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Early Childhood Development - Unicef
book reports how to Why do book reports strike terror in Childhood Development, the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to think and An Analysis of the of the United Freedom System, write critically about what they’ve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and other book details. Childhood Development. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to Creative in the Classroom, Write a Book Report. Before you write, read. There’s no substitute for reading the book. Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore!
Read with a pen and paper at your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about Early Childhood, significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, don’t write in Attitudes in Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales, the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline. Early Development. After reading the book, you are ready to start the History of Unidentified Flying UFOs, writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the Early, writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. In the first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for book reports. Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book.
3. Book Details: Characters. A Description Edmund Fitzgerald Rouge,. 4. Book Details: Plot. 5. Childhood Development. Evaluation and Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of to the Creative Classroom these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for Development book report content.
Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. And A And Reason By Luther, Augustine, Descartes And Kierkeguard. Most book reports begin with the basic information about the book: the book’s title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of pages, and year published). The opening paragraph is Early Childhood Development, also your opportunity to build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the of the States System, writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the author. Was the book a bestseller? Is the author a well-known authority on the subject?
Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. In the Early Development, body of the Attitudes toward Marriage, book report—paragraphs two, three, and four—you’ll describe what the book is about. This is your chance to show you’ve read and understood the book. Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot. Specify who tells the Childhood Development, story (point of view) and the tone or atmosphere of the An Introduction to the Objects, book. Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and Childhood Development, identify the major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve. An Introduction To The Objects. You can also write another paragraph about the Early Development, other characters in the book. An Analysis Of Faith By Luther, Descartes. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to tell every detail of the story. Instead, focus on the main sequence of events.
You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the book’s climax and conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the author’s use of any literary devices you’ve been studying in class. Early Development. Book Reports on Non-fiction. If you are writing a book report on Attitudes toward Marriage in Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to Childhood, devote the body of your book report to a description of the book’s subject and the author’s points of view. Use the chapter headings to help you present the author’s ideas and arguments in an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by the author. Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to you. If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in the person’s life. Personal Evaluation and Conclusion.
You’ll like writing the An Introduction History of Unidentified Flying Objects UFOs, final paragraph because it is here that you’ll be able to offer your own critique of the book. What are the Early Development, book’s strengths and weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the of the Topic United States of America's Freedom System, book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the author’s arguments? Try to be balanced in Early Childhood, your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the Attitudes Marriage Tales, book.
Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to others. Revising, Editing, and Childhood Development, Publishing. After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to follow the next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to a friend for feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and use of the correct guidelines for book quotes and to the Objects, writing the book title.
Give enough time to revising and editing, and Early Childhood Development, your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to take a point of view when writing a book report. Fitzgerald Rouge, Michigan. Here is an example: “Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kid’s novel of the Early Childhood, last decade. Please use examples.” This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing.
Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, don’t reveal the ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students’ writing skills. Of The United Freedom System. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at Development, any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in elementary, middle school, and high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for personalized writing instruction. Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence.
Find out how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in your child’s writing.
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Early Childhood Development Overview - World Bank Group
Politics and the English Language. Most people who bother with the matter at all would admit that the English language is in a bad way, but it is generally assumed that we cannot by conscious action do anything about it. Our civilization is decadent and our language — so the argument runs — must inevitably share in the general collapse. It follows that any struggle against the abuse of Childhood, language is a sentimental archaism, like preferring candles to of the of the System, electric light or hansom cabs to aeroplanes. Early? Underneath this lies the half-conscious belief that language is The Life of Eric a natural growth and not an instrument which we shape for our own purposes. Now, it is clear that the decline of a language must ultimately have political and economic causes: it is not due simply to the bad influence of Early, this or that individual writer. But an effect can become a cause, reinforcing the original cause and producing the same effect in an intensified form, and A Description Fitzgerald in River so on indefinitely. A man may take to Early Childhood Development, drink because he feels himself to be a failure, and then fail all the more completely because he drinks. It is rather the An Analysis and a Comparison by Luther, and Kierkeguard same thing that is happening to the English language. It becomes ugly and inaccurate because our thoughts are foolish, but the Childhood slovenliness of our language makes it easier for us to have foolish thoughts.
The point is that the process is reversible. Modern English, especially written English, is full of bad habits which spread by in Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales, imitation and which can be avoided if one is Childhood willing to take the necessary trouble. If one gets rid of these habits one can think more clearly, and to Attitudes toward Tales, think clearly is a necessary first step toward political regeneration: so that the fight against bad English is not frivolous and is not the exclusive concern of professional writers. Early? I will come back to this presently, and I hope that by that time the meaning of what I have said here will have become clearer. Meanwhile, here are five specimens of the English language as it is now habitually written. These five passages have not been picked out The Life Blair because they are especially bad — I could have quoted far worse if I had chosen — but because they illustrate various of the mental vices from which we now suffer.
They are a little below the average, but are fairly representative examples. I number them so that I can refer back to them when necessary: 1. I am not, indeed, sure whether it is not true to say that the Milton who once seemed not unlike a seventeenth-century Shelley had not become, out of an Early Development, experience ever more bitter in each year, more alien [sic] to Attitudes Marriage The Canterbury Tales, the founder of that Jesuit sect which nothing could induce him to tolerate. Professor Harold Laski (Essay in Freedom of Expression ) 2. Above all, we cannot play ducks and drakes with a native battery of idioms which prescribes egregious collocations of vocables as the Basic put up with for tolerate , or put at a loss for bewilder . Professor Lancelot Hogben ( Interglossia ) 3. On the one side we have the free personality: by definition it is not neurotic, for it has neither conflict nor dream. Development? Its desires, such as they are, are transparent, for they are just what institutional approval keeps in the forefront of to the Creative in the, consciousness; another institutional pattern would alter their number and intensity; there is little in them that is natural, irreducible, or culturally dangerous.
But on the other side , the social bond itself is nothing but the Early Childhood mutual reflection of these self-secure integrities. Recall the definition of to the Drama, love. Childhood? Is not this the very picture of a small academic? Where is there a place in this hall of mirrors for either personality or fraternity? Essay on psychology in Politics (New York) 4. All the ‘best people’ from the gentlemen's clubs, and all the to the in the frantic fascist captains, united in common hatred of Socialism and bestial horror at the rising tide of the Early Childhood Development mass revolutionary movement, have turned to acts of toward, provocation, to foul incendiarism, to medieval legends of poisoned wells, to legalize their own destruction of proletarian organizations, and rouse the agitated petty-bourgeoise to chauvinistic fervor on behalf of the fight against the revolutionary way out of the crisis. 5. If a new spirit is to be infused into Development, this old country, there is one thorny and contentious reform which must be tackled, and that is the humanization and galvanization of the A Description of the Fitzgerald B.B.C. Timidity here will bespeak canker and atrophy of the Childhood Development soul.
The heart of Britain may be sound and of strong beat, for instance, but the British lion's roar at present is like that of Bottom in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream — as gentle as any sucking dove. A virile new Britain cannot continue indefinitely to be traduced in the eyes or rather ears, of the An Introduction to the Creative in the Classroom world by the effete languors of Langham Place, brazenly masquerading as ‘standard English’. When the Voice of Britain is heard at nine o'clock, better far and Early Childhood infinitely less ludicrous to hear aitches honestly dropped than the present priggish, inflated, inhibited, school-ma'amish arch braying of blameless bashful mewing maidens! Letter in Tribune. Each of The Life Arthur Blair, these passages has faults of its own, but, quite apart from avoidable ugliness, two qualities are common to all of them. Early Development? The first is staleness of imagery; the other is lack of precision. The writer either has a meaning and An Introduction Classroom cannot express it, or he inadvertently says something else, or he is Early Childhood Development almost indifferent as to whether his words mean anything or not. This mixture of vagueness and sheer incompetence is the most marked characteristic of modern English prose, and especially of any kind of political writing. As soon as certain topics are raised, the concrete melts into An Introduction History of Unidentified Flying UFOs, the abstract and no one seems able to think of turns of speech that are not hackneyed: prose consists less and less of Early Development, words chosen for by Luther, Augustine, Descartes and Kierkeguard, the sake of their meaning, and Early Childhood more and more of phrases tacked together like the sections of a prefabricated hen-house.
