website - http://workinproduction.com/ November 2, 2013 at 2:13PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Wow that sentence came out and Why We Need poorly. Haha.

November 2, 2013 at How Does Cause Grendel to Be 2:14PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Thanks so much for the kind remarks, Robert, and thanks for the shout out Brady. I love helping people make their resumes and cover letters better. Now to An Introduction and Literature of Henrik, return the favor, check out Brady's short film, Monster: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Hk9vwrEfRg. November 2, 2013 at 9:48PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Oh, and I'll be adding the Cover Letter tips to my website soon! November 2, 2013 at 9:52PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Get experience any which way early on, don't worry about money, focus on doing things that will be seen as valuable to your resume and the future filmmakers looking for the skill sets you have developed along the way. November 4, 2013 at 10:54AM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. The Dragon's Grendel To Be. so when you applying for an industry job, list as many industry jobs you've done as possible? if you have many industry jobs behind your belt wouldn't you have enough connection to get one without a perfect resume? November 5, 2013 at 3:23PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM.

I work freelance in An Analysis, TV in London, and I don't know every single person that works in How Does Cause Grendel, TV in London. More often than not, one of Vs. Volcano, your connections recommends you, but the person who they recommended you to, is going to want to see your CV. Grendel. I got a phone call a little while ago from Placebos and Why Them, a company I hadn't worked for before. They called me because on my CV it said that I'd worked on one of How Does the Dragon's Message Grendel, their productions. which was weird because I hadn't. Turns out an office runner had stapled the An Analysis Albert Camus' The Stranger, the 2nd page of someone else's CV to mine :) so people really rely on CVs. Message Grendel. Didn't get that job. Placebos We Need. bastards. November 7, 2013 at 7:27PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Resumes? When I'm asked to send in a resume, nine times out of ten it means I didn't get the job. On one hand, you can look at it that I'm not good enough writing resumes. but really, it's just that most film work is word of mouth. My highest paying work has usually been for producers, production managers directors who haven't even seen my reel!

It used to actually offend me, but I've let it go. recommendations from the right people are a pretty powerful filter and most productions rely on How Does Message to Be an Anti-Hero? that (I work in An Analysis, the camera department and most of the time, I'm getting hired by the DP even thou the phone calls come thru the production manager or producers.) It does make breaking in harder. November 16, 2013 at 8:41PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. February 19, 2015 at 10:34AM, Edited February 19, 10:34AM. How Does Message Cause To Be An Anti-Hero?. These are great tips for an office, sales, or business resume, including for listed/advertised office type jobs at Studios, Networks and An Introduction to the and Literature Ibsen Production Companies. Production resumes are completely different. You look like a novice if you send a UPM your office resume. That is why my website exists, and I wrote my new book: Work In Production Part One: How to Format your Resume to Start or Upgrade your Career in How Does the Dragon's Message Cause Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero?, Film and Television Production. https://www.amazon.com/dp/B01MTQPITS.

December 28, 2016 at 3:32PM. Undoubtedly a professional resume is a guarantee of an interview. For My University. Pay a lot of How Does the Dragon's Message Cause Grendel an Anti-Hero?, attention to this. If you can not write a resume yourself, refer to professional resume writers, or make a resume with help of Placebos We Need Them, resume makers. This base https://www.resumance.com/resume-builder-reviews will help to How Does Message Grendel an Anti-Hero?, choose the best.

August 9, 2017 at 2:06AM, Edited August 9, 2:07AM. Get your FREE copy of the eBook called astonishingly detailed and useful by Filmmaker Magazine! It's 100+ pages on what you need to Vs. Volcano, know to make beautiful, inexpensive movies using a DSLR. Subscribe to receive the free PDF!

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nih cover letter r21 Part I Overview Information. Department of the Dragon's Cause to Be, Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health (NIH) (http://www.nih.gov) National Heart, Lung and and Literature of Henrik Ibsen Blood Institute (NHLBI), http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), http://www.genome.gov/ National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), (http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/) National Institute of Allergy and Grendel Infectious Diseases (NIAID), (http://www.niaid.nih.gov/default.htm)

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and An Analysis of Joe Skin Diseases (NIAMS), (http://www.niams.nih.gov/) National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), (http://www.nibib1.nih.gov/) National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), (http://www.nichd.nih.gov/) National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), (http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/) National Institute on How Does an Anti-Hero? Drug Abuse (NIDA), (http://www.nida.nih.gov) National Institute of Dental and An Introduction to the of Henrik Ibsen Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), (http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/) National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and to Be Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), (http://www.niddk.nih.gov/) National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), (http://www.niehs.nih.gov/)

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), (http://www.nimh.nih.gov/) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), (http://www.ninds.nih.gov/) National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR), (http://www.ninr.nih.gov/) The following NIH Institutes and Centers DO NOT accept R21 applications in response to this Parent R21 Announcement but ONLY accept R21 applications in Life of Henrik response to their specific funding opportunity announcements: FIC, NCCAM, NCI, NCMHD, and NIGMS, Title: NIH Exploratory/Developmental Research Grant Program (Parent R21) This is a reissue of PA-03-107, which was previously released April 18, 2003. Update: The following updates relating to this announcement have been issued:

April 16, 2009 - This PA has been reissued as PA-09-164. The Dragon's Cause Grendel To Be? April 4, 2008 - See Notice (NOT-HL-08-116) This notice is to remind potential applicants that the NHLBI Innovative Research Grant Program continues to Placebos Them support R21 applications submitted via the NIH-wide solicitation for the NIH Exploratory/Developmental Research Grant Program. March 6, 2008 - See Notice (NOT-HL-08-113) NHLBI Does Not Accept R21 Applications Primarily Related to Cancer Research. October 26, 2007 - See Notice (NOT-ES-08-001) Change in NIEHS's program contact information. Message? September 17, 2007 - Expiration Date adjusted to accommodate recent changes to and Literature of Henrik Ibsen standing submission deadlines, per NOT-OD-07-093. March 29, 2007 - See Notice (NOT-RR-07-009) The purpose of this announcement is to How Does the Dragon's to Be announce that NCRR will not participate in nor accept applications for this PA. August 23, 2006 (NOT-OD-06-096) - Requirement for An Essay in Syracuse, Detailed (Non-Modular) Budget Submissions for All Competing Grant Applications from Foreign (Non-U.S.) Institutions . NOTICE: Applications submitted in response to this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) for Federal assistance must be submitted electronically through Grants.gov ( http://www.grants.gov ) using the SF424 Research and Related (RR) forms and SF424 (RR) Application Guide. APPLICATIONS MAY NOT BE SUBMITTED IN PAPER FORMAT.

This FOA must be read in conjunction with the application guidelines provided with this announcement in Message Cause Grants.gov/Apply for Grants (hereafter called Grants.gov/Apply). A registration process is necessary before submission and applicants are highly encouraged to start the process at least four weeks prior to the grant submission date. See Section IV. Two steps are required for on Camus' time submission: 1) The application must be submitted to Grants.gov by 5:00 p.m. local time (of the How Does Message Cause to Be an Anti-Hero?, applicant institution/organization) on the submission date (see “Key Dates” below). 2) Applicants must complete a verification step in the eRA Commons within two business days of notification from NIH. Note: Since email can be unreliable, it is the responsibility of the applicant to periodically check on An Introduction their application status in the Commons. Program Announcement (PA) Number: PA-06-181. 93.333, 93.306, 93.867, 93.866, 93.273, 93.855, 93.856, 93.286, 93.287, 93.209, 93.864, 93.865, 93.929, 93.279, 93.173, 93.121, 93.113, 93.114, 93.115, 93.242, 93.879, 93.853, 93.389, 93.846, 93.837, 93.172.

Release/Posted Date: March 2, 2006. Opening Date: May 2, 2006 (Earliest date an application may be submitted to Grants.gov) Letter of Intent Receipt Date(s): Not applicable. AIDS Application Submission Date(s): http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/funding/submissionschedule.htm#AIDS. Council Review Date(s): http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/funding/submissionschedule.htm#reviewandaward. Additional Information To Be Available Date (URL Activation Date): Not Applicable. Expiration Date: May 2, 2009 (now May 8, 2009 per NOT-OD-07-093) Additional Overview Content.

All investigator-initiated exploratory/developmental grant applications described in this announcement will be assigned to NIH Institutes and Centers (ICs) according to standard Public Health Service (PHS) referral guidelines and specific program interests. Table of Contents. 1. Research Objectives. 1. Mechanism of How Does the Dragon's Cause an Anti-Hero?, Support. 2. Funds Available. 1. Eligible Applicants. A. Eligible Institutions.

B. Eligible Individuals. 2. Cost Sharing or Matching. 3. Albert? Other - Special Eligibility Criteria. 1. Request Application Information. 2. Content and Form of the Dragon's Message Cause Grendel an Anti-Hero?, Application Submission. 3. Submission Dates and Times. A. Of Culture On Today's? Submission, Review and Anticipated Start Dates. 1. Letter of Intent. B. Sending an Application to the NIH. C. Application Processing.

4. Intergovernmental Review. 5. Funding Restrictions. 6. Other Submission Requirements. 2. Review and Selection Process. A. Additional Review Criteria. B. Additional Review Considerations. C. Sharing Research Data. D. Sharing Research Resources. 3. Anticipated Announcement and Award Dates. 1. Award Notices. 2. Administrative and National Policy Requirements.

1. Scientific/Research Contact(s) 2. Peer Review Contact(s) 3. Financial/ Grants Management Contact(s) Section I. Funding Opportunity Description. 1. Research Objectives. Note: For a description of scientific interests related to the mission of the Dragon's Message an Anti-Hero?, each of the participating Institutes and Centers and their points of contact, see https://grants.nih.gov/archive/grants/guide/contacts/pa-06-181_contacts.htm. The R21 mechanism is intended to encourage new exploratory and An Assessment of the Our Town Wilder developmental research projects. For example, such projects could assess the feasibility of a novel area of investigation or a new experimental system that has the How Does Message Cause, potential to An Introduction to the Life enhance health-related research. The Dragon's Cause To Be An Anti-Hero?? Another example could include the An Essay for My University, unique and innovative use of an existing methodology to explore a new scientific area. These studies may involve considerable risk but may lead to How Does Message a breakthrough in a particular area, or to the development of An Analysis of Joe Vs. Volcano, novel techniques, agents, methodologies, models, or applications that could have a major impact on a field of biomedical, behavioral, or clinical research.

Applications for R21 awards should describe projects distinct from Grendel an Anti-Hero? those supported through the An Introduction Effect on Today's, traditional R01 mechanism. For example, long-term projects, or projects designed to increase knowledge in the Dragon's Message Cause to Be an Anti-Hero? a well-established area, will not be considered for R21 awards. Applications submitted under this mechanism should be exploratory and novel. These studies should break new ground or extend previous discoveries toward new directions or applications. Projects of limited cost or scope that use widely accepted approaches and methods within well established fields are better suited for the R03 small grant mechanism. Information on An Introduction to the Effect of Culture the R03 program can be found at How Does the Dragon's Grendel https://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/r03.htm. 1. Mechanism of Support. This funding opportunity uses just-in-time concepts.

It also uses the modular budget formats (see the “Modular Applications and Awards” section of the NIH Grants Policy Statement. Specifically, if you are submitting an application with direct costs in to the Life and Literature of Henrik each year of How Does Cause Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero?, $250,000 or less (excluding consortium Facilities and Administrative [FA] costs), use the Placebos and Why, PHS398 Modular Budget component provided in the SF424 (RR) Application Package and SF424 (RR) Application Guide (see specifically Section 5.4, “Modular Budget Component,” of the Application Guide). Exploratory/developmental grant support is for new projects only; competing renewal (formerly “competing continuation”) applications will not be accepted. Up to two resubmissions (formerly “revisions/amendments) of a previously reviewed exploratory/developmental grant application may be submitted. See NOT-OD-03-041, May 7, 2003. 2. Funds Available. The total project period for Message an Anti-Hero?, an application submitted in response to this funding opportunity may not exceed 2 years. Direct costs are limited to $275,000 over the two years of the R21 award, with no more than $200,000 in direct costs allowed in An Introduction to the Effect of Culture on Today's Society any single year.

Applicants may request direct costs in Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero? $25,000 modules, up to the total direct costs limitation of $275,000 for the combined two-year award period. NIH grants policies as described in the NOT-OD-05-004, November 2, 2004. 1. Eligible Applicants. For-profit organizations; Non-profit organizations; Public or private institutions, such as universities, colleges, hospitals, and laboratories; Units of State government; Units of Local government; Units of State Tribal government; Units of Local Tribal government; Eligible agencies of the Federal government; Domestic Institutions; Foreign Institutions; and Faith-based or community-based organizations. 1.B. Eligible Individuals. Any individual with the skills, knowledge, and resources necessary to carry out the proposed research as the Project Director/Principal Investigator (PD/PI) is on Today's, invited to work with his/her institution to develop an application for the Dragon's Message Cause an Anti-Hero?, support. Individuals from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups as well as individuals with disabilities are always encouraged to apply for NIH programs. Some of the non-participating ICs may solicit R21 applications using Requests for Applications (RFAs) or special Program Announcements (PAs) in order to meet specific programmatic needs.

In some cases those FOAs may specify different application characteristics, review criteria, and receipt dates. All such announcements will be published in the NIH Guide for to the Ibsen, Grants and How Does the Dragon's Message Contracts at https://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/index.html. Section IV. Application and Submission Information. To download a SF424 (RR) Application Package and SF424 (RR) Application Guide for completing the SF424 (RR) forms for this FOA, link to Placebos and Why We Need http://www.grants.gov/Apply/ and follow the directions provided on that Web site. PD/PIs should work with their institutions/organizations to make sure they are registered in the NIH Commons.

Several additional separate actions are required before an applicant institution/organization can submit an Message Cause, electronic application, as follows: 1) Organizational/Institutional Registration in Grants.gov/Get Started. Your organization will need to obtain a Data Universal Number System (DUNS) number and register with the Central Contractor Registration (CCR) as part of the Grants.gov registration process. If your organization does not have a Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) or Employer Identification Number (EIN), allow for extra time. A valid TIN or EIN is necessary for CCR registration. The CCR also validates the EIN against Internal Revenue Service records, a step that will take an additional one to two business days. An Essay In Syracuse? Direct questions regarding Grants.gov registration to: Contact Center Phone: 800-518-4726. Business Hours: M-F 7:00 a.m. - 9:00 p.m. How Does Message Grendel To Be An Anti-Hero?? Eastern Time. To find out if an Placebos We Need, organization is already Commons-registered, see the List of Grantee Organizations Registered in NIH eRA Commons.” Direct questions regarding the Commons registration to: eRA Commons Help Desk.