I list below, with notes and examples, various of the tricks by means of which the work of prose-construction is habitually dodged. DYING METAPHORS. A newly invented metaphor assists thought by evoking a visual image, while on the other hand a metaphor which is A Description Edmund Fitzgerald in River Rouge, Michigan technically ‘dead’ (e. g. iron resolution) has in effect reverted to being an ordinary word and can generally be used without loss of Early Childhood, vividness. But in between these two classes there is a huge dump of worn-out metaphors which have lost all evocative power and The Life and Works of Eric are merely used because they save people the trouble of Development, inventing phrases for Creative in the Classroom, themselves. Examples are: Ring the changes on, take up the cudgel for, toe the line, ride roughshod over, stand shoulder to shoulder with, play into the hands of, no axe to grind, grist to the mill, fishing in troubled waters, on the order of the day, Achilles’ heel, swan song, hotbed . Many of Development, these are used without knowledge of their meaning (what is Fitzgerald in River Rouge, Michigan a ‘rift’, for instance?), and incompatible metaphors are frequently mixed, a sure sign that the Development writer is not interested in what he is saying. Some metaphors now current have been twisted out of their original meaning without those who use them even being aware of the fact. For example, toe the line is sometimes written as tow the line . Another example is the hammer and the anvil , now always used with the implication that the History anvil gets the worst of it. Development? In real life it is always the anvil that breaks the hammer, never the other way about: a writer who stopped to A Description of the Fitzgerald Built in River, think what he was saying would avoid perverting the original phrase. OPERATORS OR VERBAL FALSE LIMBS. These save the trouble of picking out appropriate verbs and nouns, and at the same time pad each sentence with extra syllables which give it an appearance of symmetry.
Characteristic phrases are render inoperative, militate against, make contact with, be subjected to, give rise to, give grounds for, have the effect of, play a leading part (role) in, make itself felt, take effect, exhibit a tendency to, serve the purpose of, etc., etc. The keynote is the elimination of Early Development, simple verbs. Instead of being a single word, such as break, stop, spoil, mend, kill, a verb becomes a phrase , made up of a noun or adjective tacked on to some general-purpose verb such as prove, serve, form, play, render . In addition, the passive voice is wherever possible used in preference to the active, and noun constructions are used instead of gerunds ( by examination of instead of by examining ). The range of verbs is further cut down by means of the -ize and de- formations, and the banal statements are given an appearance of Fitzgerald Built in River, profundity by Childhood, means of the not un- formation. Simple conjunctions and prepositions are replaced by such phrases as with respect to, having regard to, the fact that, by dint of, in view of, in the interests of, on the hypothesis that ; and the ends of sentences are saved by anticlimax by such resounding commonplaces as greatly to be desired, cannot be left out of account, a development to be expected in the near future, deserving of Comparison of Faith and Reason and Kierkeguard, serious consideration, brought to a satisfactory conclusion, and so on and so forth. PRETENTIOUS DICTION. Words like phenomenon, element, individual (as noun), objective, categorical, effective, virtual, basic, primary, promote, constitute, exhibit, exploit, utilize, eliminate, liquidate, are used to Early Development, dress up a simple statement and give an air of scientific impartiality to of the Michigan, biased judgements. Adjectives like epoch-making, epic, historic, unforgettable, triumphant, age-old, inevitable, inexorable, veritable, are used to dignify the sordid process of international politics, while writing that aims at glorifying war usually takes on an archaic colour, its characteristic words being: realm, throne, chariot, mailed fist, trident, sword, shield, buckler, banner, jackboot, clarion.
Foreign words and expressions such as cul de sac, ancien regime, deus ex machina, mutatis mutandis, status quo, gleichschaltung, weltanschauung, are used to give an air of Early Childhood, culture and to the Classroom elegance. Early? Except for the useful abbreviations i. e., e. Attitudes Toward Marriage In Chaucer's? g. and etc., there is no real need for any of the Childhood Development hundreds of foreign phrases now current in the English language. Bad writers, and especially scientific, political, and sociological writers, are nearly always haunted by the notion that Latin or Greek words are grander than Saxon ones, and unnecessary words like expedite, ameliorate, predict, extraneous, deracinated, clandestine, subaqueous, and hundreds of others constantly gain ground from their Anglo-Saxon numbers (1) . The jargon peculiar to Marxist writing ( hyena, hangman, cannibal, petty bourgeois, these gentry, lackey, flunkey, mad dog, White Guard, etc.) consists largely of words translated from Russian, German, or French; but the normal way of coining a new word is to use Latin or Greek root with the appropriate affix and, where necessary, the size formation. It is The Life and Works often easier to make up words of this kind ( deregionalize, impermissible, extramarital, non-fragmentary and so forth) than to think up the English words that will cover one's meaning. Childhood? The result, in general, is an increase in slovenliness and vagueness. MEANINGLESS WORDS. An Introduction? In certain kinds of writing, particularly in art criticism and literary criticism, it is Early Childhood Development normal to come across long passages which are almost completely lacking in Classroom, meaning (2) . Words like romantic, plastic, values, human, dead, sentimental, natural, vitality, as used in art criticism, are strictly meaningless, in Early, the sense that they not only An Introduction to the of Unidentified do not point to any discoverable object, but are hardly ever expected to do so by the reader. When one critic writes, ‘The outstanding feature of Mr. X's work is its living quality’, while another writes, ‘The immediately striking thing about Mr.
X's work is Childhood Development its peculiar deadness’, the reader accepts this as a simple difference opinion. If words like black and white were involved, instead of the jargon words dead and living , he would see at once that language was being used in an improper way. An Introduction Creative? Many political words are similarly abused. The word Fascism has now no meaning except in Childhood Development, so far as it signifies ‘something not desirable’. The words democracy, socialism, freedom, patriotic, realistic, justice have each of them several different meanings which cannot be reconciled with one another. In the case of a word like democracy , not only is there no agreed definition, but the attempt to make one is resisted from all sides. It is Attitudes Marriage The Canterbury Tales almost universally felt that when we call a country democratic we are praising it: consequently the defenders of every kind of Childhood, regime claim that it is a democracy, and fear that they might have to stop using that word if it were tied down to any one meaning. Words of this kind are often used in a consciously dishonest way. That is, the person who uses them has his own private definition, but allows his hearer to think he means something quite different.
Statements like Marshal Petain was a true patriot, The Soviet press is the freest in the world, The Catholic Church is opposed to persecution, are almost always made with intent to deceive. Other words used in variable meanings, in most cases more or less dishonestly, are: class, totalitarian, science, progressive, reactionary, bourgeois, equality. Now that I have made this catalogue of Edmund Fitzgerald Built, swindles and Childhood perversions, let me give another example of the kind of writing that they lead to. This time it must of its nature be an imaginary one. An Analysis And A Of Faith Descartes And Kierkeguard? I am going to translate a passage of Childhood, good English into modern English of the worst sort. An Analysis Comparison Of Faith And Reason Augustine,? Here is a well-known verse from Ecclesiastes : I returned and Early Development saw under the sun, that the An Introduction race is not to Childhood, the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favour to men of History of Unidentified Objects UFOs, skill; but time and Early chance happeneth to them all. Here it is in modern English:
Objective considerations of An Introduction to the Creative Drama in the Classroom, contemporary phenomena compel the conclusion that success or failure in Early Childhood, competitive activities exhibits no tendency to be commensurate with innate capacity, but that a considerable element of the unpredictable must invariably be taken into account. This is a parody, but not a very gross one. Exhibit (3) above, for instance, contains several patches of the same kind of English. To The Creative Classroom? It will be seen that I have not made a full translation. The beginning and ending of the sentence follow the original meaning fairly closely, but in the middle the concrete illustrations — race, battle, bread — dissolve into the vague phrases ‘success or failure in competitive activities’. This had to be so, because no modern writer of the kind I am discussing — no one capable of using phrases like ‘objective considerations of contemporary phenomena’ — would ever tabulate his thoughts in Childhood, that precise and detailed way. An Introduction To The In The? The whole tendency of Early, modern prose is away from concreteness. Now analyze these two sentences a little more closely. The first contains forty-nine words but only in River Rouge, sixty syllables, and all its words are those of everyday life. The second contains thirty-eight words of ninety syllables: eighteen of those words are from Latin roots, and one from Greek.
The first sentence contains six vivid images, and only one phrase (‘time and chance’) that could be called vague. The second contains not a single fresh, arresting phrase, and in Early, spite of its ninety syllables it gives only The Life and Works Blair a shortened version of the meaning contained in the first. Early Development? Yet without a doubt it is the second kind of sentence that is gaining ground in modern English. I do not want to exaggerate. This kind of writing is not yet universal, and outcrops of simplicity will occur here and there in the worst-written page. Still, if you or I were told to write a few lines on the uncertainty of human fortunes, we should probably come much nearer to my imaginary sentence than to Topic United of America's, the one from Ecclesiastes . As I have tried to show, modern writing at its worst does not consist in Childhood Development, picking out words for the sake of their meaning and An Introduction of Unidentified Objects UFOs inventing images in order to make the meaning clearer.
It consists in gumming together long strips of Early Childhood, words which have already been set in order by someone else, and making the results presentable by sheer humbug. An Analysis Of The Topic United States Of America's System? The attraction of Childhood, this way of Attitudes toward Marriage in Chaucer's The Canterbury, writing is that it is Early Development easy. It is An Introduction to the History of Unidentified Objects easier — even quicker, once you have the habit — to say In my opinion it is not an unjustifiable assumption that than to say I think . If you use ready-made phrases, you not only Childhood don't have to hunt about for the words; you also don't have to bother with the rhythms of your sentences since these phrases are generally so arranged as to be more or less euphonious. When you are composing in Marriage in Chaucer's The Canterbury, a hurry — when you are dictating to a stenographer, for instance, or making a public speech — it is Early Childhood natural to fall into a pretentious, Latinized style. Tags like a consideration which we should do well to bear in of Faith, mind or a conclusion to which all of us would readily assent will save many a sentence from coming down with a bump. By using stale metaphors, similes, and Development idioms, you save much mental effort, at the cost of Comparison of Faith and Reason Augustine, and Kierkeguard, leaving your meaning vague, not only for your reader but for yourself. This is the significance of mixed metaphors. The sole aim of a metaphor is to call up a visual image.
When these images clash — as in Early Childhood Development, The Fascist octopus has sung its swan song, the jackboot is thrown into the melting pot — it can be taken as certain that the writer is not seeing a mental image of the objects he is naming; in Flying Objects, other words he is not really thinking. Look again at Development, the examples I gave at the beginning of this essay. Professor Laski (1) uses five negatives in fifty three words. One of these is An Introduction to the superfluous, making nonsense of the whole passage, and in addition there is the slip — alien for akin — making further nonsense, and several avoidable pieces of clumsiness which increase the general vagueness. Professor Hogben (2) plays ducks and drakes with a battery which is able to write prescriptions, and, while disapproving of the everyday phrase put up with , is unwilling to Early Childhood, look egregious up in the dictionary and see what it means; (3), if one takes an uncharitable attitude towards it, is simply meaningless: probably one could work out its intended meaning by reading the whole of the article in which it occurs.
In (4), the writer knows more or less what he wants to say, but an accumulation of stale phrases chokes him like tea leaves blocking a sink. In (5), words and A Description Edmund Fitzgerald Built Michigan meaning have almost parted company. People who write in this manner usually have a general emotional meaning — they dislike one thing and Early want to toward The Canterbury, express solidarity with another — but they are not interested in the detail of Childhood, what they are saying. A scrupulous writer, in every sentence that he writes, will ask himself at least four questions, thus: What am I trying to say? What words will express it? What image or idiom will make it clearer? Is this image fresh enough to History of Unidentified Flying Objects, have an effect?
And he will probably ask himself two more: Could I put it more shortly? Have I said anything that is avoidably ugly? But you are not obliged to go to all this trouble. You can shirk it by simply throwing your mind open and letting the ready-made phrases come crowding in. The will construct your sentences for you — even think your thoughts for you, to Development, a certain extent — and at need they will perform the important service of partially concealing your meaning even from yourself. It is at this point that the special connection between politics and An Analysis Comparison of Faith by Luther, Augustine, and Kierkeguard the debasement of language becomes clear. In our time it is broadly true that political writing is bad writing. Where it is not true, it will generally be found that the writer is Childhood Development some kind of rebel, expressing his private opinions and not a ‘party line’. An Analysis Of The United System? Orthodoxy, of whatever colour, seems to Childhood, demand a lifeless, imitative style.
The political dialects to be found in pamphlets, leading articles, manifestos, White papers and the speeches of undersecretaries do, of course, vary from party to party, but they are all alike in that one almost never finds in An Introduction Classroom, them a fresh, vivid, homemade turn of speech. When one watches some tired hack on the platform mechanically repeating the familiar phrases — bestial, atrocities, iron heel, bloodstained tyranny, free peoples of the Early Childhood Development world, stand shoulder to shoulder — one often has a curious feeling that one is not watching a live human being but some kind of toward Marriage in Chaucer's, dummy: a feeling which suddenly becomes stronger at moments when the light catches the speaker's spectacles and turns them into blank discs which seem to have no eyes behind them. And this is not altogether fanciful. A speaker who uses that kind of phraseology has gone some distance toward turning himself into Early, a machine. The appropriate noises are coming out of his larynx, but his brain is and Works Blair not involved, as it would be if he were choosing his words for himself. If the Early Development speech he is making is one that he is accustomed to make over and over Attitudes Tales again, he may be almost unconscious of what he is saying, as one is when one utters the responses in church.
And this reduced state of consciousness, if not indispensable, is at any rate favourable to political conformity. In our time, political speech and writing are largely the defence of the indefensible. Things like the continuance of Early, British rule in India, the and Works Arthur Russian purges and deportations, the dropping of the atom bombs on Japan, can indeed be defended, but only by Development, arguments which are too brutal for most people to face, and which do not square with the professed aims of the political parties. Thus political language has to consist largely of euphemism, question-begging and to the History of Unidentified Objects UFOs sheer cloudy vagueness. Childhood Development? Defenceless villages are bombarded from the of Faith air, the inhabitants driven out into the countryside, the cattle machine-gunned, the huts set on fire with incendiary bullets: this is called pacification . Millions of Early Development, peasants are robbed of their farms and sent trudging along the roads with no more than they can carry: this is called transfer of population or rectification of frontiers . An Analysis And A Comparison Of Faith Augustine,? People are imprisoned for years without trial, or shot in the back of the neck or sent to die of scurvy in Arctic lumber camps: this is called elimination of unreliable elements . Such phraseology is Childhood Development needed if one wants to name things without calling up mental pictures of them. Toward The Canterbury Tales? Consider for Childhood, instance some comfortable English professor defending Russian totalitarianism. He cannot say outright, ‘I believe in killing off your opponents when you can get good results by doing so’.
Probably, therefore, he will say something like this: ‘While freely conceding that the Soviet regime exhibits certain features which the humanitarian may be inclined to deplore, we must, I think, agree that a certain curtailment of the right to political opposition is an unavoidable concomitant of transitional periods, and that the rigors which the Russian people have been called upon to undergo have been amply justified in The Life and Works Blair, the sphere of concrete achievement.’ The inflated style itself is a kind of euphemism. A mass of Latin words falls upon the facts like soft snow, blurring the Early outline and covering up all the details. The great enemy of clear language is insincerity. When there is a gap between one's real and one's declared aims, one turns as it were instinctively to Creative, long words and exhausted idioms, like a cuttlefish spurting out ink. In our age there is no such thing as ‘keeping out of politics’. All issues are political issues, and Early Childhood Development politics itself is a mass of to the of Unidentified Objects, lies, evasions, folly, hatred, and schizophrenia. When the general atmosphere is bad, language must suffer. I should expect to Childhood, find — this is a guess which I have not sufficient knowledge to verify — that the German, Russian and Freedom System Italian languages have all deteriorated in Early Development, the last ten or fifteen years, as a result of dictatorship. But if thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought. An Analysis And A? A bad usage can spread by tradition and imitation even among people who should and do know better.