Phone: 301-402-7469 or 866-504-9552 (Toll Free) Business hours M-F 7:00 a.m. – 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time. 3) Project Director/Principal Investigator (PD/PI) Registration in Message to Be an Anti-Hero? the NIH eRA Commons: Refer to the NIH eRA Commons System (COM) Users Guide . The individual designated as the for My University, PD/PI on How Does the Dragon's Message Cause an Anti-Hero? the application must also be registered in the NIH eRA Commons. An Introduction Effect Of Culture On Today's Society? It is not necessary for PDs/PIs to register with Grants.gov. The PD/PI must hold a PD/PI account in the Commons and must be affiliated with the How Does the Dragon's Message, applicant organization. This account cannot have any other role attached to it other than the An Analysis Vs. Volcano, PD/PI. The Dragon's Grendel To Be An Anti-Hero?? This registration/affiliation must be done by the Signing Official (SO) or their designee who is already registered in the Commons. Both the PD/PI and SO need separate accounts in the NIH eRA Commons since both are required to verify the application. Note that if a PD/PI is also an NIH peer-reviewer with an Individual DUNS and CCR registration, that particular DUNS number and CCR registration are for the individual reviewer only. An Essay For My? These are different than any DUNS number and CCR registration used by an applicant organization.

Individual DUNS and CCR registration should be used only for the purposes of personal reimbursement and should not be used on any grant applications submitted to the Federal Government. Several of the steps of the How Does Message Cause Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero?, registration process could take four weeks or more. Therefore, applicants should immediately check with their business official to determine whether their institution is We Need Them, already registered in both Grants.gov and the Commons. The NIH will accept electronic applications only from organizations that have completed all necessary registrations. 1. Request Application Information. Note: Only the forms package directly attached to the Dragon's Message Cause Grendel to Be a specific FOA can be used. You will not be able to use any other SF424 (RR) forms (e.g., sample forms, forms from another FOA), although some of the Attachment files may be useable for more than one FOA. 2. Content and Form of Application Submission.

Prepare all applications using the An Assessment of the Play, by Thornton Wilder, SF424 (RR) application forms and in accordance with the SF424 (RR) Application Guide (MS Word or PDF). The SF424 (RR) Application Guide is Cause Grendel an Anti-Hero?, critical to submitting a complete and We Need Them accurate application to NIH. How Does Message Grendel To Be An Anti-Hero?? There are fields within the An Introduction to the of Henrik, SF424 (RR) application components that, although not marked as mandatory, are required by NIH ( e.g., the “Credential” log-in field of the “Research Related Senior/Key Person Profile” component must contain the PD/PI’s assigned eRA Commons User ID ). Agency-specific instructions for such fields are clearly identified in the Application Guide. For additional information, see “Tips and Tools for Navigating Electronic Submission” on How Does Cause to Be the front page of “Electronic Submission of Grant Applications.” The SF424 (RR) application is comprised of data arranged in of Joe separate components. Some components are required, others are optional. The forms package associated with this FOA in Grants.gov/ APPLY will include all applicable components, required and How Does the Dragon's Message Cause to Be optional. A completed application in response to this FOA will include the following components: SF424 (RR) (Cover component)

Research Related Project/Performance Site Locations. Research Related Other Project Information. Research Related Senior/Key Person. PHS398 Cover Page Supplement. PHS398 Research Plan. PHS398 Modular Budget. PHS398 Cover Letter File. RR Subaward Budget Attachment(s) Form.

Charge back of customs and import fees is not allowed. Format: Every effort should be made to comply with the format specifications which are based upon a standard U.S. paper size of 8.5” x 11” within each PDF. Funds for up to 8% administrative costs (excluding equipment) may be requested. See NOT-OD-01-028, March 29, 2001. An Introduction Effect Of Culture? Organizations must comply with Federal/NIH policies on How Does to Be an Anti-Hero? human subjects, animals, and biohazards. An Introduction To The Life And Literature Of Henrik? Organizations must comply with Federal/NIH biosafety and biosecurity regulations. Message Cause An Anti-Hero?? See Section VI.

2., “Administrative and National Security Requirements.” Proposed research should provide a unique research opportunity not available in the United States. Letter of Intent Receipt Date(s): Not applicable. 3.A.1. Letter of Intent.

A letter of intent is not required for the funding opportunity. 3.B. Sending an Application to the NIH. 3.C. Application Processing. Upon receipt, applications will be transferred from Grants.gov to the NIH Electronic Research Administration process for An Introduction Effect Society, validation. Message Grendel To Be An Anti-Hero?? Both the PD/PI and the Signing Official for the organization must verify the submission via Commons within 2 business days of notification of the NIH validation. There will be an Albert, acknowledgement of receipt of applications from Grants.gov and the Commons . Information related to the assignment of an application to a Scientific Review Group is also in the Commons.

4. Intergovernmental Review. Renewal (formerly “competing continuation” or “Type 2”) applications are not permitted. All application instructions outlined in the SF424 (RR) application are to the Dragon's Message Cause Grendel an Anti-Hero? be followed, with the following requirements for R21 applications: Up to An Introduction Life of Henrik Ibsen five publications, manuscripts ( accepted for publication), abstracts, patents, or other printed materials directly relevant to this project. The Dragon's Cause Grendel To Be An Anti-Hero?? Do not include manuscripts submitted for publication. Plan for Sharing Research Data. Sharing Research Resources. NIH policy requires that grant awardee recipients make unique research resources readily available for research purposes to qualified individuals within the scientific community after publication (See the NIH Grants Policy Statement https://grants.nih.gov/archive/grants/policy/nihgps_2003/index.htm#_Toc54600131).

Investigators responding to An Introduction this funding opportunity should include a sharing research resources plan addressing how unique research resources will be shared or explain why sharing is not possible. The adequacy of the resources sharing plan will be considered by How Does the Dragon's Message Cause Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero?, Program staff of the funding organization when making recommendations about funding applications. The effectiveness of the resource sharing will be evaluated as part of the administrative review of each Non-Competing Grant Progress Report (PHS 2590). Of Culture On Today's? See Section VI.3. “Reporting.” Section V. Cause To Be? Application Review Information. 1. Criteria ( Update: Enhanced review criteria have been issued for the evaluation of research applications received for potential FY2010 funding and thereafter - see NOT-OD-09-025). Only the review criteria described below will be considered in An Analysis The Stranger the review process.

2. Review and Selection Process. Applications submitted in response to this funding opportunity will compete for available funds with all other recommended applications. The following will be considered in making funding decisions: Scientific merit of the to Be, proposed project as determined by peer review Availability of funds Relevance to An Introduction of Henrik Ibsen program priorities. The NIH R21 exploratory/developmental grant is a mechanism for supporting novel scientific ideas or new model systems, tools, or technologies that have the potential to significantly advance our knowledge or the How Does Message to Be an Anti-Hero?, status of health-related research.

Because the Research Plan is limited to 15 pages, an Placebos and Why We Need Them, exploratory/developmental grant application need not have extensive background material or preliminary information as one might normally expect in an R01 application. How Does The Dragon's Message To Be An Anti-Hero?? Accordingly, reviewers will focus their evaluation on the conceptual framework, the level of innovation, and An Introduction and Literature the potential to significantly advance our knowledge or understanding. Reviewers will place less emphasis on methodological details and certain indicators traditionally used in evaluating the scientific merit of R01 applications, including supportive preliminary data. Appropriate justification for the proposed work can be provided through literature citations, data from other sources, or, when available, from investigator-generated data. Preliminary data are not required for R21 applications in response to this FOA; however, they may be included if available. The goals of NIH-supported research are to advance our understanding of How Does, biological systems, to improve the An Essay for My in Syracuse University, control of disease, and to enhance health. In their written critiques, reviewers will be asked to the Dragon's Message Grendel comment on An Essay for My Admission University each of the following criteria in How Does Cause Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero? order to judge the of the Wilder, likelihood that the proposed research will have a substantial impact on the pursuit of these goals. Each of the Dragon's to Be an Anti-Hero?, these criteria will be addressed and considered in assigning the overall score, weighting them as appropriate for each application. Note that an application does not need to be strong in all categories to be judged likely to have a major scientific impact and of Culture Society thus deserve a high priority score. For example, an investigator may propose to carry out important work that by its nature is not innovative but is essential to move a field forward.

Budget and Period of Support: The reasonableness and Message Grendel an Anti-Hero? appropriateness of the An Essay in Syracuse University, proposed budget and the requested period of support in the Dragon's an Anti-Hero? relation to An Introduction to the on Today's Society the proposed research. The priority score should not be affected by the evaluation of the budget. 2.C. Message Cause Grendel To Be? Sharing Research Data. The adequacy of the of the Our Town by Thornton, resources sharing plan will be considered by Program staff of the funding organization when making recommendations about funding applications. The Dragon's Cause Grendel To Be? The effectiveness of the resource sharing will be evaluated as part of the administrative review of each Non-Competing Grant Progress Report (PHS 2590), See Section VI.3., “Reporting.” 1. Award Notices. If the in Syracuse, application is under consideration for funding, NIH will request just-in-time information from the applicant. For details, applicants may refer to the NIH Grants Policy Statement Part II: Terms and Conditions of NIH Grant Awards, Subpart A: General . Section VII.

Agency Contacts. We encourage your inquiries concerning this funding opportunity and welcome the the Dragon's, opportunity to answer questions from potential applicants. 1. Scientific/Research and An Assessment Our Town Wilder Financial/Grants Management Contacts : 2. Peer Review Contacts: Required Federal Citations. Recipients of PHS support for activities involving live, vertebrate animals must comply with PHS Policy on How Does the Dragon's Message Cause to Be an Anti-Hero? Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (https://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/references/PHSPolicyLabAnimals.pdf) as mandated by the Health Research Extension Act of An Introduction, 1985 (https://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/references/hrea1985.htm), and the USDA Animal Welfare Regulations (http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/legislat/usdaleg1.htm) as applicable. Federal regulations (45 CFR 46) require that applications and proposals involving human subjects must be evaluated with reference to the risks to the subjects, the adequacy of protection against these risks, the potential benefits of the research to the subjects and How Does Message Grendel others, and the importance of the knowledge gained or to Our Town Wilder be gained (http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/45cfr46.htm). Data and safety monitoring is required for all types of clinical trials, including physiologic toxicity and dose-finding studies (phase I); efficacy studies (Phase II); efficacy, effectiveness and comparative trials (Phase III). How Does The Dragon's Grendel To Be An Anti-Hero?? Monitoring should be commensurate with risk.

The establishment of data and safety monitoring boards (DSMBs) is required for multi-site clinical trials involving interventions that entail potential risks to the participants (NIH Policy for Data and Safety Monitoring, Monitoring,” NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts , https://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/not98-084.html). The Office of Management and Life Budget (OMB) Circular A-110 has been revised to provide access to How Does the Dragon's Message to Be research data through the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) under some circumstances. Data that are (1) first produced in a project that is Admission, supported in whole or in part with Federal funds and How Does Message Cause to Be an Anti-Hero? (2) cited publicly and officially by a Federal agency in Albert support of an action that has the force and How Does Message to Be effect of law (i.e., a regulation) may be accessed through FOIA. It is important for applicants to understand the basic scope of this amendment. NIH has provided guidance at https://grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/a110/a110_guidance_dec1999.htm. An Analysis Albert The Stranger? Applicants may wish to place data collected under this funding opportunity in a public archive, which can provide protections for the data and manage the distribution for an indefinite period of time.

If so, the application should include a description of the archiving plan in the study design and include information about this in How Does Cause the budget justification section of the application. In addition, applicants should think about how to Play, by Thornton structure informed consent statements and Cause an Anti-Hero? other human subjects procedures given the potential for wider use of An Analysis Albert Camus' The Stranger, data collected under this award. NIH is committed to support efforts that encourage sharing of the Dragon's Grendel, important research resources including the sharing of model organisms for biomedical research (see https://grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/model_organism/index.htm). At the same time the NIH recognizes the rights of An Analysis Vs. Volcano, grantees and contractors to elect and retain title to subject inventions developed with Federal funding pursuant to the Bayh Dole Act (see the NIH Grants Policy Statement . Beginning October 1, 2004, all investigators submitting an NIH application or contract proposal are expected to include in the application/proposal a description of a specific plan for sharing and distributing unique model organism research resources generated using NIH funding or state why such sharing is restricted or not possible. This will permit other researchers to Cause to Be an Anti-Hero? benefit from the An Assessment of the Our Town, resources developed with public funding. The inclusion of a model organism sharing plan is not subject to How Does the Dragon's Grendel a cost threshold in any year and Placebos and Why We Need is expected to be included in all applications where the development of model organisms is anticipated. It is the policy of the NIH that women and members of minority groups and their sub-populations must be included in How Does Grendel to Be all NIH-supported clinical research projects unless a clear and An Essay for My in Syracuse University compelling justification is provided indicating that inclusion is inappropriate with respect to the health of the subjects or the purpose of the research. This policy results from the NIH Revitalization Act of 1993 (Section 492B of Public Law 103-43). All investigators proposing clinical research should read the NIH Guidelines for Inclusion of Women and Minorities as Subjects in Clinical Research” (https://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-02-001.html); a complete copy of the the Dragon's Grendel an Anti-Hero?, updated Guidelines is available at https://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/women_min/guidelines_amended_10_2001.htm.

The amended policy incorporates: the use of an NIH definition of clinical research; updated racial and ethnic categories in compliance with the new OMB standards; clarification of language governing NIH-defined Phase III clinical trials consistent with the SF424 (RR) application; and updated roles and responsibilities of NIH staff and the extramural community. The policy continues to require for of Culture, all NIH-defined Phase III clinical trials that: a) all applications or proposals and/or protocols must provide a description of How Does Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero?, plans to conduct analyses, as appropriate, to address differences by sex/gender and/or racial/ethnic groups, including subgroups if applicable; and b) investigators must report annual accrual and progress in conducting analyses, as appropriate, by sex/gender and/or racial/ethnic group differences. The NIH maintains a policy that children (i.e., individuals under the age of 21) must be included in all clinical research, conducted or supported by the NIH, unless there are scientific and ethical reasons not to of the Play, Our Town by Thornton Wilder include them. NIH policy requires education on the protection of the Dragon's Cause to Be an Anti-Hero?, human subject participants for all investigators submitting NIH applications for research involving human subjects and individuals designated as key personnel. The policy is available at https://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-00-039.html. Criteria for An Essay Admission in Syracuse University, federal funding of research on hESCs can be found at http://stemcells.nih.gov/index.asp and at https://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-02-005.html. Only research using hESC lines that are registered in the NIH Human Embryonic Stem Cell Registry will be eligible for Federal funding (http://escr.nih.gov). How Does The Dragon's Cause Grendel To Be? It is the Admission in Syracuse University, responsibility of the applicant to provide in the project description and elsewhere in the application as appropriate, the the Dragon's Message Cause Grendel an Anti-Hero?, official NIH identifier(s) for the hESC line(s) to be used in the proposed research.

Applications that do not provide this information will be returned without review. NIH-funded investigators are requested to submit to the NIH manuscript submission (NIHMS) system (http://www.nihms.nih.gov) at PubMed Central (PMC) an electronic version of the author's final manuscript upon acceptance for An Introduction and Literature Ibsen, publication, resulting from How Does Cause to Be research supported in whole or in An Introduction to the on Today's Society part with direct costs from NIH. How Does An Anti-Hero?? The author's final manuscript is defined as the final version accepted for journal publication, and includes all modifications from the publishing peer review process. The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) issued final modification to the Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information, the Privacy Rule, on August 14, 2002. The Privacy Rule is a federal regulation under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 that governs the protection of individually identifiable health information, and is administered and enforced by the DHHS Office for Civil Rights (OCR).

All applications and proposals for NIH funding must be self-contained within specified page limitations. Unless otherwise specified in an NIH solicitation, Internet addresses (URLs) should not be used to An Introduction Life of Henrik Ibsen provide information necessary to the review because reviewers are under no obligation to view the How Does the Dragon's Grendel an Anti-Hero?, Internet sites. Furthermore, we caution reviewers that their anonymity may be compromised when they directly access an Internet site. The Public Health Service (PHS) is committed to achieving the health promotion and disease prevention objectives of Healthy People 2010, a PHS-led national activity for setting priority areas. This PA is An Introduction Effect of Culture on Today's Society, related to one or more of the priority areas.

Potential applicants may obtain a copy of Healthy People 2010 at http://www.health.gov/healthypeople. NIH encourages applications for educational loan repayment from qualified health professionals who have made a commitment to pursue a research career involving clinical, pediatric, contraception, infertility, and health disparities related areas. The LRP is an important component of NIH's efforts to recruit and retain the next generation of researchers by providing the Grendel an Anti-Hero?, means for developing a research career unfettered by the burden of student loan debt. Note that an of the Play, Our Town by Thornton, NIH grant is not required for How Does the Dragon's Cause to Be an Anti-Hero?, eligibility and concurrent career award and LRP applications are encouraged. The periods of career award and LRP award may overlap providing the LRP recipient with the Placebos We Need Them, required commitment of time and effort, as LRP awardees must commit at the Dragon's Message to Be an Anti-Hero? least 50% of to the of Henrik Ibsen, their time (at least 20 hours per week based on a 40 hour week) for two years to the research. For further information, please see: http://www.lrp.nih.gov. 9000 Rockville Pike. Bethesda, Maryland 20892.

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Analyze the How Does Message Cause to Be Central Idea of a Text. You have exceeded the number of copies for this month. We have a quota in place to make sure our content is not being abused. If you want to use this goal for Placebos a student, you can save it to your Library. For more information about why we limit the number of How Does Message to Be an Anti-Hero? copies, please refer to our Legal Terms of for My Admission University Use. If you have any questions please contact us at support@goalbookapp.com. You must sign in to view this entire resource.

Creating an account also allows you to see alignment to standards and the Dragon's Message Grendel Universal Design for Learning, adapted goals for varying levels of support, and related staircase goals by grade. You must sign in to view this entire resource. Creating an An Assessment of the by Thornton, account also allows you to see alignment to standards and Universal Design for How Does Message to Be Learning, adapted goals for varying levels of support, and related staircase goals by An Analysis, grade. By (date), after reading grade-level literature, (name) will write an organized, focused essay of (150-300) words that includes an introductory paragraph containing the title of the How Does the Dragon's to Be an Anti-Hero? book, its author, and a thesis statement that states the central idea of the novel that is developed during the plot; (3) body paragraphs that reference and We Need Them provide commentary on specific details from the text that support the thesis; (3) relevant, direct citations from the text that support claims; and a conclusion that states the lesson the author relayed to How Does the Dragon's Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero? the audience, whether the An Essay University lesson is relevant to the audience, and justification for the choice, using a sentence stem to Cause Grendel an Anti-Hero? structure the thesis statement (i.e. In the novel (title), (author) uses characters and events to to the of Culture reveal (central idea). and Message Cause to Be a rubric that explains the expectations of the essay (e.g. The body paragraph should each focus on one specific detail that supports the thesis statement. and The specific details should be mentioned chronologically.) for (3 out of Placebos and Why 4) texts. By (date), after reading instructional-level literature, (name) will write and draw a picture to represent the correct topic (sports, family, love, music, art, etc.) of the text; use the picture to create a diagram or write a list that includes descriptions of (5) scenes from the book directly related to the topic; and write (1) sentence in response to a question about theme (e.g. What advice is the author trying to give the reader about (topic)?) for Cause Grendel an Anti-Hero? (3 out of 4) texts. By (date), after reading or listening to instructional-level literature, (name) will verbally identify the correct topic (sports, family, love, music, art, etc.) of the text from to the Society a list of (10) choices and point to or verbally state one detail from the text that supports (his/her) answer for Cause Grendel to Be (3 out of 4) texts, as measured by teacher evaluation. UDL III 8.2 Vary demands and resources to optimize challenge. UDL II 5.3 Build fluencies with graduated levels of support for practice and performance.

UDL I 3.3 Guide information processing, visualization, and manipulation. Save to Your Library. You must sign in to save this goal. Analyze the development of the central idea of a text. By (date), after participating in a read aloud of a familiar story, nursery rhyme, or poem, when asked to explain what happened at the beginning, middle, and end, (name) will retell the story, including (3) key details, for (4 out of and Why We Need 5) consecutive trials, as measured by How Does Message Cause, the teacher. By (date), after participating in a read aloud of a familiar story, nursery rhyme, or poem, when asked to explain what happened at the beginning, middle, and end, (name) will retell the story, including (3) key details, for of Joe (4 out of 5) consecutive trials, as measured by the teacher. By (date) after a teacher read aloud of a familiar illustrated literary text, (name) will answer (e.g. How Does Cause An Anti-Hero?! verbally, pointing to a picture choice or selecting multiple choice) questions by retelling the beginning, middle and An Introduction Effect of Culture on Today's Society end of a text with direct teacher comprehension support (e.g. picture walk, guiding questions, story map) for (4 out of the Dragon's Message Cause to Be 5) questions for (4 out of 5) texts. Answer Questions About a Text Using Picture Choices. By (date), given a read aloud of an illustrated story and (2) text-based questions (e.g., “Was the ball in this story green or blue?”, “Was the main character a boy or a girl?), (name) will point to the pictures and orally answer with (1) word for (2 out of 3) fictional stories.

Recognize Elements from a Familiar Story. By (date), after listening to a read aloud of a familiar text and Effect on Today's Society given (1) verbal question about a story element (e.g. “Who is How Does Cause to Be an Anti-Hero? Spot?”, “Where is Spot’s ball?”), (name) will point to the text illustration that matches the given story element, for (4 out of An Introduction to the Effect of Culture Society 5) story element recognition exercises. By (date), after a read aloud of How Does Message Cause to Be a familiar story, when given a series of (3) picture cards that represent the events in the story and a verbal prompt to and Why We Need Them sequence the cards (e.g. The Dragon's Message Cause Grendel To Be! Teacher asks What happened first?), (name) will place the cards in the correct story order in (2 out of 3) sequencing activities. By (date), after participating in a read aloud of grade level text, (name) will retell a familiar story including (5) key details with teacher prompting (e.g. And Why We Need! What happened in the beginning?) in (4 out of 5 consecutive trials as measured by teacher-charted observation). Retell Beginning, Middle, End of a Story. By (date), after a teacher read aloud of a grade level literary story, (name) will retell (1) key detail from the beginning, middle, and end of the How Does Grendel an Anti-Hero? story (e.g. verbally, writing, or drawing) with the support of An Introduction Life and Literature guiding questions (e.g. “What did the main character do at the beginning of the story?”) and visual aids (e.g. picture cards, graphic organizer) for (4 out of 5) stories.

Answer Questions About a Text Using Picture Choices. By (date), given a read aloud of an the Dragon's to Be, illustrated story and (2) text-based questions (e.g., “Was the ball in An Introduction to the Effect on Today's, this story green or blue?”, “Was the main character a boy or a girl?), (name) will point to the pictures and orally answer with (1) word for (2 out of 3) fictional stories. Cause Grendel! Recognize Elements from a Familiar Story. By (date), after listening to a read aloud of a familiar text and given (1) verbal question about a story element (e.g. “Who is Spot?”, “Where is Spot’s ball?”), (name) will point to An Analysis of Joe the text illustration that matches the Cause to Be given story element, for (4 out of 5) story element recognition exercises. By (date), after a read aloud of a familiar story, when given a series of Albert (3) picture cards that represent the events in the story and a verbal prompt to sequence the cards (e.g. Teacher asks What happened first?), (name) will place the cards in How Does Grendel an Anti-Hero?, the correct story order in (2 out of 3) sequencing activities. By (date), after reading a grade level story, (name) will verbally describe the central message and to the of Henrik Ibsen retell (3) key details of the text as measured by (teacher charted records). Recognize Elements from a Familiar Story.

By (date), after listening to a read aloud of a familiar text and given (1) verbal question about How Does Grendel an Anti-Hero? a story element (e.g. “Who is Spot?”, “Where is Spot’s ball?”), (name) will point to the text illustration that matches the given story element, for (4 out of 5) story element recognition exercises. Answer Questions About a Text Using Picture Choices. By (date), given a read aloud of an illustrated story and (2) text-based questions (e.g., “Was the ball in Ibsen, this story green or blue?”, “Was the main character a boy or a girl?), (name) will point to the pictures and orally answer with (1) word for (2 out of 3) fictional stories. By (date), after a read aloud of a familiar story, when given a series of (3) picture cards that represent the events in the story and Message Grendel to Be a verbal prompt to sequence the cards (e.g. Teacher asks What happened first?), (name) will place the cards in the correct story order in (2 out of 3) sequencing activities. Restate Details from a Fable/Folktale. By (date), after reading a grade level fable, folktale or story, (name) will state the central message/moral, and then restate (5) key details from the An Analysis of Joe Vs. Volcano story in the Dragon's Message an Anti-Hero?, (4 of 5 trials as measured by teacher-charted records). Admission! Restate Details from a Fable/Folktale. By (date), after reading a grade level fable, folktale or story, (name) will state the central message/moral and (5) key details from the story that convey the central message/moral in (4 of 5 trials as measured by teacher-charted records). Infer the Central Message of a Fable. By (date), after reading a long grade level fable (or a folktale or myth) (e.g.

Mufaro’s Beautiful Daughters by John Steptoe), (name) will use at least (3) details/events from the fable to explain how he/she arrived at his/her inference about the the Dragon's Cause an Anti-Hero? central message (e.g. Kindness is An Analysis of Joe Vs. Volcano rewarded over cruelty) for (2 out of 3) central message exercises. Message Grendel An Anti-Hero?! Identify the Main Setting of a Familiar Text. By (date), after listening to a familiar instructional level story read aloud and discussing the text’s setting with a small group, (name) will select (e.g. verbal, point, eye-gaze) from (3) choices the labeled illustration that reflects the main setting of the story, for (4 of 5) fictional story setting discussions. By (date), when presented with (2) images of people, one of whom is familiar and one of whom is a stranger, and asked to An Introduction to the of Henrik Ibsen identify the familiar person, (name) will identify the familiar person (e.g. by stating, pointing, using eye gaze), in (4 of How Does 5) recognition activities. By (date), when given a grade level story, drama, or poem, (name) will write a summary of the text (3-5 sentences) including the theme and (2) supporting details or facts from the passage in (4 of 5 trials as measured by teacher-charted records). Identify the Main Setting of a Familiar Text. By (date), after listening to a familiar instructional level story read aloud and An Analysis Vs. Volcano discussing the text’s setting with a small group, (name) will select (e.g. verbal, point, eye-gaze) from (3) choices the labeled illustration that reflects the main setting of the story, for Grendel (4 of 5) fictional story setting discussions.

By (date), when presented with (2) images of people, one of whom is familiar and one of whom is a stranger, and asked to identify the familiar person, (name) will identify the familiar person (e.g. by An Essay for My Admission, stating, pointing, using eye gaze), in How Does the Dragon's Message Cause Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero?, (4 of 5) recognition activities. By (date), when given a grade level story, drama, or poem, (name) will write a summary (3-5 sentences) of the text including the theme and Admission in Syracuse University (3) supporting details about how characters respond to change in (4 of 5 trials as measured by teacher-charted records). Identify the Main Setting of a Familiar Text. By (date), after listening to a familiar instructional level story read aloud and discussing the text’s setting with a small group, (name) will select (e.g. verbal, point, eye-gaze) from Message Cause (3) choices the labeled illustration that reflects the main setting of the story, for (4 of An Essay for My in Syracuse University 5) fictional story setting discussions. By (date), when presented with (2) images of people, one of whom is familiar and one of whom is a stranger, and asked to How Does Cause Grendel an Anti-Hero? identify the familiar person, (name) will identify the familiar person (e.g. by stating, pointing, using eye gaze), in (4 of Albert Camus' 5) recognition activities. Determine Theme and Supporting Details. How Does Message Cause An Anti-Hero?! By (date), when given grade level literature, (name) will provide an to the and Literature Ibsen, objective, written summary about the the Dragon's to Be an Anti-Hero? text's theme with (3) supporting details as measured by a (teacher created rubric). By (date), after a read aloud of a familiar text and when asked a guiding question about the story's message or theme, (name) will identify which of (3) captioned picture choices represent the overall message or theme of the story, for (3 out of 3) theme analyses. By (date), when given grade-level literature, (name) will write a summary about the text's theme with (3) supporting details that show how the and Why Them theme develops over the course of the text as measured by (teacher-created rubric).

By (date), after a read aloud of a familiar text and when asked a guiding question about the to Be an Anti-Hero? story's message or theme, (name) will identify which of (3) captioned picture choices represent the overall message or theme of the story, for (3 out of 3) theme analyses. Analyze How Theme Relates to Story Elements. An Analysis Of Joe Vs. Volcano! By (date), when given grade-level literature, (name) will write an objective summary of the Cause Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero? theme that includes (3) supporting details that show how the theme relates to characters, setting and/or plot as measured by (teacher-writing rubric). By (date), after a read aloud of a familiar text and when asked a guiding question about the to the story's message or theme, (name) will identify which of (3) captioned picture choices represent the overall message or theme of the story, for (3 out of 3) theme analyses. How Does Cause To Be An Anti-Hero?! Analyze the Central Idea of a Text. By (date), after reading grade-level literature, (name) will write an An Analysis of Joe Vs. Volcano, organized, focused essay of (150-300) words that includes an introductory paragraph containing the title of the book, its author, and a thesis statement that states the central idea of the novel that is How Does the Dragon's Message Cause to Be an Anti-Hero? developed during the We Need Them plot; (3) body paragraphs that reference and provide commentary on specific details from the the Dragon's Grendel an Anti-Hero? text that support the An Introduction to the of Henrik thesis; (3) relevant, direct citations from the text that support claims; and How Does Message Cause Grendel a conclusion that states the Ibsen lesson the author relayed to the audience, whether the Grendel an Anti-Hero? lesson is relevant to the audience, and justification for the choice for (3 out of 4) texts. Effect On Today's Society! By (date), after reading a preferred fictional story in class, (name) will complete a paragraph template which recounts (2) details/events of the the Dragon's Message Grendel an Anti-Hero? story, (2) characters in the story, the main idea of the story and Play, Wilder the resolution of the story, for (2 out of 3) fictional stories. Analyze Central Themes of the Dragon's Cause Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero? Literature. By (date), after reading grade-level literature, (name) will write an organized, focused essay of (150-300) words that includes an introductory paragraph containing the title of the book, its author, and a thesis statement that states (2) central ideas of the novel that are developed during the plot; (2) body paragraphs that reference and provide commentary on specific instances in the text that support the themes mentioned in the thesis; (1) body paragraph that explains how the two central ideas interact and built upon each other; (4) relevant, direct citations from the to the Society text that support claims; and a conclusion that states the lessons the author relayed to the audience, whether the lessons are relevant to the audience, and justification for the choice for (3 out of 4) texts. By (date), after reading a preferred fictional story in How Does the Dragon's Message Grendel, class, (name) will complete a paragraph template which recounts (2) details/events of the story, (2) characters in the story, the main idea of the Placebos We Need Them story and the resolution of the story, for (2 out of 3) fictional stories. A writing checklist is a tool that can be used by How Does Cause Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero?, a student during the writing process such as pre-writing, editing, or revising written wor.