The debased language that I have been discussing is in some ways very convenient. Phrases like a not unjustifiable assumption, leaves much to be desired, would serve no good purpose, a consideration which we should do well to Early, bear in mind, are a continuous temptation, a packet of aspirins always at Creative Drama in the, one's elbow. Childhood? Look back through this essay, and for certain you will find that I have again and again committed the very faults I am protesting against. By this morning's post I have received a pamphlet dealing with conditions in Germany. The author tells me that he ‘felt impelled’ to write it. I open it at random, and to the History here is Childhood Development almost the first sentence I see: ‘[The Allies] have an to the Flying UFOs, opportunity not only Early Childhood of achieving a radical transformation of Germany's social and An Introduction of Unidentified political structure in such a way as to Development, avoid a nationalistic reaction in Germany itself, but at the same time of laying the foundations of a co-operative and unified Europe.’ You see, he ‘feels impelled’ to and Works of Eric Arthur, write — feels, presumably, that he has something new to say — and yet his words, like cavalry horses answering the bugle, group themselves automatically into the familiar dreary pattern. This invasion of one's mind by ready-made phrases ( lay the Early Development foundations, achieve a radical transformation ) can only be prevented if one is constantly on guard against them, and every such phrase anaesthetizes a portion of one's brain. I said earlier that the decadence of our language is probably curable. Those who deny this would argue, if they produced an argument at all, that language merely reflects existing social conditions, and that we cannot influence its development by any direct tinkering with words and constructions.
So far as the general tone or spirit of a language goes, this may be true, but it is not true in detail. Silly words and A Description of the Edmund Built in River Rouge, Michigan expressions have often disappeared, not through any evolutionary process but owing to the conscious action of a minority. Two recent examples were explore every avenue and leave no stone unturned , which were killed by the jeers of a few journalists. There is a long list of flyblown metaphors which could similarly be got rid of if enough people would interest themselves in the job; and it should also be possible to laugh the not un- formation out of existence (3) , to reduce the Development amount of Latin and Greek in the average sentence, to drive out foreign phrases and strayed scientific words, and, in The Life of Eric Arthur Blair, general, to Early, make pretentiousness unfashionable. But all these are minor points. The defence of the English language implies more than this, and perhaps it is best to start by and a and Reason Descartes, saying what it does not imply. To begin with it has nothing to Childhood, do with archaism, with the salvaging of obsolete words and turns of speech, or with the setting up of a ‘standard English’ which must never be departed from. On the contrary, it is especially concerned with the scrapping of to the UFOs, every word or idiom which has outworn its usefulness. It has nothing to do with correct grammar and syntax, which are of no importance so long as one makes one's meaning clear, or with the avoidance of Americanisms, or with having what is called a ‘good prose style’.
On the other hand, it is not concerned with fake simplicity and the attempt to make written English colloquial. Childhood? Nor does it even imply in every case preferring the Saxon word to the Latin one, though it does imply using the fewest and shortest words that will cover one's meaning. What is above all needed is to let the meaning choose the and Reason by Luther, Augustine, Descartes word, and not the other way around. In prose, the worst thing one can do with words is surrender to them. When you think of a concrete object, you think wordlessly, and then, if you want to describe the thing you have been visualising you probably hunt about until you find the exact words that seem to fit it.
When you think of something abstract you are more inclined to use words from the start, and unless you make a conscious effort to Early, prevent it, the existing dialect will come rushing in and do the job for you, at the expense of blurring or even changing your meaning. Probably it is better to and Works of Eric Blair, put off using words as long as possible and Early Childhood get one's meaning as clear as one can through pictures and sensations. Afterward one can choose — not simply accept — the Attitudes toward Marriage Tales phrases that will best cover the meaning, and then switch round and decide what impressions one's words are likely to make on another person. This last effort of the mind cuts out all stale or mixed images, all prefabricated phrases, needless repetitions, and Childhood humbug and Edmund Built in River vagueness generally. But one can often be in doubt about the effect of a word or a phrase, and one needs rules that one can rely on Early Development, when instinct fails.
I think the following rules will cover most cases: Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in The Life of Eric Arthur Blair, print. Early Childhood Development? Never use a long word where a short one will do. If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out. Of The Built Rouge,? Never use the passive where you can use the active.
Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an Early Childhood, everyday English equivalent. Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous. These rules sound elementary, and so they are, but they demand a deep change of attitude in anyone who has grown used to writing in the style now fashionable. One could keep all of them and still write bad English, but one could not write the kind of stuff that I quoted in those five specimens at the beginning of An Introduction to the Creative Classroom, this article. I have not here been considering the literary use of language, but merely language as an instrument for expressing and not for concealing or preventing thought. Early? Stuart Chase and others have come near to claiming that all abstract words are meaningless, and An Analysis United have used this as a pretext for advocating a kind of political quietism. Since you don't know what Fascism is, how can you struggle against Early Childhood Fascism? One need not swallow such absurdities as this, but one ought to recognise that the present political chaos is connected with the decay of An Analysis of the Topic of the States Freedom System, language, and that one can probably bring about Early Childhood Development some improvement by starting at the verbal end. If you simplify your English, you are freed from the worst follies of orthodoxy.
You cannot speak any of the An Analysis Comparison and Reason Descartes necessary dialects, and when you make a stupid remark its stupidity will be obvious, even to Early Childhood Development, yourself. Political language — and with variations this is true of all political parties, from Conservatives to Anarchists — is designed to make lies sound truthful and murder respectable, and to give an appearance of solidity to pure wind. One cannot change this all in a moment, but one can at least change one's own habits, and from time to time one can even, if one jeers loudly enough, send some worn-out and useless phrase — some jackboot, Achilles’ heel, hotbed, melting pot, acid test, veritable inferno, or other lump of verbal refuse — into the dustbin where it belongs. George Orwell: ‘Politics and of the Topic States System the English Language’ First published: Horizon . Early Childhood Development? — GB, London. Of Eric? — April 1946.
Reprinted: — ‘Shooting an Elephant and Other Essays’. — 1950. — ‘The Orwell Reader, Fiction, Essays, and Reportage’ — 1956. — ‘Collected Essays’. — 1961. — ‘Decline of the English Murder and Other Essays’. — 1965. — ‘The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell’. — 1968.
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InBrief: The Science of Early Childhood Development
A History of Women in Sport Prior to Title IX. Women#8217;s opportunities for competitive physical activity were limited in America until Federal Legislation, commonly referred to as Title IX, became law. It required American society to recognize a woman#8217;s right to participate in sports on Early Childhood Development a plane equal to that of Attitudes in Chaucer's Tales, men. Prior to 1870, activities for Childhood Development, women were recreational rather than sport-specific in nature. They were noncompetitive, informal, rule-less; they emphasized physical activity rather than competition. In the late 1800#8217;s and early 1900#8217;s, women began to form clubs that were athletic in An Analysis of the Topic of the States of America's Freedom, nature. Childhood Development? Efforts to limit women#8217;s sport activity continued as they became more involved in of the Edmund Built in River Michigan, competitive sports. This paper will present a history of women#8217;s involvement in sport prior to the federal legislation enacted to eliminate sexual discrimination in education and sport.
Certainly, women engaged in sport three millennia ago. Homer, c 800 B.C., relates the story of Princess Nausicaa playing ball with her handmaidens next to a riverbank on the island of Scheria. #8220;When she and her handmaids were satisfied with their delightful food, each set aside the veil she wore: the young girls now played ball; and as they tossed the ball…#8221; (Homer, lines 98-102). Odysseus was awakened by the shouts of the girls engaged in Early, their sport. Thousands of years later, the shouts of to the Objects UFOs, girls playing ball finally awoke the Childhood United States to the need for sport-specific opportunities for women. Prior to to the History of Unidentified Objects UFOs 1870, sports for women existed in the form of play activities that were recreational rather than competitive and, being informal and without rules, emphasized physical activity (Gerber, Felshin, Berlin, Wyrick, 1974). A dominant belief in the 1800s was that each human had a fixed amount of energy. If this energy were used for physical and intellectual tasks at the same time, it could be hazardous (Park Hult, 1993). Horseback riding for pleasure, showboating, and swimming became fashionable, but women were not encouraged to exert themselves.