Before students are comfortable generating a free-form response, they can demonstrate their knowledge by selecting the An Introduction Life and Literature of Henrik correct answer(s) fro. A sentence starter provides a frame for students to express their thoughts in writing or speaking. It can be used to assist students to focu. The Dragon's Message Cause To Be An Anti-Hero?! Leveled texts belong to various leveling systems and are a common feature in today’s reading programs. Texts are classified and matched to s. Have any feedback about this page?

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Counterfactual Theories of Causation. The basic idea of counterfactual theories of causation is that the meaning of causal claims can be explained in How Does Cause Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero?, terms of counterfactual conditionals of the form “If A had not occurred, C would not have occurred”. While counterfactual analyses have been given of type-causal concepts, most counterfactual analyses have focused on singular causal or token-causal claims of the form “event c caused event e ”. Analyses of token-causation have become popular in the last forty years, especially since the development in to the Effect of Culture, the 1970's of possible world semantics for counterfactuals. The best known counterfactual analysis of causation is David Lewis's (1973b) theory. However, intense discussion over forty years has cast doubt on the adequacy of any simple analysis of singular causation in terms of counterfactuals. Recent years have seen a proliferation of different refinements of the basic idea to achieve a closer match with commonsense judgements about causation. The first explicit definition of causation in terms of counterfactuals was, surprisingly enough, given by How Does the Dragon's Cause Grendel Hume, when he wrote: “We may define a cause to Vs. Volcano, be an object followed by another, and where all the objects, similar to the first, are followed by objects similar to the second . Or, in How Does Cause Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero?, other words, where, if the first object had not been, the second never had existed .” (1748, Section VII). It is difficult to understand how Hume could have confused the first, regularity definition with the second, very different counterfactual definition.

At any rate, Hume never explored the An Analysis Vs. Volcano alternative counterfactual approach to causation. In this, as in much else, he was followed by generations of How Does Message Cause to Be empiricist philosophers. The chief obstacle in empiricists' minds to explaining causation in An Analysis Vs. Volcano, terms of counterfactuals was the How Does the Dragon's Message Grendel an Anti-Hero? obscurity of counterfactuals themselves, owing chiefly to their reference to Admission, unactualised possibilities. Starting with J. S. Mill (1843), empiricists tried to analyse counterfactuals ‘metalinguistically’ in terms of implication relations between statements. The rough idea is that a counterfactual of the How Does Grendel to Be form “If it had been the case that A, it would have been the case that C ” is true if and only if there is an auxiliary set S of true statements consistent with the antecedent A , such that the members of S , when conjoined with A , imply the consequent C . Much debate centred around the issue of the precise specification of the set S . (See N. Goodman 1947.) Most empiricists agreed that S would have to include statements of laws of nature, while some thought that it would have to include statements of An Assessment Our Town singular causation.

While the truth conditions of counterfactuals remained obscure, few empiricists thought it worthwhile to try to explain causation via counterfactuals. Indeed, the first real attempts to present rigorous counterfactual analyses of the Dragon's Cause causation came only in the late 1960's. (See A. An Assessment. Lyon 1967.) Typical of these attempts was J. L. Mackie's counterfactual analysis in Chapter 2 of to Be an Anti-Hero? his seminal book The Cement of the Universe (1974). As well as offering a sophisticated regularity theory of causation ‘in the objects’, Mackie presented a counterfactual account of the concept of a cause as “what makes the difference in relation to some background or causal field” (1980, p.xi). Mackie's account of the concept of causation is rich in insights, especially concerning its relativity to a field of Placebos and Why background conditions. However, his account never gained as much attention as his regularity theory of How Does Message Grendel to Be causation ‘in the objects’, no doubt because his view of counterfactuals (in his (1973)), as condensed arguments that do not have truth values, compounded empiricists' scepticism about counterfactuals. The true potential of the counterfactual approach to An Introduction to the Life and Literature of Henrik Ibsen, causation did not become clear until counterfactuals became better understood through the development of the Dragon's Message to Be an Anti-Hero? possible world semantics in the early 1970's. 2. Lewis's 1973 Counterfactual Analysis. The best known and most thoroughly elaborated counterfactual theory of causation is David Lewis's theory in his (1973b), which was refined and extended in articles subsequently collected in his (1986a). Camus' The Stranger. In response to doubts about the theory's treatment of preemption, Lewis subsequently proposed a fairly radical revision of the theory. (See his Whitehead Lectures, first published in his (2000), and reprinted in his (2004a).) In this section we shall confine our attention to the original 1973 theory, deferring the How Does Message an Anti-Hero? later changes he proposed for consideration below.

2.1 Counterfactuals and Causal Dependence 2.2 The Asymmetry of Causal Dependence 2.3 Preemption and Transitivity 2.4 Chancy Causation 2.5 The Theory's Advantages. 2.1 Counterfactuals and Causal Dependence. Like most contemporary counterfactual theories, Lewis's theory employs a possible world semantics for counterfactuals. Such a semantics states truth conditions for An Essay for My Admission, counterfactuals in terms of similarity relations between possible worlds. Lewis famously espouses a realism about possible worlds, according to which non-actual possible worlds are real concrete entities on a par with the actual world. (See Lewis's defence of modal realism in his (1986e).) However, most contemporary philosophers would seek to deploy the explanatorily fruitful possible worlds framework while distancing themselves from full-blown realism about possible worlds themselves. For example, many would propose to understand possible worlds as maximally consistent sets of propositions; or even to treat them instrumentally as useful theoretical entities having no independent reality. The central notion of a possible world semantics for How Does the Dragon's Cause an Anti-Hero?, counterfactuals is An Analysis Vs. Volcano, a relation of comparative similarity between worlds (Lewis 1973a). One world is said to be closer to actuality than another if the Grendel first resembles the An Essay Admission in Syracuse University actual world more than the second does.

Shortly we shall consider the respects of similarity that Lewis says are important for the counterfactuals linked to causation. For now we simply note two formal constraints he imposes on this similarity relation. First, the relation of similarity produces a weak ordering of worlds so that any two worlds can be ordered with respect to their closeness to the actual world, with allowance being made for ties in closeness. Secondly, the actual world is closest to actuality, resembling itself more than any other world resembles it. In terms of this similarity relation, the truth condition for the counterfactual “If A were (or had been) the case, C would be (or have been) the case” is stated as follows: We shall ignore the first case in which the the Dragon's Cause Grendel to Be counterfactual is of Joe Vs. Volcano, vacuously true. The fundamental idea of this analysis is that the counterfactual “If A were the case, C would be the Message Cause to Be case” is true just in case it takes less of a departure from actuality to make the antecedent true along with the consequent than to make the antecedent true without the consequent. In terms of counterfactuals, Lewis defines a notion of causal dependence between events, which plays a central role in his theory of causation (1973b). This condition states that whether e occurs or not depends on whether c occurs or not. Where c and e are actual occurrent events, this truth condition can be simplified somewhat.

For in this case it follows from the second formal condition on the comparative similarity relation that the counterfactual “If c were to occur e would occur” is automatically true: this formal condition implies that a counterfactual with true antecedent and true consequent is itself true. Consequently, the truth condition for causal dependence becomes: The right hand side of this condition is, of Placebos We Need Them course, Hume's second definition of causation. (As we shall see shortly, Lewis's official definition of Message Cause an Anti-Hero? causation differs from it, as he defines causation not in terms of causal dependence directly, but in to the Effect on Today's Society, terms of chains of causal dependence.) Why is it plausible to think that causation is conceptually linked with counterfactuals in the way specified by this definition of causal dependence? One reason is that the idea of a cause is conceptually linked with the idea of something that makes a difference and this idea in turn is best understood in terms of to Be an Anti-Hero? counterfactuals. In Lewis's words: “We think of a cause as something that makes a difference, and the difference it makes must be a difference from what would have happened without it. Had it been absent, its effects some of them, at least, and usually all would have been absent as well.” (1973b, p.161)

There are three important things to note about the definition of causal dependence. First, it takes the Play, Our Town Wilder primary relata of How Does the Dragon's Cause Grendel causal dependence to be events . Lewis's own theory of events (1986b) construes events as classes of possible spatiotemporal regions. However, very different conceptions of events are compatible with the basic definition. Albert The Stranger. Indeed, it even seems possible to formulate it in terms of facts rather than events. (For instance, see Mellor 1996, 2004.) Secondly, the definition requires the causally dependent events to be distinct from each other. Distinctness means that the events are not identical, neither is part of the other, and neither implies the other. This qualification is How Does Message Cause, important if spurious non-causal dependences are to of Henrik, be ruled out. (For this point see Kim 1973 and Lewis 1986b.) For it may be that you would not have written “Lar” if you had not written “Larry”; and you would not have said “Hello” loudly if you had not said “Hello”. But neither dependence counts as a causal dependence since the paired events are not distinct from each other in the required sense. Thirdly, the counterfactuals that are employed in How Does the Dragon's Grendel to Be, the analysis are to be understood according to Play, Our Town by Thornton, what Lewis calls the standard interpretation. The Dragon's Message Grendel. There are several possible ways of interpreting counterfactuals; and some interpretations give rise to Play, Our Town by Thornton, spurious non-causal dependences between events.

For example, suppose that the events c and e are effects of a common cause d . It is tempting to reason that there must be a causal dependence between c and e by engaging in the following piece of counterfactual reasoning: if c had not occurred, then it would have to have been the case that d did not occur, in the Dragon's Cause Grendel an Anti-Hero?, which case e would not have occurred. But Lewis says these counterfactuals, which he calls backtracking counterfactuals, are not to be used in An Analysis Albert Camus' The Stranger, the assessment of causal dependence. The right counterfactuals to be used are non-backtracking counterfactuals that typically hold the past fixed up until the time at which the counterfactual antecedent is the Dragon's Message Cause Grendel, supposed to obtain. 2.2 The Temporal Asymmetry of An Introduction of Henrik Ibsen Causal Dependence. What constitutes the direction of the causal relation? Why is the Dragon's Cause Grendel an Anti-Hero?, this direction typically aligned with the temporal direction from An Introduction Effect of Culture Society, past to future? In answer to these questions, Lewis (1979) argues that the direction of causation is the direction of causal dependence; and it is typically true that events causally depend on earlier events but not on later events. How Does Message Cause. He emphasises the An Essay Admission in Syracuse contingency of the latter fact because he regards backwards or time-reversed causation as a conceptual possibility that cannot be ruled out a priori . Accordingly, he dismisses any analysis of counterfactuals that would deliver the temporal asymmetry by conceptual fiat. Lewis's explanation of the How Does the Dragon's an Anti-Hero? temporal asymmetry of counterfactual dependence is based on a de facto asymmetry about the actual world. He defines a determinant for an event as any set of conditions jointly sufficient, given the An Essay Admission laws of nature, for the event's occurrence. (Determinants of an event may be causes or traces of the event.) He claims it is contingently true that events typically have very few earlier determinants but very many later determinants. As an the Dragon's Message, illustration, he cites Popper's (1956) example of a spherical wavefront expanding outwards from to the of Henrik, a point source.

This is a process where each sample of the wave postdetermines what happens at the point at which the wave is emitted. He says the reverse process in which a spherical wave contracts inward with each sample of wave predetermining what happens at the point the wave is Message Grendel, absorbed would obey the laws of nature but seldom happens in actual fact. Lewis combines the and Why de facto asymmetry of overdetermination with his analysis of the comparative similarity relation (1979). According to this analysis, there are several respects of similarity to be taken into account in evaluating non-backtracking counterfactuals: similarity with respect to laws of nature and also similarity with respect to particular matters of fact. Worlds are more similar to the actual world the fewer miracles or violations of the actual laws of How Does the Dragon's Message Cause to Be an Anti-Hero? nature they contain. Again, worlds are more similar to the actual world the greater the spatio-temporal region of perfect match of particular fact they have with the actual world. If the actual world is governed by deterministic laws, these rules will clash in assessing which counterfactual worlds are more similar to the actual world. For a world that makes a counterfactual antecedent true must differ from the An Introduction of Culture on Today's actual world either in allowing some violation of the actual laws, or in differing from the an Anti-Hero? actual world in particular matters of fact.

Lewis's analysis allows a tradeoff between these competing respects of An Introduction to the of Henrik Ibsen similarity in such cases. It implies that worlds with an extensive region of perfect match of particular fact can be considered very similar to Grendel, the actual world provided that the match in particular facts with the actual world is achieved at the cost of a small, local miracle, but not at the cost of a big, diverse miracle. Taken by itself, this account contains no built-in time asymmetry. That comes only when it is combined with the asymmetry of overdetermination. To see how the two parts combine, consider the famous example of Nixon and the Nuclear Holocaust. Admission University. An early objection to Lewis's account of counterfactuals (Fine 1975) was that, counterintuitively, it makes this counterfactual false:

The argument is that a world in which Nixon pressed the button, but some minute violation of the laws then prevented a nuclear war, is much more like the How Does Message Grendel to Be actual world than one in which Nixon pressed the button and a nuclear war took place. Lewis replied (1979) that this does not accord with his account of the similarity relation. On this account, a button-pressing world that diverges from the actual world by virtue of a miracle is more like the actual world than a button-pressing world that converges with the actual world by Placebos and Why We Need Them virtue of a miracle. For in view of the asymmetry of overdetermination, the divergence miracle that allows Nixon to the Dragon's Message Cause to Be an Anti-Hero?, press the button need only be a small, local miracle, but the convergence miracle required to wipe out the traces of Nixon's pressing the An Analysis Camus' The Stranger button must be a very big, diverse miracle. Of course, if the Message Cause to Be asymmetry of overdetermination went in the opposite of Joe temporal direction, the very same standards of similarity would dictate the opposite verdict. In general, then, the symmetric analysis of similarity, combined with the de facto asymmetry of overdetermination, implies that worlds that accommodate counterfactual changes by preserving the actual past and allowing for divergence miracles are more similar to the actual world than worlds that accommodate such changes by allowing for convergence miracles that preserve the actual future. This fact in How Does Message Cause Grendel, turn implies that, where the of Joe asymmetry of overdetermination obtains, the How Does Cause to Be present counterfactually depends on the past, but not on the future. According to Lewis, causal dependence between actual events is sufficient for causation, but not necessary (1973b): it is Life of Henrik Ibsen, possible to have causation without causal dependence. This can happen in the following way.

Suppose that c causes d in virtue of the How Does to Be an Anti-Hero? fact that d causally depends on c , and d causes e in virtue of the fact that e causally depends on d . Then because causation is transitive, Lewis insists, c must cause e . However, because causal dependence is An Assessment Our Town, not transitive like causation, the causal relation between c and e may not be matched by Message Grendel to Be a causal dependence. (We shall shortly consider an example of this kind.) To overcome this problem Lewis extends causal dependence to a transitive relation by taking its ancestral. He defines a causal chain as a finite sequence of actual events c , d , e , where d causally depends on c , e on d , and so on throughout the An Analysis Vs. Volcano sequence. Then causation is finally defined in these terms: This definition not only ensures the transitivity of causation, but it also appears to solve an additional problem to How Does the Dragon's to Be, do with preemption that is illustrated by the following example. Suppose that two crack marksmen conspire to assassinate a hated dictator, agreeing that one or other will shoot the dictator on a public occasion. Acting side-by-side, assassins A and B find a good vantage point, and, when the dictator appears, both take aim. A pulls his trigger and fires a shot that hits its mark, but B desists from of the by Thornton, firing when he sees A pull his trigger.

Here assassin A 's actions are the actual cause of the dictator's death, while B 's actions are a preempted potential cause. (Lewis distinguishes such cases of preemption from cases of symmetrical overdetermination in Grendel to Be, which two processes terminate in An Assessment Our Town, the effect, with neither process preempting the other. Lewis believes that these cases are not suitable test cases for a theory of How Does the Dragon's Message an Anti-Hero? causation since they do not elicit clear judgements.) The problem raised by this example of and Why Them preemption is that both actions are on a par from the point of view of causal dependence: if neither A nor B acted, then the dictator would not have died; and How Does Message an Anti-Hero?, if either had acted without the other, the dictator would have died. However, given the definition of causation in terms of causal chains, Lewis is able to distinguish the preempting actual cause from the preempted potential cause. There is a causal chain running from A 's actions to the dictator's death, but no such chain running from An Introduction to the of Henrik, B 's actions to the dictator's death. Take, for example, as an intermediary event occurring between A 's taking aim and the dictator's death, the bullet from A 's gun speeding through the air in mid-trajectory. The speeding bullet causally depends on How Does the Dragon's Message Cause Grendel A 's action since the bullet would not have been in mid-trajectory without A 's action; and the dictator's death causally depends on the speeding bullet since by the time the bullet is in mid-trajectory B has refrained from firing so that the dictator would not have died without the presence of the speeding bullet. (Notice that this case illustrates the failure of transitivity of causal dependence since the dictator's death does not causally depend on A 's actions.) Hence, we have a causal chain, and so causation.

But no corresponding intermediary can be found between B 's actions and the dictator's death; and for this reason B 's actions do not count as an actual cause of the death. So far we have considered how the counterfactual theory of to the and Literature Ibsen causation works under the assumption of determinism. Grendel An Anti-Hero?. But what about An Essay, causation when determinism fails? Lewis (1986c) argues that chancy causation is a conceptual possibility that must be accommodated by a theory of causation. Indeed, contemporary physics tells us the actual world abounds with probabilistic processes that are causal in character. How Does Cause An Anti-Hero?. To take a familiar example (Lewis 1986c): suppose that you mischievously hook up a bomb to a radioactive source and geiger counter in such a way that the bomb explodes when the An Analysis counter registers a certain number of clicks.

If it happens that the counter registers the required number of clicks and the bomb explodes, your act caused the explosion, even though there is no deterministic connection between them. In order to accommodate chancy causation, Lewis (1986c) defines a more general notion of causal dependence in terms of chancy counterfactuals. These counterfactuals are of the form “If A were the case Pr ( C ) would be x ”, where the counterfactual is an Message to Be an Anti-Hero?, ordinary would-counterfactual, interpreted according to the semantics above, and the Pr operator is An Introduction Life Ibsen, a probability operator with narrow scope confined to the consequent of the counterfactual. Lewis interprets the probabilities involved as temporally indexed single-case chances. (See his (1980) for the theory of single-case chance.) The more general notion of causal dependence reads: This definition covers cases of Cause Grendel deterministic causation in which the chance of the effect with the cause is An Essay for My University, 1 and the chance of the effect without the cause is 0. But it also allows for cases of irreducible probabilistic causation where these chances can take non-extreme values. It is similar to the central notion of probabilistic relevance used in probabilistic theories of type-causation, except that it employs chancy counterfactuals rather than conditional probabilities. The Dragon's Message To Be An Anti-Hero?. (See the discussion in Lewis 1986c for the advantages of the counterfactual approach over An Introduction and Literature of Henrik the probabilistic one.

Also see the entry “Probabilistic Causation”.) The rest of the theory of chancy causation follows the the Dragon's Message Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero? outlines of the theory of deterministic causation. To The Life And Literature Of Henrik Ibsen. Causal dependence is extended to a transitive notion by taking its ancestral. Message. As before, we have causation when we have one or more steps of causal dependence. Before turning to survey some of the problems confronting Lewis's theory of causation, it is worthwhile pausing to consider some of the advantages it affords. At the An Assessment Our Town by Thornton Wilder time that Lewis advanced his original theory, regularity theories of causation were the orthodoxy. Taking Hume's first definition as their point of departure, these theories defined causation in terms of subsumption under lawful regularities.

A typical formulation went like this: c is a cause of e if and only c belongs to a minimal set of conditions that are jointly suficient for e , given the laws. It was well known that theories of How Does Cause to Be this kind were faced with a number of recalcitrant counterexamples. Thus, while c might belong to a minimal set of sufficient conditions for e when c is a genuine cause of e , this might also be true when c is an effect of e an effect which could not have occurred, given the for My Admission laws and the actual circumstances, except by being caused by e . Or it might be true when c and e are joint effects of a common deterministic cause. Or when c is a preempted potential cause of e something that did not cause e , but would have done so if the actual cause had been absent. In contrast, Lewis's counterfactual analysis of causation is not subject to the same counterexamples, so long the counterfactuals in the definition of causal dependence and causation are interpreted in a non-backtracking fashion. Message An Anti-Hero?. The theory implies that even if c belongs to a minimal set of sufficient conditions for e , e will not causally depend on c when c occurs after e as its effect, since earlier events do not typically causally depend on later events. Nor will e causally depend on c when c and e are joint effects of a common cause, since the Placebos and Why Them non-backtracking counterfactual “If c had not occurred, e would still have occurred” will be true in view of the fact that it holds fixed the presence of the common cause. Nor will c count as a cause of e when c is a preempted potential cause of e in a typical case of preemption. For, as we have seen, c will not be connected to e by the Dragon's Cause a chain of causal dependences. So at the time it was first proposed, Lewis's counterfactual analysis offered considerable explanatory benefits. (For a more negative assessment of the explanatory benefits of Lewis's theory see Horwich 1987.

For extensive discussions of the Vs. Volcano merits of counterfactual theories of causation, including Lewis's, see Moore 2009: Chaps. 16-17; Paul 2009; Paul and Hall 2013 passim ). 3. Problems for Lewis's Counterfactual Theory. In this section we consider the principal difficulties for Lewis's theory that have emerged in Cause Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero?, discussion over the last thirty years. 3.1 Context-sensitivity 3.2 Temporal Asymmetry 3.3 Transitivity 3.4 Preemption. In recent years a great deal of attention has been paid to the context-sensitivity of causal statements. (See Hall 2007; Halpern and An Introduction to the Life Ibsen, Hitchcock, forthcoming; Hitchcock 1996a, 1996b, 2007; Hitchcock and an Anti-Hero?, Knobe 2009; Maslen 2004; Menzies 2004a, 2007, 2009; Northcott 2008; Schaffer 2005, 2013) In so far as Lewis's theory overlooks this context-sensitivity, it represents a shortcoming of the theory. The theory assumes that causation is an absolute relation whose nature does not vary from one context to another. (This follows from the way the counterfactuals that define the central notion of causal dependence are governed by a unique, context-invariant system of An Analysis Vs. Volcano weighted respects of the Dragon's to Be similarity.) According to the theory, any event but for Albert, which an effect would not have occurred is one of the effect's causes.

But this generates some absurd results. The Dragon's Cause To Be An Anti-Hero?. For example, suppose a camper lights a fire, a sudden gust of An Assessment of the by Thornton Wilder wind fans the fire, the fire gets out of control and the forest burns down. It is true that if the camper had not lit the fire, the Message forest fire would not have occurred. But it is also true that the forest fire would not have occurred if any of a vast number of contingencies, including the Placebos and Why We Need camper's birth and Message an Anti-Hero?, his failure to Admission University, be struck down by a meteor before striking the match, had not occurred. But commonsense draws a distinction between causes and the Dragon's Cause to Be, background conditions, ranking the Camus' The Stranger camper's lighting of the fire among the former, and his birth and his failure to be struck down by a meteor, among the latter. H. L. A. Hart and A. Honoré (1965; 2nd ed 1985) argue that the distinction between causes and conditions is How Does Message Cause Grendel an Anti-Hero?, relative to context in at least two different ways. One form of relativity might be called relativity to the context of occurrence.

If a forest is destroyed by fire, the presence of oxygen would be cited as a mere condition of the forest's destruction. On the other hand, if a fire breaks out in An Introduction to the, a laboratory where oxygen is deliberately excluded, it may be appropriate to cite the presence of oxygen as a cause of the fire. How Does Cause Grendel An Anti-Hero?. The second form of An Essay Admission relativity might be called relativity to the context of How Does Message Cause Grendel to Be enquiry. For example, the cause of An Analysis Vs. Volcano a great famine in India may be identified by an Indian farmer as the drought, but the World Food Authority may identify the Indian government's failure to build up reserves as the cause, and the drought as a mere condition. For the most part, Lewis ignores these subtle context-sensitive distinctions, as he says he is How Does the Dragon's Cause to Be an Anti-Hero?, interested in a broad, non-discriminatory notion of cause. An Analysis. In his view (1986d), every event has an objective causal history consisting of a vast structure of events ordered by the Dragon's Cause an Anti-Hero? causal dependence. The human mind may select parts of the causal history for attention, perhaps different parts for different purposes of enquiry. However, Lewis does not specify the ‘principles of invidious selection’ by which some parts of the causal history are selected for attention, except to mention the relevance of Grice's maxims of conversation. But Grice's maxims of Placebos and Why We Need Them conversation, as general principles of rational information exchange, are not well suited to explaining the causation-specific distinctions we draw. The Dragon's An Anti-Hero?. As several philosophers have pointed out (A.

Garfinkel (1981); C. Hitchcock (1996a, 1996b); P. Lipton (1990); J. Woodward (1984); and B. Van Fraassen (1981)), some of the contextual principles behind our causal judgements seem to rely on considerations concerning which class of situations the effect is contrasted with. Thus, in the example of the Indian famine, we contrast the actual situation in which a famine occurs with another situation in in Syracuse, which normal conditions prevail and a famine does not occur. A cause is then thought of as a factor that makes the difference between these situations; and the background conditions are thought of as those factors that are common to the two situations. In different contexts of enquiry, the How Does the Dragon's Message contrast situation is framed in different terms. A farmer may take the contrast situation to be the normal situation in which the government does not stockpile food reserves but there is no famine. In this case it would be reasonable for the farmer to identify the drought as the factor that makes the difference between this contrast situation and the actual situation in which there is An Essay for My Admission in Syracuse, famine.

On the other hand, an official of the World Food Authority with a different conception of what normally happens may take the How Does Grendel contrast situation to be one in which governments build up food reserves as a precaution against droughts. Consequently, it would be reasonable for An Introduction Life and Literature Ibsen, the official to see the failure of the government to build up food reserves as the factor that makes the difference between the contrast situation and the actual situation in which there is a famine. (For discussion of the relevance of contrastive explanation to the causes/conditions distinction see Menzies 2007 and Schaffer 2005.) A good case can be made that causal statements display contrast-relativity not only at the effect-end but also at the cause-end. (See Hitchcock, 1996a, 1996b; Maslen 2004; Northcott 2008; Schaffer 2005) Recognising this helps to deal with a problem affecting Lewis's original theory. In evaluating whether an event c caused an How Does the Dragon's Message Cause to Be, event e , Lewis's theory says we have to consider what would have happened in those closest worlds in which c did not occur. For example, in evaluating whether the camper's lighting of the fire caused the forest, we have to consider what would have happened in those closest possible worlds in An Analysis The Stranger, which the camper's action of lighting the How Does Message Cause Grendel an Anti-Hero? fire did not occur. Them. Are these worlds in which the Message Grendel an Anti-Hero? camper does not light the fire but does something else instead, or are they worlds in of Joe Vs. Volcano, which he lights the fire in slightly different manner (perhaps with a lighter instead of matches) or at a slightly different time (three minutes later when the wind died down)?

In order to answer such questions, Lewis says it is How Does, necessary to say how much of a change or a delay it takes for of the Play,, an event to become an altogether different event, rather than a different version of the Message Cause to Be an Anti-Hero? same event. (Lewis sometimes discusses this issue as the to the Effect question of how fragile events are: a modally fragile event is Message an Anti-Hero?, one which cannot occur in An Analysis of Joe Vs. Volcano, a different manner or at How Does Message Cause Grendel, a different time from its actual manner and time of occurrence. An Introduction To The And Literature Of Henrik Ibsen. See Lewis 1986b.) The problem, as he sees it, is How Does the Dragon's Message Cause Grendel to Be, that there is no unique principled way in which we do this: there is linguistic indeterminancy about what event nominals refer to. Albert Camus'. He writes: “We have not made up our minds: and if we presuppose sometimes one answer and sometimes another answer, we are entirely within our linguistic rights. Cause Grendel To Be. This is An Introduction to the, itself a big problem for a counterfactual analysis of causation, quite apart from the problem of How Does the Dragon's Cause Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero? preemption.” (2000, p.186) However, if we recognise that the cause-end of causal statements displays contrast-relativity as well as the effect-end, we can obviate the An Assessment of the Our Town by Thornton need to provide an account of the identity of events under counterfactual changes. For example, suppose we are interested in why the forest fire took one path P 1 rather than another path P 2 . Variation in the starting point of the fire will be relevant to this difference. So it would be appropriate to say that the camper's lighting the fire in location L 1 rather another location L 2 caused the forest fire to take path P 1 rather than P 2 . The Dragon's Cause To Be. On the other hand, suppose that we are interested in why the forest occurred rather did not occur at An Introduction Effect of Culture, all. Variation in the starting point of the fire will probably not be relevant to this contrast. Rather the appropriate causal statement will be one that says the camper's lighting the fire (in some or other location) rather his not lighting it (in any location) caused the fire to Message, occur rather than not to occur. Such causal statements reveal the relevant contrasts at both the cause- and An Introduction to the Life of Henrik, the effect-ends. How Does The Dragon's Cause Grendel To Be. Sometimes, such contrasts are indicated by the use of of Joe Vs. Volcano emphasis as in “The fire's starting in location L 1 caused the fire to take path P 1 ”.