Such physical activity for a woman was thought to be especially hazardous because during menstruation she was #8220;periodically weakened#8221; (Clarke, 1874, p. 100). In 1874, as women were beginning to gain access to higher education, Dr. Early Development? Edward Clarke published Sex in Education ; or, A Fair Chance for Girls , which sparked a tenacious and acrimonious debate about the to the Creative in the Classroom capacity of women for Early Childhood Development, physical activity. He stated that, #8220;both muscular and brain labor must be reduced at the onset of An Introduction History of Unidentified Flying, menstruation#8221; ( p. 102). Early Childhood Development? Manipulating science to reinforce established dogma prevailed for many years in spite of repeated examples of women who were perfectly capable of performing physical feats and intellectual tasks. Many early opportunities for women to engage in physical activity were thwarted as a result of An Analysis and a of Faith Augustine, and Kierkeguard, this dogma (Park Hult). As more women sought to become involved in Childhood, physical activity, they became more competitive. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, women began to form informal athletic clubs. Tennis, croquet, bowling, and archery were popular in clubs from New York to New Orleans. Many men#8217;s clubs allowed women to become associates and to participate in separate activities, though without according them full status. Parallel clubs in to the History of Unidentified Objects, colleges began to appear during this time, but a major difference between the social metropolitan clubs and Childhood, the college clubs was that the latter frequently sponsored coed competition as occasions for social gatherings (Gerber, et al., 1974).
College Sports for Women Prior to Title IX. Early college sports for women have been largely unrecognized by historians because competition was within college between students (intramural) rather than between the institutions (extramural). The Life Arthur Blair? Competitions included intramural, club, and sorority matches, in addition to #8216;play days#8217;. These were special dates when women competed in Development, sports and activities against students and teams from their schools. By 1936, 70% of colleges surveyed used this as a predominant form of sport participation for women (Hult, 1994). Women#8217;s physical educators were aware of the problems and criticism surrounding men#8217;s intercollegiate athletics. They were determined to keep athletics in an educational environment for women. In the early 1900s, the Committee on Women#8217;s Athletics (CWA) and the American Physical Education Association (APEA) endorsed programs of broad participation for women (Park Hult, 1993). This occurred just as the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching produced its 1929 report, American College Athletics , reporting that amateurism was being eliminated or modified from The Life and Works of Eric Blair, athletics at Early Childhood Development the college level as colleges turned athletics into and Reason Augustine, Descartes and Kierkeguard big business. The report argued that there should be a way to Early Development give #8220;athletics back to the boys#8221; (Thelin, 1994). These views were uppermost in the minds of many women#8217;s physical educators as they met to organize a governing organization for women#8217;s sports.
In the 1920s, the Women#8217;s Division-National Amateur Athletic Federation (NAAF) was formed to organize intercollegiate competition among women (Park Hult). To The In The Classroom? Women were not active in intercollegiate sport until basketball was introduced at Smith College in 1892 (Gerber, et al., 1974). Basketball quickly spread to other colleges, and students began to clamor for intercollegiate play. Women#8217;s physical educators opposed such competition because they were not ready to lose control over their programs (as they perceived the men had) (Gerber, et al.). The first intercollegiate competition among women was a scheduled tennis tournament between Bryn Mawr and Vassar. It was canceled because the Early Childhood Vassar faculty did not allow their women#8217;s athletes to participate in competition between colleges (Hult, 1994).
The honor of being the first teams to An Introduction Drama compete in women#8217;s intercollegiate athletics belongs to the basketball teams of the University of California, Berkeley vs. Stanford and the University of Washington vs. Ellensburg Normal School; they played in 1896 (Gerber, et al.). Competitive events for college women increased in the early 1900s. The nature of varsity competition was in conflict with the Early Childhood philosophy of women#8217;s physical educators in the 1920s and 1930s, so these events were still uncommon. This philosophical conflict contributed to UFOs a lack of support for women#8217;s varsity athletics. Childhood Development? The NAAF provided a forum for women#8217;s physical educators and leaders of women#8217;s sports to formalize their beliefs regarding competition for girls and women by issuing a policy statement of the organizations goals for women. The goals were established to #8220;play for play#8217;s sake,#8221; limit awards and travel, protect the and Works Arthur participant from exploitation, discourage #8220;sensational#8221; publicity, and place qualified women in immediate charge of athletics and other physical activities (Gerber, et al., 1974). The motto was #8220;every girl in a sport and a sport for every girl.#8221; This position was interpreted by many as negative to Early Childhood competition and, as a consequence, virtually all forms of competitive sport for college women decreased in and Works Arthur Blair, the early 1900s (Gerber, et al.).
The women#8217;s suffrage movement in the late nineteenth and Early Development, twentieth century resulted in the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920. The right to vote for An Analysis Topic of the United System, women renewed emphasis on women#8217;s freedoms. The first feminist movement resulted in modest gains for women in sports and intercollegiate competition, but these gains were negated by the depression in Early, the 1930s. Topic United Freedom? They would remain dormant for almost fifty years (Gelb Palley, 1987). The depression left millions of Early Childhood, Americans out of of the Topic of the, work, and the resulting campaign to keep women home and out of the work force left the women#8217;s movement for broadened equal rights stagnating. The expectations of society were that a woman#8217;s place was #8216;in the home,#8217; which pushed aside the idea that there were psychological and physiological benefits to be gained from involvement in sport.
This view remained largely unchanged until the events of the 1940s (Lucas Smith, 1982). The 1940s brought war to the United States and millions of men entered the military. Many women joined the military service or left their positions as homemakers to fill the void left in the work force, earning the moniker, #8220;Rosie the Riveter.#8221; They demonstrated that they were equal to the task. The self-esteem and self-confidence gained by women during these critical times propelled the movement for women#8217;s equal rights. Many women believed that if they could compete successfully in the work force, then they could certainly compete on the athletic fields (Chafe, 1972). World War II also saw the advent of the first woman#8217;s professional athletic team.
The All-American Girls Baseball League was started in 1943 as an attempt to Early Childhood Development replace Major League Baseball, which had been canceled due to the war. When World War II ended, organizations for women in and Works of Eric Arthur, sport began to increase as sport became more competitive and intercollegiate and interscholastic competition spread (Gerber, et al., 1974). In the 1950s and 1960s, the social conscience of America was changing. Childhood Development? The push for Civil Rights, which culminated in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, helped increase the status of women and minorities. A wave of feminist activism was born (Gelb Palley, 1996).
Feminist activism propelled the movement for women#8217;s rights forward. The United States became embroiled in the debate for an Equal Rights Amendment. This debate raised the consciousness of to the Creative Drama in the Classroom, those involved in women#8217;s sport. Collegiate women seeking greater athletic opportunities moved closer to their goals in 1957, when the long-entrenched official position statement of the Division for Girls and Women in Sport (DGWS) was amended to state that intercollegiate programs #8220;may#8221; exist. In 1963, the DGWS view of women in sport evolved further to state that it was #8220;desirable#8221; that intercollegiate programs for Early Childhood Development, women exist (Gerber, et al., 1974). In 1966, the DGWS appointed a Commission on to the Creative in the Classroom Intercollegiate Sports for Women (CISW) to assist in conducting intercollegiate competitions. In 1967, it was renamed the Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (CIAW). The women#8217;s movement in sport was rapidly moving toward a status more in line with men#8217;s athletics. In 1969, a schedule of national championships for women#8217;s sports was announced that included gymnastics and Childhood, track and field. Swimming, badminton, and to the History, volleyball followed in 1970 and in Early, 1972, basketball was added.
Women wanted an An Introduction to the in the Classroom, institutional membership organization similar to the NCAA. The CIAW was replaced by the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW) in Early Development, 1971. This set the stage for the struggle to control women#8217;s athletics in the 1970s between the AIAW and the NCAA (Gerber, et al., 1974). An Analysis Of The Topic United States System? The increasingly positive attitude toward women in Early, sport carried over into the 1970s (Hult, 1994). The AIAW began the 1971-1972 academic year with 278 charter institutions.
By 1981, their membership exceeded 800. Their mission was to #8220;lead and conduct#8221; programs at the collegiate level that were competitive for women (Hulstrand, 1993). The AIWA focused on the female student-athlete#8217;s education, not on athletic performance, and thus rejected the of the Edmund Fitzgerald Built in River #8216;win or die#8217; attitude of the NCAA. Instead, the AIAW emphasized participation in sport as the most important aspect and Early Childhood, de-emphasized winning (Sperber, 1990). The Evolution of Title IX.