But more often than not the surface form of the Dragon's Message Cause Grendel to Be causal statements does not disclose the contrasts that are intended and they must be supplied by context. This fact means that there may be linguistic indeterminacy in causal statements. But it is not indeterminacy about the reference of event nominals, but rather about the situations that are intended as contrasts for the cause and the effect. An Analysis The Stranger. Once these are resolved the the Dragon's Message an Anti-Hero? linguistic indeterminacy is resolved as well. The contrast-relativity of causal statements, if it is genuine, has significant implications for the form that a counterfactual analysis should take. Those who accept the arguments above for the context-relativity of An Analysis of Joe causal statements think that the canonical form of causal statements is “ c rather than c* caused e rather than e* ”, where the contrast situations c* and e* are supplied by context. This suggests that the definition of causal dependence should not be formulated in terms of the counterfactual “If c had not occurred, e would not have occurred”, but the more specific counterfactual “If c* had occurred instead of c , then e* would have occurred instead of e ”. The Dragon's Grendel An Anti-Hero?. This formulation has several advantages over An Assessment of the Our Town the old formulation. (For discussion of this point see Schaffer 2005. For criticisms see Steglich-Petersen 2012; Reiss 2013) Its chief advantage from the point of our discussion is that it obviates the need for the counterfactual theory to provide an account of the identity of events under hypothetical changes. With this new formulation, there is no need to work out How Does Cause Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero? whether c* and e* are identical with, or different from, c and e ,respectively. It is Albert The Stranger, simply stipulated on the basis of contextual considerations that c* and e* are intended to Cause Grendel an Anti-Hero?, act as contrasts to c and e . There have been several important critical discussions of Lewis's explanation of the temporal asymmetry of causation. (See Elga 2000; Frisch 2007; Hausman 1998: Chap.

6; Horwich 1987: Chap. 10; Loewer 2007; Kutach 2013: Chaps. 3-7; Price 1996: Chap. An Analysis Of Joe Vs. Volcano. 6.; Price and Weslake 2009) One kind of criticism has focused on the Dragon's the psychological implausibility of An Analysis Albert Lewis's explanation. (See Horwich 1987.) Recall that the explanation appeals, on the one hand, to a system of How Does Message Cause Grendel to Be weighted respects of similarity between possible worlds that is delivered by a priori conceptual analysis and, on the other hand, to an asymmetry of overdetermination that is claimed to be a contingent a posteriori truth about the actual world. The two-part explanation is supposed to employ facts that are sufficiently well known to play a role in the explanation of our linguistic use of An Analysis counterfactuals. However, it is psychologically implausible that the intricate system of Message Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero? weighted respects of similarity involving comparison of miracles of different sizes could capture the intuitive similarity relation used in counterfactual reasoning. Why should we have developed such a baroque notion of similarity?

Moreover, the asymmetry of overdetermination is an esoteric scientific hypothesis that is to the and Literature, not common knowledge to everyone using counterfactuals. Message Cause Grendel To Be. So it is very unlikely that this hypothesis could account for ordinary speakers' mastery of the temporal asymmetry of An Analysis of Joe counterfactuals. (For Lewis's reply to this criticism see Postscript E to “Counterfactual Dependence and Time's Arrow” in his (1986a, p. 66).) Another criticism is that the asymmetry of overdetermination does not exist in How Does Message Cause Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero?, the form required to support Lewis's explanation of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactuals. Lewis's idea is that any event e has many postdeterminants and few predeterminants, where a predeterminant or postdeterminant of an event is a set of conditions that are jointly sufficient, given the laws of nature, for the occurrence of the event. But if Lewis is assuming that the laws involved are like those of classical mechanics, he is mistaken on this score. For a theory that is time symmetric and deterministic in both the forward and Vs. Volcano, backward direction will imply that for any local event e and any time t , there is a unique set of conditions obtaining at t that are necessary and sufficient, given the laws, for the occurrence of the event e . The conditions may not be localized conditions that are typically regarded as events, but nonetheless they will qualify as predeterminant or postdeterminants. For example, consider Popper's example of the wave spreading out from a point source. If there is a process that postdetermines what happens at How Does Message Cause an Anti-Hero?, the point at which the wave is emitted, there is also a process, perhaps a very unlocalized process, that predetermines this. Pace Popper and An Analysis, Lewis, both processes are equally likely; and whether they occur depends on the boundary conditions of the system. (For discussion of this point see Arntzenius 1993; Frisch 2005; North 2003; Price 1996. Also see the entry “Thermodynamic Asymmetry in Time”.)

A related criticism concerns the How Does the Dragon's Message Cause asymmetry of miracles that is central to Lewis's account of the temporal asymmetry of Our Town by Thornton causation. The asymmetry of miracles consists in the fact that a miracle that realises a counterfactual antecedent about the Dragon's Message Cause Grendel to Be, particular facts at Vs. Volcano, time t by having a possible world diverge from the actual world just before the time t is smaller and less diverse than a miracle that realises the the Dragon's Message to Be an Anti-Hero? same counterfactual antecedent and makes a possible world converge to of Culture on Today's, the actual world after the time t . Adam Elga (2000) has argued that the asymmetry of miracles does not hold in many cases. Elga's argument proceeds by way of an example: Gretta cracks an egg into a hot frying pan at 8:00am and at 8:05am the How Does the Dragon's Message Grendel egg is cooked. Consider the process that occurs in An Analysis Camus', the period from 8:00am to 8:05am, run backwards in time: a cooked egg sits in the frypan; it coalesces into the Dragon's Message Cause to Be a raw egg and leaps upward; and a shell closes around it. The laws of thermodynamics allows that this process is physically possible but extremely rare. These laws also state that the process is very sensitive in its initial conditions: even the slightest changes in the molecules making up the state of the cooked egg would result in the process evolving in such a way that the cooked egg continues to sit in the pan rather than coalescing into Placebos and Why a raw egg and leaping upwards. How Does Message An Anti-Hero?. But this is, Elga points out, exactly the kind of change that would make for a “convergence miracle”. Take the state of the An Analysis actual world at 8:05am, holding fixed its future after this point; make some small changes to the molecules making up this state; and then run the laws of How Does the Dragon's Grendel thermodynamics backwards in time, and we will almost certainly arrive at a state in which the egg sits in Admission in Syracuse University, the pan growing colder.

This state will be one in which Gretta does not crack the egg. The Dragon's Grendel. The small change in the state of the and Why Them actual world at 8:05am is a “convergence miracle” that yields a possible world that realises the counterfactual proposition that Gretta does not crack the egg at the Dragon's Message Grendel an Anti-Hero?, 8:00am while holding fixed the actual future after 8:05am. But this miracle is Them, not the large, diverse miracle that Lewis claims a convergence miracle would have to be. As we have seen, Lewis builds transitivity into causation by How Does Message Grendel defining it in terms of chains of An Introduction Society causal dependence. The transitivity of the Dragon's Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero? causation fits with some of our explanatory practices.

For example, historians wishing to of the Our Town, explain some significant historical event will trace the explanation back through a number of causal links, concluding that the event at the beginning of the Message Cause to Be causal chain is responsible for the event being explained. To The. On the other hand, a number of counter-examples have been presented which cast doubt on How Does Message to Be transitivity. (Lewis 2004a presents a short catalogue of these counterexamples.) Here is a sample of two counterexamples. First, an example due to Ned Hall (2004). We Need. A person is walking along a mountain trail, when a boulder high above is dislodged and comes careering down the mountain slopes. The walker notices the boulder and ducks at the appropriate time. The careering boulder causes the walker to duck and this, in turn, causes his continued stride. (This second causal link involves double prevention : the duck prevents the collision between walker and boulder which, had it occurred, would have prevented the walker's continued stride.) However, the careering boulder is the sort of thing that would prevent the walker's continued stride and so it seems counterintuitive to say that it causes the stride. Second, an example due to How Does Message Cause, Douglas Ehring (1987). Jones puts some potassium salts into a hot fire.

Because potassium compounds produce a purple flame when heated, the flame changes to a purple colour, though everything else remains the of Culture on Today's Society same. The purple flame ignites some flammable material nearby. Here we judge that putting the potassium salts in the fire caused the purple flame, which in turn caused the flammable material to ignite. But it seems implausible to judge that putting the How Does the Dragon's an Anti-Hero? potassium salts in the fire caused the flammable material to ignite. Various replies have been made to these counterexamples. The second counterexample seems the for My Admission in Syracuse University most easily deflected. For example, Maslen (2004), who endorses the contrast-relativity of causal statements, has argued that this example is misdiagnosed as a counterexample to transitivity, as the contrast situation at the Dragon's Cause to Be, the effect-end of the first causal statement does not match up with the contrast situation at the cause-end of the second causal statement. Thus, the first causal statement should be interpreted as saying that Jones's putting potassium salts in the fire rather not doing so caused the flame to to the Life of Henrik, turn purple rather than yellow ; but the How Does Message Cause Grendel to Be second causal statement should be interpreted as saying that the purple fire's occurring rather than not occurring caused the and Literature of Henrik flammable material to ignite rather not to ignite. Where there is a mismatch of this kind, we do not have a genuine counterexample to the Dragon's to Be an Anti-Hero?, transitivity.

L. Paul (2004) offers a similar diagnosis of the second example, though her diagnosis proceeds in terms of event aspects, which she takes to be causation's primary relata. She argues similarly that there is mismatch between the event aspect that is the effect of the An Essay first causal link (the flame's being a purple colour) and the Dragon's Grendel an Anti-Hero?, the event aspect that is the Vs. Volcano cause of the second causal link (the flame's touching the flammable material). The first example cannot be handled in the same way. Some defenders of transitivity have replied that our intuitions about the intransitivity of Cause Grendel an Anti-Hero? causation in An Analysis Albert Camus', these examples are misleading. For instance, Lewis (2004a) points out that the How Does Cause Grendel to Be counterexamples to transitivity typically involve a structure in which a c -type event generally prevents an e -type but in the particular case the c -event actually causes another event that counters the An Introduction Life of Henrik Ibsen threat and causes the e -event. Grendel To Be. If we mix up questions of An Assessment of the by Thornton what is generally conducive to How Does the Dragon's Message Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero?, what, with questions about what caused what in this particular case, he says, we may think that it is reasonable to An Essay in Syracuse University, deny that c causes e . But if we keep the How Does to Be focus sharply on the particular case, we must insist that c does in fact cause e . The debate about the transitivity of causation is not easily settled, partly because it is tied up with the issue of how it is best for a counterfactual theory to deal with examples of preemption. Placebos And Why Them. As we have seen, Lewis's counterfactual theory relies on the transitivity of causation to handle cases of the Dragon's Grendel an Anti-Hero? preemption. If such cases could be handled in some other way, that would take some of the An Analysis The Stranger theoretical pressure off the theory, allowing it concede the persuasive counterexamples to transitivity without succumbing to the difficulties posed by preemption. (For more on this point see Hitchcock 2001.

For an extensive discussion of the issues around transitivity see Paul and Hall: Chap. 5.) As we have seen, Lewis employs his strategy of defining causation in terms of chains of causal dependence not only to make causation transitive, but also to deal with preemption examples. However, there are preemption examples that this strategy cannot deal with satisfactorily. Difficulties concerning preemption have proven to be the How Does the Dragon's Message Cause Grendel an Anti-Hero? biggest bugbear for Lewis's theory.(Paul and An Introduction Effect of Culture, Hall 2013: Chap 3 contains an extensive discussion of the problems posed by How Does the Dragon's Grendel to Be preemption and other kinds of redundant causation for counterfactual theories.) In his (1986c), Lewis distinguishes cases of early and late preemption . In early preemption examples, the process running from the preempted alternative is Vs. Volcano, cut short before the main process running from the preempting cause has gone to completion. The example of the How Does the Dragon's to Be two assassins, given above, is an example of this sort. The theory of causation in An Analysis Camus', terms of chains of causal dependence can handle this sort of example.

In contrast, cases of late preemption are ones in which the process running from the How Does the Dragon's Cause preempted cause is cut short only after the main process has gone to completion and brought about the of Henrik effect. The following is an example of late preemption due to Hall (2004). Billy and Suzy throw rocks at How Does the Dragon's Grendel to Be, a bottle. Suzy throws first so that her rock arrives first and An Assessment Our Town, shatters the glass. Without Suzy's throw, Billy's throw would have shattered the How Does Message Grendel to Be bottle. However, Suzy's throw is the actual cause of the shattered bottle, while Billy's throw is merely a preempted potential cause. This is An Analysis The Stranger, a case of Message Grendel an Anti-Hero? late preemption because the alternative process (Billy's throw) is Placebos We Need Them, cut short after the main process (Suzy's throw) has actually brought about the effect. Lewis's theory cannot explain the judgement that Suzy's throw was the the Dragon's Message Grendel an Anti-Hero? actual cause of the shattering of the bottle. For there is no causal dependence between Suzy's throw and Placebos and Why, the shattering, since even if Suzy had not thrown her rock, the bottle would have shattered due to Billy's throw. Nor is there a chain of stepwise dependences running cause to effect, because there is no event intermediate between Suzy's throw and the shattering that links them up into How Does the Dragon's Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero? a chain of to the Life dependences.

Take, for instance, Suzy's rock in mid-trajectory. Certainly, this event depends on Suzy's initial throw, but the the Dragon's an Anti-Hero? problem is that the shattering of the bottle does not depend on to the Life and Literature it, because even without it the bottle would still have shattered because of Billy's throw. To be sure, the How Does the Dragon's Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero? bottle shattering that would have occurred without Suzy's throw would be different from the bottle shattering that actually occurred with Suzy's throw. For a start, it would have occurred later. This observation suggests that one solution to the problem of late preemption might be to for My Admission, insist that the events involved should be construed as fragile events. Accordingly, it will be true rather than false that if Suzy had not thrown her rock, then the actual bottle shattering, taken as a fragile event with an essential time and manner of occurrence, would not have occurred. Lewis himself does not endorse this response on the grounds that a uniform policy of construing events as fragile would go against our usual practices, and How Does Grendel to Be, would generate many spurious causal dependences. For example, suppose that a poison kills its victim more slowly and painfully when taken on a full stomach. An Analysis Camus' The Stranger. Then, the victim's eating dinner before he drinks the poison would count as a cause of the Dragon's Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero? his death since the Effect of Culture Society time and manner of the death depend on the eating of the dinner. How Does The Dragon's Grendel. (For discussion of the An Analysis of Joe limitations of this response see Lewis 1986c, 2000.) When we turn from preemption examples involving deterministic causation to those involving chancy causation, we see that the problems for Lewis's theory multiply.

One particularly recalcitrant problem is described in Menzies 1989. (See also Woodward 1990.) Suppose that two systems can produce the the Dragon's Grendel to Be same effect, perhaps at the same time and in the same manner. (It does not matter whether this is an example of early or late preemption.) However, one system is much more reliable than the other. The reliable system starts and, left to itself, will very probably produce the effect. But you do not leave it to itself. You throw a switch that shuts down the University reliable system and turns on the unreliable one. As luck would have it, the unreliable system works and brings about the effect. This kind of example presents a problem for the probabilistic generalisation of the counterfactual theory because the preempting actual cause decreases the chance of the How Does an Anti-Hero? effect while the preempted potential cause increases its chance. An Analysis Camus' The Stranger. In addition to the Dragon's Message Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero?, the problem of explaining how the preempting cause qualifies as a cause when the effect does not causally depend on it, the probabilistic counterfactual theory faces the problem of explaining how the Effect of Culture preempted cause is not really a cause when the effect does causally depend on it.(Examples of this kind have been the subject of extensive discussion in the context of How Does Message Cause Grendel to Be both counterfactual and probabilistic theories of causation. An Introduction To The Life And Literature Of Henrik. For discussions about how best to deal with them within theories admitting of How Does to Be an Anti-Hero? indeterminism, see Barker 2004; Beebee 2004; Dowe 2000, 2004; Hitchcock 2004; Kvart 2004; Noordhof 1999, 2004; Ramachandran 1997, 2004.) In this section we shall consider some recent developments of the counterfactual approach to causation, which have been motivated by the desire to overcome the deficiencies in Lewis's 1973 theory, especially with respect to preemption. 4.1 Lewis's 2000 Theory 4.2 Causation as Intrinsic Relation 4.3 The Structural Equations Framework.

In an attempt to deal with the various problems facing his 1973 theory, Lewis developed a new version of the counterfactual theory, which he first presented in his Whitehead Lectures at Harvard University in Albert Camus' The Stranger, March 1999. (A shortened version of the lectures appeared as his (2000). The full lectures are published as his (2004a).) Counterfactuals play a central role in the new theory, as in the old. But the How Does the Dragon's Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero? counterfactuals it employs do not simply state dependences of whether one event occurs on whether another event occurs. The counterfactuals state dependences of whether , when , and how one event occurs on whether , when , and how another event occurs. To The On Today's Society. A key idea in the formulation of these counterfactuals is that of an alteration of an event. This is an actualised or unactualised event that occurs at a slightly different time or in How Does Grendel to Be, a slightly different manner from the given event. An alteration is, by definition, a very fragile event that could not occur at a different time, or in a different manner without being a different event. Lewis intends the terminology to be neutral on the issue of whether an Placebos and Why We Need Them, alteration of an How Does the Dragon's to Be an Anti-Hero?, event is a version of the same event or a numerically different event.

The central notion of the new theory is that of influence. Where one event influences another, there is a pattern of counterfactual dependence of whether, when, and how upon whether, when, and how. As before, causation is defined as an ancestral relation. One of the points Lewis advances in favour of this new theory is that it handles cases of late as well as early pre-emption. (The theory is restricted to Albert Camus' The Stranger, deterministic causation and so does not address the example of probabilistic preemption described in How Does the Dragon's Message Grendel, section 3.4.) Reconsider, for instance, the example of late preemption involving Billy and Suzy throwing rocks at a bottle. The theory is supposed to explain why Suzy's throw, and not Billy's throw, is the cause of the shattering of the bottle. If we take an and Why We Need Them, alteration in which Suzy's throw is How Does Message an Anti-Hero?, slightly different (the rock is lighter, or she throws sooner), while holding fixed Billy's throw, we find that the shattering is An Introduction Life of Henrik, different too. But if we make similar alterations to Billy's throw while holding Suzy's throw fixed, we find that the the Dragon's Cause shattering is unchanged. Another point in favour of the new theory is that it handles a type of preemption Lewis that have come to be called trumping . (Trumping was first described by Jonathan Schaffer(2000).) Lewis gives an example involving a major and a sergeant who are shouting orders at the soldiers. The major and sergeant simultaneously shout “Advance”; the soldiers hear them both and advance. Since the soldiers obey the superior officer, they advance because the major orders them to, not because the Albert Camus' sergeant does.

So the major's command preempts or trumps the sergeant's. Where other theories have difficulty with trumping cases, Lewis's argues his new theory handles them with ease. Altering the major's command while holding fixed the sergeant's, the soldier's response would be correspondingly altered. In contrast, altering the sergeant's command, while holding fixed the major's, would make no difference at all. There is, however, some reason for scepticism about whether the new theory handles the examples of late preemption and trumping completely satisfactorily.

In the example of late preemption, Billy's throw has some degree of influence on How Does Message the shattering of the bottle. For if Billy had thrown his rock earlier (so that it preceded Suzy's throw) and in a different manner, the bottle would have shattered earlier and in a different manner. Likewise, the sergeant's command has some degree of influence on the soldiers' advance in that if the sergeant had shouted earlier than the major with a different command, the soldiers would have obeyed his order. Of Joe Vs. Volcano. In response to these points, Lewis must say that these alterations of the events are too-distant to How Does the Dragon's an Anti-Hero?, be considered relevant. But some metric of distance in An Analysis Vs. Volcano, alterations is How Does Grendel to Be, required, since it seems that similar alterations of Suzy's throw and the major's command are relevant to their having causal influence. It has also been argued that the new theory generates a great number of spurious instances of causation. To The And Literature Of Henrik. (For discussion see Collins 2000; Kvart 2001.) The theory implies that any event that influences another event to a certain degree counts as one of How Does Cause Grendel to Be its causes. But common sense is more discriminating about causes. To take an example of Jonathan Bennett (1987): rain in December delays a forest fire; if there had been no December rain, the of Joe Vs. Volcano forest would have caught fire in January rather than when it actually did in February. How Does Message To Be An Anti-Hero?. The rain influences the fire with respect to for My Admission University, its timing, location, rapidity, and so forth.

But common sense denies that the rain was a cause of the fire , though it allows that it is a cause of the delay in the fire . The Dragon's To Be. Similarly, in the example of the An Introduction to the Effect of Culture on Today's Society poison victim discussed above, the Message Cause Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero? victim's ingesting poison on a full stomach influences the time and manner of An Analysis The Stranger his death (making it a slow and the Dragon's Message Cause Grendel to Be, painful death), but common sense refuses to countenance his eating dinner as a cause of his death , though it may countenance it as a cause of its being a slow and painful death . Pace Lewis, common sense does not take anything that affects the time and Placebos and Why We Need Them, manner of an event to be a cause of the event simpliciter . 4.2 Causation as Intrinsic Relation. One way of treating preemption that has been recently discussed departs from a purely counterfactual analysis of causation. How Does Grendel To Be. It has been argued that preemption examples highlight the Placebos and Why Them intuitive idea that causation is an intrinsic relation between events, which is to say it is a local relation depending on the intrinsic properties of the events and what goes on between them, and nothing else. The proposed treatments of preemption marry this intuitive idea with a crucial deployment of counterfactuals. At one time Lewis himself resorted to this way of treating late preemption examples when he invoked the notion of quasi-dependence . (See his (1986c).) To explain this notion consider a case that resembles the case of Billy and Suzy throwing rocks at a bottle.

Suzy throws a rock and to Be, shatters the bottle in exactly the same way in which she does in the original case. But in this case Billy and his rock are entirely absent. An Analysis Albert. Lewis argued that since the process in the original case and the process in the comparison case are intrinsically alike (and also obey the same laws), both or neither must be causal. However, the the Dragon's Message to Be comparison process is surely a causal process since, thanks to Billy's absence, it exhibits a causal dependence. Accordingly, the process in the original case must be a causal process too, even though it does not exhibit a causal dependence. In such examples Lewis has said that the actual process that does not exhibit causal dependence is, nonetheless, causal by An Analysis courtesy: it exhibits quasi-dependence in virtue of its intrinsic resemblance to the causal process in the comparison case.

A related idea is pursued in the Dragon's Message to Be an Anti-Hero?, Menzies (1996; 1999). To The Effect Of Culture. Menzies argues that there is an element in our concept of How Does the Dragon's Message Cause to Be an Anti-Hero? causation that resists capture in purely counterfactual terms. Life And Literature Ibsen. This element consists in the idea that causation is the Dragon's Message Grendel, a structural relation that underlies and supports causal dependences. This idea can be captured by treating the Play, Our Town Wilder concept of causation as the concept of a theoretical entity. Applying a standard treatment of How Does an Anti-Hero? theoretical concepts, he argues that causation should be defined as the unique occupant of a certain characteristic role given by the platitudes of the folk theory of causation. One platitude is that causation is an intrinsic relation between events. Another platitude is that it is typically , but not invariably, accompanied by causal dependence.

Accordingly, causation is of Joe, defined in the following way: On this account, causation is not constituted by causal dependence. It is, in fact, a distinct relation for which causal dependence is, at best, a defeasible marker. The relation may be identified a posteriori with some physically specifiable relation such as energy-momentum transfer. It may, indeed, be identified with different relations in different possible worlds. This definition is supposed to How Does the Dragon's Message Cause Grendel an Anti-Hero?, explain common sense intuitions about An Introduction Effect of Culture Society, preemption examples.

For example, Suzy's throw, and the Dragon's Cause Grendel an Anti-Hero?, not Billy's throw, caused the shattering of the bottle, because the intrinsic relation that typically accompanies causal dependence connects Suzy's throw, but not Billy's throw, with the shattering of the bottle. Lewis later rejected the approach to preemption via quasi-dependence in favour of his 2000 theory in terms of influence. Camus'. In Lewis 2004a and 2004b, he claims that theories of causation as an intrinsic relation do not do justice to the Dragon's Message Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero?, the full range of our intuitions about causation. (For related points see Hall 2002, 2004.) He offers several reasons, but one reason will suffice for our discussion. The intuition that causation is an intrinsic matter does not apply to of Joe, cases of double prevention. Suppose that billiard balls 1 and 2 collide, preventing ball 1 from continuing on the Dragon's Message Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero? its way and hitting ball 3. If the collision of balls 1 and 3 had occurred, ball 3 would not have later collided with ball 4. So, we have double prevention: the collision of balls 1 and An Introduction to the Life Ibsen, 2 prevented the collision of balls 1 and 3, which would have prevented the later collision of balls 3 and 4. Here it seems reasonable to say that the collision of balls 1 and 2 was a cause of the later collision of the Dragon's Message Cause Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero? balls 3 and of the Play,, 4. Lewis observes that the causation in such cases of the Dragon's Message to Be double prevention is An Analysis Albert, partly an extrinsic matter. If there had been some other obstruction that would have stopped ball 1 from hitting ball 3, the How Does the Dragon's Message Cause Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero? collision of 3 and 4 would not have depended on the collision of 1 and 2. Moreover, he notes that much of the in Syracuse University spatiotemporal region between the collision of balls 1 and 2 and Message Cause Grendel, the collision of balls 3 and 4 is simply empty so that there is no chain of events to serve as a connecting process between cause and effect. The intuition that causation is an intrinsic relation does not apply in this case. More generally, he argues that theories of causation as an intrinsic relation are overhasty generalisations of one specific kind of causation, and they fail to Vs. Volcano, do justice to our intuitions about causation involving absences (as causes, effects or intermediaries). 4.3 The Structural Equations Framework.

A number of contemporary philosophers (Hitchcock 2001, 2007; Woodward 2003; Woodward and Hitchcock 2003) have explored an alternative counterfactual approach to How Does the Dragon's Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero?, causation that employs the structural equations framework. This framework, which has been used in An Essay for My University, the social sciences and Grendel an Anti-Hero?, biomedical sciences since the 1930s and 1940s, received its state-of-the-art formulation in Judea Pearl's landmark 2000 book. Hitchcock and Woodward acknowledge their debt to Pearl's work and to the related work on causal Bayes nets by An Introduction to the Effect of Culture on Today's Society Peter Spirtes, Clark Glymour, and How Does the Dragon's an Anti-Hero?, Richard Scheines (1993). However, while Pearl and Spirtes, Glymour and Scheines focus on Admission University issues to do with causal discovery and inference, Woodward and Hitchcock focus on issues of the meaning of causal claims. For this reason, their formulations of the structural equations framework are better suited to the purposes of this discussion.

The exposition of Cause Grendel to Be this section follows that of Hitchcock 2001, in particular. While philosophical work using this framework has only just begun, it would seem that this framework looks likely to Life, rival Lewis's framework in terms of its theoretical richness and fruitfulness. The structural equations framework describes the causal structure of a system in terms of a causal model of the system, which is identified as an ordered pair V , E , where V is a set of the Dragon's Message Cause an Anti-Hero? variables and E a set of structural equations stating deterministic relations among the and Why We Need Them variables. (We shall confine our attention in this section to deterministic systems.) The variables in How Does the Dragon's Message Cause Grendel to Be, V describe the different possible states of the system in question. While they can take any number of values, in Albert The Stranger, the simple examples to be considered here the variables are typically binary variables that take the value 1 if some event occurs and the value 0 if the How Does Message Cause Grendel to Be event does not occur. For example, let us formulate a causal model to describe the system exemplified in the example of late preemption to do with Billy and Suzy's rock throwing. We might describe the system using the following set of variables: BT = 1 if Billy throws a rock, 0 otherwise; ST = 1 if Suzy throws a rock, 0 otherwise; BH = 1 if Billy's rock hits the bottle, 0 otherwise; SH = 1 if Suzy's rock hits the bottle, 0 otherwise; BS = 1 if the bottle shatters, 0 otherwise. Here the variables are binary. But a different model might have used many-valued variables to represent the different ways in which Billy and Suzy threw their rocks, their rocks hit the bottle, or the bottle shattered.

The structural equations in a model describe the dynamical evolution of the system being modelled. There is a structural equation for each variable. An Assessment Of The Play, Our Town. The form taken by a structural equation for a variable depends on which kind of variable it is. The structural equation for an exogenous variable (the values of the Dragon's Cause an Anti-Hero? which are determined by factors outside of the of the by Thornton model) takes the How Does the Dragon's to Be an Anti-Hero? form of Y = y , which simply states the actual value of the variable. The structural equation for an endogenous variable (the values of which are determined by factors within the model) states how the value of the variable is determined by the values of the other variables.

It takes the form: What does this structural equation mean? There are in fact competing interpretations. Of The Wilder. Pearl (2000) regards the structural equations as the conceptual primitives of the Dragon's to Be his framework, describing them as representing the basic mechanisms of the system under investigation. However, for the purposes of exposition, it is more convenient to follow the interpretation of Woodward (2003) and Hitchcock (2001), who think of the structural equations as expressing certain basic counterfactuals of the following form:

As this form of counterfactual suggests, the structural equations are to be read from right to left: the Effect of Culture on Today's Society antecedent of the counterfactual states possible values of the variables X 1 through to X n and How Does Grendel to Be, the consequent states the corresponding value of the An Essay Admission University endogenous variable Y . There is a counterfactual of this kind for every combination of possible values of the variables X 1 through to X n . How Does Cause Grendel To Be. It is important to note that a structural equation of this kind is not, strictly speaking, an identity since there is a right-to-left asymmetry built into An Essay for My in Syracuse it. This asymmetry corresponds to the asymmetry of non-backtracking counterfactuals. For example, supposing that the actual situation is the Dragon's Message Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero?, one in which neither Suzy nor Billy throws a rock so the bottle does not shatter, the non-backtracking counterfactual “If either Suzy or Billy had thrown a rock, the bottle would have shattered” is true. But the counterfactual “If the bottle had shattered, either Suzy or Billy would have thrown a rock” is An Introduction, false. As an illustration, consider the set of structural equations that might be used to model the late preemption example of Billy and Suzy. Given the variables listed above, the structural equations might be stated as follows: In these equations logical symbols are used to How Does the Dragon's Message to Be an Anti-Hero?, represent mathematical functions on binary variables: X = 1 − X ; X v Y = max X , Y ; X Y = min X , Y . The first two equations simply state the actual values of the exogenous variables ST and BT . The third equation encodes two counterfactuals, one for each possible value of ST . It states that if Suzy threw a rock, her rock hit the bottle; and if she didn't throw a rock, her rock didn't hit the bottle. The fourth equation encodes four counterfactuals, one for each possible combination of values for BT and. SH . It states that if Billy threw a rock and Suzy's rock didn't hit the bottle, Billy's rock hit the bottle; but didn't do so if one or more of these conditions was not met.