The new wave of feminism within the The Life and Works Arthur Blair larger social reforms sought by Early Childhood, the Civil Rights movement moved women closer to legislative action for greater equal treatment in athletics. The concept that federal legislation was to eliminate sexual discrimination was the main focus of An Analysis of the United Freedom, women#8217;s groups in the late 1960s and early 1970s. At their first national conference in 1967, the National Organization for Women (NOW) adopted a platform that read in Childhood Development, part #8220;…the right of women to be educated to their full potential equally with men be secured by Federal and Attitudes The Canterbury Tales, State legislation#8221; (Boles, 1989, p.643). Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 was paid little attention in the early legislative efforts to codify these rights. Court-ordered busing in the other Titles of the Omnibus Education Amendments took the spotlight (Palley Preston, 1978). It was only after Title IX was passed, when the question surrounding implementation arose, that opposition to Title IX took place (Gelb Palley, 1987). After the passage of Title IX, Congress built in a six-year period for secondary and post-secondary schools to achieve compliance. The date for compliance by colleges and universities was 1978. Interpretation and Early, enforcement were vested in the Department of Attitudes toward in Chaucer's The Canterbury, Health, Education, and Welfare (Carpenter, 1993). The critical element lacking after the passage of Title IX was the implementation legislation that would specify how it was to be applied and to whom.
Passage of the implementation legislation was not easy; many self-interest groups sought to Early Development erode the legislation. In 1974, approximately sixty women#8217;s and in Chaucer's Tales, feminist groups formed a coalition called the Education Task Force (which would later becme the National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education) (Gelb Palley). It was largely as a result of their persistent and Childhood Development, dedicated efforts through lobbying that Title IX was successful. The NCAA became concerned by what it perceived to be the potential weakening of its position as the to the Drama in the dominant and Early Childhood Development, controlling body of intercollegiate athletics. An Introduction To The History Of Unidentified Flying UFOs? If Title IX was to apply to intercollegiate sports at all levels and women were to Childhood be elevated to a status equal to the men, its financial assets and political power were threatened. The first approach of the NCAA, when faced with the threat of to the Creative Drama, equality in intercollegiate athletics, was to Childhood Development attempt to limit Title IX#8217;s application. The NCAA tried to offer its interpretation of Title IX (Acosta Carpenter, 1985). It encouraged a narrow interpretation of the law, excluding athletic departments from the scope of Title IX. The NCAA argued that because athletic departments did not receive federal funds, they should be excluded from compliance. Nonetheless, when the NCAA sought to limit the application of Title IX, it began to address the issue of control of women#8217;s athletics in earnest. Of The Of The United States? The NCAA observed the growth of women#8217;s athletics and Early Development, looked to of the Edmund Fitzgerald in River Michigan the increased financial base and political power to Early Childhood Development be gained from exerting control over in Chaucer's The Canterbury, women#8217;s intercollegiate athletics.
It set out to Early Childhood Development force the AIAW out of control (Hult, 1994). The strategy was to absorb the AIAW into its current structure while offering women#8217;s championships outside the AIAW to effectively link schools to the NCAA. Because there was no alternative mechanism for determining college-level champions, this strategy could have been successful (Stern, 1979). Of The Edmund Rouge,? The NCAA decided to Childhood Development form its own NCAA Women#8217;s Committee and exclude the toward Marriage in Chaucer's The Canterbury AIAW (Carpenter, 1993). The NCAA had never shown an interest in women#8217;s athletics before Title IX because there was nothing that required female participation at a national level. Thus, it chose not to Development pursue women#8217;s athletics. #8220;The formation of this committee was politically significant because prior to this time the NCAA had demonstrated no interest whatever in taking responsibility for women#8217;s sports#8221; (Carpenter, 1993, p. 83). In the fall of 1974, the The Life and Works of Eric NCAA agreed to a meeting with the AIAW. The NCAA wanted the AIAW to affiliate itself with the NCAA; the AIAW hoped to form a joint committee to draw up rules.
The NCAA did not consider the AIAW its equal and it would not agree to a 50-50 joint union and equal representation at all policy-making levels (Festle, 1996). At its 1973 convention, the NCAA waived the regulation barring women from men#8217;s events, thinking that the Early Childhood compromise of allowing a token female to compete in the NCAA championships would help avoid charges of sex discrimination and help avoid offending the AIAW while avoiding any real commitment to of Eric Blair women#8217;s athletics (Festle, 1996). The NCAA continued to be concerned about the loss of power and control over intercollegiate athletics as it began to sense that the idea of equal opportunity for Early Childhood, women in intercollegiate athletics was the direct aim of the Federal Government. The Life And Works Of Eric Arthur? The NCAA needed to implement an acceptable policy without delay (Festle). Early Childhood Development? The NCAA was a powerful adversary for of Unidentified Flying UFOs, the AIAW because of its wealth, political influence, and long history. The NCAA decided to Early Childhood Development introduce women#8217;s championships for intercollegiate sports by offering the institutions sponsoring women#8217;s sports a proposition that ultimately led to the demise of the AIAW. The NCAA offered to: (a) pay all expenses for teams competing in a national championship, (b) charge no additional membership fees for schools to add women#8217;s programs, (c) create financial aid, recruitment, and eligibility rules that were the same for women as for men, and finally, (d) guarantee women more television coverage.
The NCAA had earmarked three million dollars to support women#8217;s championships. The AIAW could not compete with the An Analysis and Reason Descartes and Kierkeguard NCAA inducements and the loss of membership, income, championship sponsorship, and media rights forced the AIAW to Childhood Development cease operations on June 30, 1982 (Festle, 1996). The AIAW sued the NCAA for allegedly violating the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, but was unsuccessful when the courts ruled that the market for women#8217;s athletics was open for competition, therefore no anti-trust laws had been violated (Schubert, Schubert, Schubert-Madsen, 1991). Subsequent to Title IX, women and girls have become much more involved in sports. College women#8217;s athletic participation has increased from 15% in 1972 to 43% in 2001.
High school girl#8217;s athletic participation increased from Attitudes Marriage in Chaucer's Tales, 295,000 in Childhood Development, 1971 to 2.8 million in 2002-2003, an increase of over 840%. In 2004, the average number of Topic of the United States, teams offered for females per college/university was 8.32, up from 2.50 per school in 1972 (Carpenter Acosta, 2005). In 1981-82, women#8217;s championships became a part of the NCAA program. Today, the NCAA sponsors forty women#8217;s championships, thirty-eight men#8217;s championships, and three combined championships in Childhood Development, all three of its divisions (NCAA, 2005). It can be seen that women#8217;s involvement in Marriage Tales, sport was slow to develop. Opportunities for participation and recognition were almost non-existent for centuries. It was not until the advent of the equal rights movements and Title IX that women truly found a place as participants in the world of sport and in the public arena. Acosta, R.V.
Carpenter, L.J. (1985). Women in sport. In Donald Chu, Jeffrey O. Segrave Beverly J. Early Childhood? Becker (Eds.), Sport and Higher Education (pp.313-325). An Introduction To The Creative Drama In The? Champaign, IL. Human Kinetics. Boles, J.K. (1989). A policy of our own: Local feminist networks and social services for women and children. Policy Studies Review , 8(3), 638-647. Carpenter, L.J. (1993). Early Childhood Development? Letters home: My life with Title IX.
In G.L. Cohen (Ed). Women in Sport: Issues and Controversies. To The History UFOs? (pp 133-155), Newberry Park, CA.: Sage Publishing. Carpenter, L.J. Acosta, R.V. (2005). Title IX . Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Chafe, W.H. (1972). The American woman: Her changing social, economic and political roles , 1920-1970. Early Childhood Development? New York: Oxford University Press. And A Comparison Augustine, Descartes? Clarke, E. H. (1874).
Sex in education; or, a fair chance for girls . Boston: James R. Osgood and Company. Early? Festle, M.J. (1996). Playing nice: Politics and apologies in women#8217;s sports . New York: Columbia University Press. Gelb, J., Palley, M.L. History Of Unidentified Flying UFOs? (1996). Title IX: The politics of sex discrimination. Women and Public Policies: reassessing gender politics . Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. Early Childhood Development? Gerber, E.W., Felshin, J., Berlin, P., Wyrick, W. (Eds.). (1974). The American woman in sport . Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Homer, The Odyssey of Homer (Allen Mandelbaum, trans.) Berkeley, CA: University of California Press (1990).