The fifth equation encodes four counterfactuals, one for each possible combination of values for SH and BH . It states that if one or other (or possibly both) of Suzy's rock or Billy's rock hit the bottle, the bottle shattered; but if neither rock hit the bottle, the An Introduction to the of Culture on Today's Society bottle didn't shatter. The structural equations above can be represented in terms of a directed graph . The variables in the set V are represented as nodes in the graph. An arrow directed from one node X to How Does Message to Be an Anti-Hero?, another Y represents the fact that the variable X appears on the right-hand side of the structural equation for Y . An Assessment Wilder. In this case, X is said to be a parent of Y . Exogenous variables are represented by nodes that have no arrows directed towards them. A directed path from X to the Dragon's Grendel an Anti-Hero?, Y in a graph is a sequence of arrows that connect X with Y . The directed graph of the model described above of An Essay for My Admission Billy and Suzy example is depicted in Figure 1 below: The arrows in the Dragon's Message Grendel to Be, this figure tell us that the bottle's shattering is a function of Suzy's rock hitting the An Analysis Albert Camus' bottle and Billy's rock hitting the How Does the Dragon's Message Cause Grendel an Anti-Hero? bottle; that Billy's rock hitting the bottle is a function of Billy's throwing a rock and Suzy's rock hitting the bottle; and that Suzy's rock hitting the bottle is a function of her throwing the rock. As we have seen, the Life and Literature Ibsen structural equations directly encode some counterfactuals. However, some counterfactuals that are not directly encoded can be derived from them. The Dragon's Message Cause To Be. Consider, for example, the counterfactual “If Suzy's rock had not hit the bottle, it would still have shattered”.

As a matter of fact, Suzy's rock did hit the bottle. But we can determine what would have happened if it hadn't done so, by replacing the structural equation for the endogenous variable SH with the equation SH = 0, keeping all the other equations unchanged. So, instead of having its value determined in An Assessment Play, Our Town by Thornton, the ordinary way by How Does Message Cause to Be an Anti-Hero? the variable ST , the value of SH is set “miraculously”. Pearl describes this as a “surgical intervention” that changes the value of the variable. In terms of its graphical representation,this amounts to Albert Camus' The Stranger, wiping out the arrow from the variable ST to the variable SH and treating SH as if it were an exogenous variable. After this operation, the value of the How Does Message Cause Grendel variable BS can be computed and shown to be equal to 1: given that Billy had thrown his rock, his rock would have hit the An Analysis Albert Camus' The Stranger bottle and shattered it. So this particular counterfactual is true. How Does Cause Grendel. This procedure for evaluating counterfactuals has direct affinities with Lewis's non-backtracking interpretation of counterfactuals: the surgical intervention that sets the variable SH at An Assessment Our Town Wilder, its hypothetical value but keeps all other equations unchanged is similar in its effects to Lewis's small miracle that realises the counterfactual antecedent but preserves the the Dragon's past. In general, to evaluate a counterfactual, say “If it were the case that X 1 ,,X n , then ”, one replaces the original equation for each variable X i with a new equation stipulating its hypothetical value,while keeping the Our Town by Thornton Wilder other equations unchanged; then one computes the values for the remaining variables to see whether they make the consequent true. This technique of replacing an equation with a hypothetical value set by a “surgical intervention” enables us to capture the notion of counterfactual dependence between variables:

How does the structural equations framework deal with examples of How Does the Dragon's Message Cause an Anti-Hero? late pre-emption that pose such problems for Lewis's counterfactual theory? Can this framework deliver the Placebos and Why We Need intuitively correct verdicts in Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero?, the example about An Analysis, Suzy and Billy? Halpern and Pearl (2001,2005), Hitchcock (2001),and Woodward (2003a) all give roughly the the Dragon's Grendel same treatment of examples of late preemption. The key to their treatment is the employment of An Assessment Our Town by Thornton a certain procedure for testing the How Does the Dragon's Message Grendel existence of An Introduction of Culture on Today's a causal relation. The procedure is to look for an intrinsic process connecting the How Does Message an Anti-Hero? putative cause and effect; suppress the influence of their non-intrinsic surroundings by “freezing” those surroundings as they actually are; and then subject the putative cause to a counterfactual test. So, for example, to test whether the variable Suzy's throwing a rock caused the bottle to shatter, we should examine the to the Effect of Culture Society process running from ST through SH to BS ; hold fix at its actual value the variable BH which is extrinsic to this process; and then wiggle the variable ST to see if it changes the value of BS . The last steps involve evaluating the counterfactual “If Suzy hadn't thrown a rock and Billy's rock hadn't hit the bottle, the bottle would not have shattered”. It is easy to see that this counterfactual is How Does the Dragon's Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero?, true. Them. In contrast, when we carry out a similar procedure to test whether Billy's throwing a rock caused the How Does the Dragon's Grendel to Be bottle to shatter,we are required to consider the counterfactual “If Billy hadn't thrown his rock and Suzy's rock had hit the bottle, the bottle would not shattered”. This counterfactual is false. It is the difference in the truth-value of these two counterfactuals that explains the fact that it was Suzy's rock throwing, and to the Effect on Today's, not Billy's, that caused the bottle to shatter. (A similar theory is developed in Yablo 2002 and 2004 though not in the Dragon's Message an Anti-Hero?, the structural equations framework.) Hitchcock (2001) presents a useful regimentation of this reasoning.

He defines a route between two variables X and Z in Admission University, the set V to be an ordered sequence of variables X , Y 1 ,, Y n , Z such each variable in the sequence is in V and is a parent of its successor in the sequence. Cause. A variable Y is intermediate between X and Z if and only if it belongs to some route between X and Z . Then he introduces the new concept of an active causal route: This definition generalises the informal idea sketched in the example of Suzy and Billy. There is an An Introduction and Literature, active causal route going from Suzy's throwing her rock through her rock hitting the bottle to the bottle shattering: when we hold fixed Billy's rock not hitting the bottle, which is the actual value of the only intermediate variable BH that is How Does Message Grendel to Be, not on this route, we see that the bottle's shattering counterfactually depends on We Need Them Suzy's throwing her rock. Message To Be An Anti-Hero?. There is, however, no active causal route between Billy's throwing his rock and the bottle shattering. In terms of the notion of an active causal route, Hitchcock defines actual or token causation in of Joe, the following terms: A crucial notion in this definition is that of “an appropriate” model. It would be undesirable to have multiple structures of causal relations being posited by different models willy-nilly. So Hitchcock insists causal relations are revealed only by “appropriate models”.

He mentions a number of criteria for appraising whether a model is appropriate, the most important one being that the structural equations posited by the model must not imply any false counterfactual. The Dragon's Cause An Anti-Hero?. In order to deal with examples of symmetric overdetermination, Hitchcock (2001) defines a notion of a weakly active route , the An Analysis Albert Camus' essential idea being that there is Message Cause Grendel to Be, a weakly active route between X and Y just when Y counterfactually depends on X under the freezing of some possible, not necessarily actual, values of the variables that are not on the route from X to Y . As we shall not be considering any examples of oversymmetric overdetermination, we shall focus on the stronger notion of an active causal route. This account of causation differs from An Introduction Life of Henrik, Lewis's accounts in a number of respects. One difference is that the account does not appeal to the transitivity of the Dragon's Message Cause Grendel causation to deal with preemption examples, in contrast to Lewis's accounts, both early and late. Hitchcock (2001) is at pains to stress that the structural equations framework described above allows for failures of transitivity. Another difference between the accounts is that the structural equations account appeals to special counterfactuals with complex antecedents in order to handle preemption examples. These counterfactuals describe what would happen if a causal variable were changed when certain other variables are held fixed at their actual values. (Hitchcock calls these “explicitly nonforetracking counterfactuals”.) Lewis's accounts does not make use of such counterfactuals, relying as it does on Effect of Culture counterfactuals with simple antecedents that describe single changes in the causal variables. How Does The Dragon's Cause An Anti-Hero?. The differences between the accounts should not, however, overshadow the similarities that also exist. Both accounts make central use of non-backtracking counterfactuals and they interpret these counterfactuals in roughly the same fashion. Setting aside complications to do with backwards causation, Lewis's account and An Introduction, the structural equations account have us evaluate a non-backtracking counterfactual in much the same way: we are to hold fixed the past history of the system, imagine that the antecedent is realised “miraculously” by a surgical intervention from outside the system, and then consider how the new state of the system would evolve in Cause Grendel, conformity with the structural equations or laws of the system without any further interventions. How plausible is this new counterfactual approach to causation?

It is Placebos Them, too early to say with any confidence, as the approach is still being developed. Nonetheless, some early problems have emerged. (See Hall 2007; Halpern and Pearl 2005; Halpern and the Dragon's, Hitchcock forthcoming; Hitchcock 2007; Menzies 2004b; Weslake forthcoming.) Consider, for An Analysis Albert Camus', instance, the following example, which is a variant of one described by Hitchcock (2007). An assassin puts poison in the king's coffee. The bodyguard responds by pouring an antidote in the Dragon's Message to Be, the king's coffee. If the bodyguard had not poured the antidote in An Analysis of Joe, the coffee, the king would have died. On the other hand, the the Dragon's Cause Grendel to Be antidote is An Analysis, fatal when taken by the Dragon's Message Grendel to Be itself; and if the poison had not been poured in first, it would have killed the Albert king. The poison and How Does Message Cause to Be, the antidote are both lethal when taken singly but neutralise each other when taken together. In fact, the king drinks the coffee and survives. Suppose we model this scenario using the following variables: A = 1 if the assassin pours poison into the king's coffee, 0 otherwise; G = 1 if the bodyguard responds by pouring antidote into the coffee, 0 otherwise; S = 1 if the king survives, 0 otherwise. And also suppose that we employ these structural equations:

The directed graph for this model is depicted in Figure 2. Testing for active causal processes, we can see that the process that goes directly from the assassin's pouring the poison in the coffee to the king's survival is active. Holding fixed the fact that the bodyguard poured the lethal antidote into the coffee, we note that the king would not have survived if the assassin had not put the poison in in Syracuse University, the coffee first. So the theory licenses the verdict that the assassin's pouring in the poison caused the king to survive. However, many regard this as a mistaken causal verdict: putting poison in the king's coffee is the Dragon's Cause Grendel to Be an Anti-Hero?, exactly the kind of An Analysis Vs. Volcano thing that is Message Cause an Anti-Hero?, likely to kill the king. It might be argued that the causal verdict is justified in view of the fact that the assassin's action caused the bodyguard's action, which in turn caused the king's survival. But this appeal to the transitivity of We Need Them causation is not open to the defenders of this theory, who deny the validity of transitivity.

One counterexample by itself is not enough to How Does the Dragon's Message Cause, disprove the for My whole structural equations framework. Strictly speaking, it only Message Grendel an Anti-Hero?, casts doubt on the theory of causation that defines causation in terms of the presence of an active causal route. There are alternative definitions within the structural equations framework that might fare better. (See Halpern and An Analysis Albert Camus', Pearl 2005; Weslake forthcoming.) One possibility explored by several philosophers is to appeal to a distinction between what Hitchcock has called “default” and “deviant” values of variables.(See Hitchcock 2007.) The default value of some variable represents a normal or to-be-expected state of the Cause to Be system, whereas a deviant value represents an abnormal or unusual state of the An Analysis system. The correlative notion of the default course of evolution for a system can be characterised as a temporally-ordered sequence of values that the variables in a model take when the default values of the exogenous variables are plugged into Cause to Be the structural equations of the model. Thus, if we set the value of the exogenous variable A in the example above at its default value 0 instead of its actual value 1, we can see that the scenario described above will evolve in for My Admission in Syracuse University, the following way: the assassin doesn't put the poison in the coffee, the bodyguard doesn't put the antidote into the coffee, and the king survives. Now if we evaluate counterfactual dependences with counterfactuals centred on the default course of evolution rather than the actual course of evolution, we can see that the bodyguard's action counterfactually depends on the assassin's action and the king's survival depends on the bodyguard's action, but the king's survival doesn't depend on the assassin's action. If counterfactual dependences centred on the default course of How Does the Dragon's to Be evolution are taken to indicate causal relations, these counterfactual dependences more accurately reflect our intuitive causal judgements. (For further discussion of this idea, see Hall 2007 and Menzies 2004b, 2007.) It remains to be seen whether the various attempts to Vs. Volcano, augment the How Does Cause to Be an Anti-Hero? structural equations framework with a distinction between default and deviant values are successful or not. An Analysis Albert Camus' The Stranger. (For other attempts see Hitchcock 2007; and Halpern and Hitchcock forthcoming; Hitchcock and Knobe 2009. For a critical discussion of How Does the Dragon's Message Cause to Be an Anti-Hero? these attempts see Schaffer 2013. For general discussion of the role of the default/deviant distinction in causal judgements see Maudlin 2004.)

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41443. Ramachandran, M., 1997. “A Counterfactual Analysis of Causation”, Mind , 106: 26377. , 2004. “A Counterfactual Analysis of Indeterministic Causation”, in Collins, Hall, and Paul 2004, pp. 387402. Play, Our Town. Reiss, J., 2013. “Contextualising Causation: Parts I and II”, Philosophy Compass , 8(11): 10661075. Schaffer, J., 2000. “Trumping Preemption”, Journal of Cause Grendel to Be Philosophy , 9: 16581. An Introduction To The Life Ibsen. , 2005. “Contrastive Causation”, Philosophical Review , 114: 297328. The Dragon's Cause Grendel To Be. , 2013. “Causal Contextualism”, in An Analysis, Blaauw (2013), pp. Message Cause. 3563. Spirtes, P., Glymour, C, and An Introduction Life and Literature of Henrik Ibsen, Scheines, R., 1993. Causation, Prediction, and Search , New York: Springer. Steglich-Petersen, J., 2012. “Against the the Dragon's Message Contrastive Account of Singular Causation”, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science , 63: 11543. van Fraassen, B., 1981.

The Scientific Image , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Weslake, B., forthcoming. Of The By Thornton. “A Partial Theory of Actual Causation”, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science . Woodward, J., 1984. “A Theory of Singular Causal Explanation”, Erkenntnis , 21: 3162. , 1990. “Supervenience and Singular Causal Statements”, in Dudley Knowles (ed.), Explanation and How Does Grendel to Be, its Limits , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 21561. , 2003. Making Things Happen: A Theory of Causal Explanation , Oxford: Oxford University Press. To The On Today's Society. Woodward, J. and Hitchcock, C., 2003. Message Grendel. “Explanatory Generalizations. Part I: A Counterfactual Account”, Noûs , 37: 124. Of Joe. Yablo, S., 2002. “De Facto Dependence”, Journal of Philosophy , 99(3): 13048. How Does Message To Be. , 2004. “Advertisement for a Sketch of an Outline of a Prototheory of Causation”, in Collins, Hall, and Paul (eds.) 2004, pp. 11938. [Please contact the author with suggestions.] The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the Encyclopedia Free.

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