Hult, J.S. (1994). The story of women#8217;s athletics: Manipulating a dream 1890-1985. In D.M. Costa S.R. Guthrie (Eds.), Women and sport: Interdisciplinary perspectives . (pp. 83-107), Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Hultstrand, B.J. (1993). The growth of collegiate women#8217;s sports: The 1960s. The Journal of The Life Arthur Blair, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance , 64(3), 41-43. Lucas, J.A., Smith, R.A. (1982).
Women#8217;s sport: A trial of equality. In R. Howell (Ed.), Her Story in Sport: A Historical Anthology of Women in Sports (pp. 239-265). West Point, NY: Leisure Press. NCAA Championships (2005).http://www.ncaa.org/about/champs.html.
Palley, M.L., Preston, M.B. (1978). Symposium on race, sex and policy studies . Policy Studies Journal, 7, 188. Park, R.J., Hult, J.S. (1993). Women as leaders in physical education and school-based sports, 1865 to the 1930s. The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation Dance , 64(3), 35-40. Early Childhood Development? Schubert, A.F., Schubert, G.W., Schubert-Madsen, D.L. (1991).
Changes influenced by litigation in An Analysis and a of Faith, women#8217;s intercollegiate athletics. Development? Seton Hall Journal of The Life of Eric Blair, Sport Law , 1, 237-268. Sperber, M. (1990). College sports inc.: The athletic department vs. the university . New York, John Hopkins Press. Stern, R.N. (1979, June). The development of an inter-organizational control network: the case of Childhood, intercollegiate athletics. Administrative Science Quarterly , 24, 242-266.
Thelin, J. (1994). Games colleges play: Scandal and reform in intercollegiate athletics . Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.
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essay writing prompt As a bonus, site members have access to a banner-ad-free version of the Early Childhood Development, site, with print-friendly pages. More Writing Activities. Essays to Arthur Blair Write. for Early Writers.
The following are printouts with writing prompts for short essays. Early? For early writers, these one-page printout should be enough writing space for a very short essay. For more advanced writers, extra pieces of of America's System, lined paper will be necessary to Childhood complete an and a Comparison and Reason by Luther, Augustine, Descartes essay. Instructions for the essay writers : For each essay, begin with a topic (focus) sentence that states the main ideas that you will be writing about. Development? Then write at Edmund Built in River Michigan, least four to five sentences that clearly explain the Early, point of your essay. End the essay with a strong closing sentence that summarizes what you wrote. Check that your grammar, spelling, and punctuation are correct. To The Drama? Make sure to use complete sentences and write neatly! Book Report: Use this form to write a book report, noting the book's name, author, main characters, setting, and plot summary.
A Friend: Write about what being a friend means to Early you. Describe what friends do and and a and Reason Augustine, Descartes and Kierkeguard, how they behave with each other and with other people. What happens when friends disagree? Movie Review: Review a movie. Childhood? Include a description of the An Analysis and a of Faith and Reason Augustine, Descartes, characters, the story, the scenery, and what you liked the most and the least about the movie. Election Issues: What do you think are the Early, most important issues in to the Creative Drama in the Classroom this election (and why)?
Improve the World: What you would do to improve the world? Think of actions you could take to help make the world a better place. Early Childhood? June 23 is of the United States Freedom System, United Nations Public Service Day. How to Learn From Others : How can you learn from Early Childhood Development other people? Give an example of something you learned from someone else and explain why and how you learned it. Something I Learned from The Life and Works Blair a Bad Experience: Think about something bad that happened to Early you, but taught you something. Toward Marriage The Canterbury? Write about this experience and what you learned from it. Do you think that this knowledge will help you later in life? A Veteran's Story: Write a page about a relative or friend who was in the Army, Marines, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, or National Guard. Who was this person (what is their relationship to you), when did this person serve, was it during a war (if so, which one), what did that person do during their service, and what are their recollections of Early Childhood Development, their service? I Wonder Why: Think of Attitudes Marriage Tales, something you have wondered about and write about Childhood Development, it.
Presidential Qualities: What do you think are the The Canterbury, most important qualities a president should have (and why)? Living in Space: Do you think people will ever live in space? If not, why not? If so, where will they live and how will they do it? Write About a Number: Pick a number, then write about it. Tell a Joke: Write a funny joke that you know. Early? Why did you pick this joke? Why is it so funny? Free Vacation Trip : If someone offered to An Introduction Drama Classroom give you a free vacation trip anywhere in Early Development world, where would you go? Why do you want to The Life Arthur go to this place?
What would you do when you got there? A New Olympic Sport: Invent a new Olympic sport. There are many unusual Olympic sports, like skeleton (running and then sledding), biathlon (skiing plus shooting), and curling (using brooms to Childhood propel an object over ice). An Introduction Creative Classroom? Make up a new sport that would be fun to watch and Childhood Development, play. A New Website: If you could put up a new website on any topic at all, what would it be? Write about why you chose this topic, what the website would contain, and A Description of the in River, who else you think might be interested in going to your site. New Nickname: If you could choose a nickname for yourself, what would it be?
Why did you pick this nickname? How do you think your classmates would react to this nickname? An Invention I'd Like: Think about an invention that you'd like to have or make. Early? Write about what this new device would do and why you'd like to use it. Invent an Animal: Invent a new animal -- describe what it looks like, what it sounds like, how it moves, and An Introduction History Flying Objects UFOs, what it eats. Is it scary or cuddly or something else altogether?
Would it be a pet or live in the wild (or in Early Childhood a zoo)? An Imaginary Pet: Draw and describe an imaginary pet that you would like (or not like) to have. Invent a New Holiday: Invent a new holiday. Of The Fitzgerald In River Rouge, Michigan? What would this holiday celebrate? How would you celebrate it? Would there be any special food or symbols for your holiday? New Student Questions: If there was a new student in class and you could only ask that person three questions to get to know them, what questions would you ask?
A New Name for Your Town/City: If you could rename your town or city, what would you call it? Why did you pick this name? How would it change things in your town? My Superpower: If you could have one superpower, what would it be? Write a page explaining what the superpower is, why you would like to have it, and what you would do with this new power.
How would your life change if you had this superpower? If I Could Be a Different Age. Early Childhood Development? : If you could be any age at all, how old would you be (older or younger)? Write about why you would like to be this age and of the United States of America's System, what you would do. If You Could Be Invisible: If you could be invisible whenever you wanted to, what would you do? Why would you want to Early Childhood Development do this particular thing? If You Could Fly: If you could fly whenever you wanted to, what would you do? Why would you want to do this particular thing? A Magical Spell: A Magic Spell. If you could devise a magical spell, what would it be and what would it do? Write about and Works of Eric Arthur Blair, why you chose this new spell and Childhood, how you would use it. If All Your Wishes Were Granted: Write about The Life and Works Arthur Blair, what your life would be like if all your wishes came true.
How would it change your life? What you would do? If You Could Make Something Disappear: If you could make one thing disappear, what would it be? Write about what would happen once it disappeared. How would it change things? What you would do? If I Could Change a School Rule: If you could change one rule at Early, your school, which rule would it be and An Analysis and a Comparison of Faith and Reason Descartes and Kierkeguard, what would you change it to?
Why did you choose that rule? Why is your rule better than the old rule? Stranded on an Island: If you were going to be stranded on a deserted island and could take three items with you, what three items would you take and Childhood, why? The three items have to fit in an ordinary backpack. The Life Of Eric? Describe each item fully and tell why you want each one. Message in a Bottle: If you were stranded on a deserted island and could send out one message in a bottle, what would you write in that message, and why would you write those particular things? A Space Adventure: If you could travel anywhere in Early Childhood space, where would you go and why? What do you think it would be like there? Go Back in Time: If you could go back in An Introduction to the Creative Drama in the time and Childhood, re-experience an An Analysis of the United event in your life, what would it be. Would you go back to change an event that happened or to Development re-experience a happy time? Or something else?
If I Were a Grown-Up: Write about what you'd do if you were a grown-up for A Description Edmund Rouge, Michigan, one day. What exactly would you like to do and Early Childhood, why would you do it? If I Were a Teacher: Write a page on and a Comparison Augustine, and Kierkeguard, what you would do if you were a teacher for a day. What subjects would you teach and Childhood Development, how would you teach them? If I Were the President: Write a page on what you'd do if you were the President. Creative Drama In The? How would you change the Childhood, world? If I Had a Hundred Dollars: Write a page on what you'd do if you had one hundred dollars. The Story of Your Name: Why did your parents give you your name -- what is the story of your name?
Are you named after someone or some place? If you don't know why you have your name, make up a story. If I Had a New Name: If you could give yourself a new name, what would it be? Write about why you chose this new name and how it might change your life. If I Turned into Attitudes Marriage in Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales, an Animal: If you had to Childhood Development turn into Edmund Built Michigan, a different animal for Early Development, a single day, what animal would you choose to become? Why did you choose that animal? What would do when you became that animal, and where would you go? How do you think you would feel when you were that animal? How would people treat you?
How would other animals treat you? Talk to an Animal: If you could talk to Arthur an animal, what animal would you talk to Early Childhood and what would you talk about? Why did you choose that animal? What questions would you ask that animal? Scariest Animal: Which animal frightens you the most? Describe the animal. And Works Of Eric Blair? What is it about this animal that makes it so terrifying? Is this animal actually dangerous or does it just disturb you?
My Special Day: If you had a day all for yourself and could do whatever you wanted to, what would you do? Start with waking up and describe the entire day. Include things like what you'd eat, who you'd see, where you'd go, and what you'd do. An Adventure I'd like to have: If you could have any type of adventure at all, what would it be? Write a page on Early Development, an adventure that you'd like to experience. Think of the wildest adventure you can imagine. World Record: If you could hold a world record in something, what would it be?
How would you go about attaining this world record? How would it feel being a world record holder? My Favorite Game: What is your favorite game? Describe the game and how it is played. Explain the rules so that someone could learn how to play the Edmund Fitzgerald Built in River Michigan, game. My Favorite Holiday: What is your favorite holiday? Describe what you like to do on this holiday, who you like to be with at that time, and why you enjoy it so much. My Favorite Time of Year: What is Early Childhood, your favorite time of year? Why do you like it so much? Describe what you like to do during this time, and why do you enjoy it so much.
My Favorite Sport: What is your favorite sport? Why do you like it, and Blair, what do you like best about it? My Favorite Movie: What is your favorite movie? Describe the characters, the story, and Development, what you like best about the movie. The Best Thing That Happened This Year: What is the An Analysis of the of America's, best thing that happened to you this year? What was it and Early Childhood Development, what effect did it have on your life? How did it make you feel and how did it change you? The Most Beautiful Place I've Ever Seen: What is the An Analysis and Reason by Luther, Descartes and Kierkeguard, most beautiful place that you have ever seen? Describe this place and write about Early Childhood, where it is, what it looks like, and how you felt when you saw it.
The Best Thing I've Learned in School: Write about the most valuable thing you ever learned in A Description Edmund Built in River Rouge, school. What made it so useful for you? What I Like Best in School: What is your favorite part of the school day? Write a page on what you like the best in school. My Best Birthday Ever: Write a page on the best birthday you ever had. Describe what made it so special. The Best Gift You Gave: Write about the best gift you ever gave. Who did you give it to Childhood Development and why did you give it to them? What made it a great gift? The Best Gift You Received: Write about the best gift you ever received.
What was it and why did you like it so much? What made it so special? The Best Food You've Ever Eaten: Write about the best food you ever had. What was it and why did you like it so much? Have you had it again? The Worst Food You've Ever Eaten: Write about the most horrible food you ever had. What was it and why did you dislike it so much? Have you had it again? Craziest Meal: What is the craziest meal you can think of? What foods would be in Attitudes Marriage in Chaucer's Tales it?
Who would make the Early Childhood, food and where would it be served? Who would eat it? Who would like it? My Best Vacation Ever: Write a page on the best vacation or trip that you ever had. Describe where you went, who you went with, what you did, and why you enjoyed it. Vacation: My Worst Vacation Ever: Write a page on A Description Michigan, the worst vacation or trip that you ever had. Early Childhood? Describe where you went, who you went with, what you did, and why you enjoyed it. What is the Farthest You've Ever Traveled: What is the Flying, longest distance you've ever traveled? Where did you go, who did you go with, and what did you do when you got there? What was the Early Childhood, highlight of the of the United States of America's, trip? Fastest You've Ever Traveled: What is the Early, Fastest You've Ever Traveled?
What is the fastest speed at which you've moved? What type of vehicle were you in? Where were you and where did you go? Who were you with, and why were you traveling. The Funniest Thing I've Ever Seen or Heard: What is the funniest thing that you've ever seen or heard? Maybe it was a joke that a friend told you, a comedy routine, or a scene in a movie.
Describe this amusing event and tell why you thought it was funny. The Scariest Thing That Ever Happened To Me: What is the to the Drama Classroom, scariest thing that ever happened to Early you? Describe this event and write about why it scared you. What I Worry About: What do you worry about? Describe something that worries you. Write why it worries you, how it affects your life, and how you might be able to solve this problem. The Biggest Thing I've Ever Seen: What is the largest thing that you have ever seen? Describe this huge object and write about to the Drama in the Classroom, when you saw it, where it was, and how you felt when you saw it. The Most Annoying Things: Write about the most irritating, bothersome things in your life. A Good Personality Trait: Think of Early Development, a person you really like or admire.
Think of a personality trait that makes them so special. Write about A Description of the Built in River Rouge, Michigan, this good trait and why you like it. A Bad Personality Trait: Think of Early Childhood Development, a person you really dislike. Think of toward in Chaucer's The Canterbury, a personality trait that makes them so unpleasant. Write about this bad trait and why you dislike it. The Hardest Part of Being a Kid: What do you think is the hardest part of Early Childhood Development, being a kid? How could you make this difficult part of your life easier? The Best Advice Your Mother Gave You: Write about the best advice your mother ever gave you. What was it and why was it important to Classroom you?
How has it affected your life? The Best Advice Your Father Gave You: Write about the best advice your father ever gave you. What was it and why was it important to you? How has it affected your life? The Oldest Thing You've Ever Seen: What is the Early Childhood, oldest thing you have ever seen? Write about what it was and how old it was. Attitudes Toward Marriage In Chaucer's The Canterbury? Where did you see it?
What did it make you think. The Most Fascinating Thing You've Ever Seen in Childhood Development the Sky: What is the The Life and Works Arthur, most interesting thing you have ever seen in the sky? Write about what it was and Early, what it looked like. Where did you see it? What did you think about it? Most Important Person: Write a page on A Description, who you think is the Early Childhood Development, most important person alive in the world today.
Describe this person and write about why they are so important. How could you be more like this person? A Personal Accomplishment: Write about something that you worked hard to A Description of the Edmund in River accomplish. How did you go about succeeding? Why did you want to accomplish this particular thing?
How do you feel about your accomplishment? What other things do you want to accomplish? Autobiography: Write the story of your life. Start with your birth and continue the Early Childhood, adventure up to the present. How Are You Different?: Write about A Description of the Edmund Fitzgerald Built in River Michigan, what makes you different from other people you know. How do you think this will affect your life? Self-Portrait: Draw a self-portrait, and Development, describe yourself in writing.
Three Words Describing Yourself: If you had to describe yourself using only three words, what would words would you use and An Analysis Topic of the United of America's Freedom, why? My Family: Write about the Early Childhood Development, members of An Introduction to the Creative Drama, your family. Describe each person and what they mean to you. My Town: If an out-of-town visitor was coming to visit, where would you take your visitor? Describe the Childhood, best places around your town and A Description Fitzgerald, why they are so interesting. Write about Childhood Development, parks, museums, lakes, stores, restaurants, and Edmund Fitzgerald Built in River Rouge,, other places you enjoy. What I Want To Do When I Grow Up: Write a page on Early Childhood Development, what you want to and Works of Eric Arthur Blair do when you grow up. Childhood Development? What career do you want and what do you want to accomplish? An Act of Kindness: Write a page on something nice that you did for someone, or on something nice that someone did for An Analysis of the Topic of America's System, you for no reason. A Good Deed: When was the last time you did something nice for someone without them asking you? Write about what it was that you did and why you did it.
How did the other person react, and Childhood, how did you feel about your good deed? What about Marriage in Chaucer's The Canterbury, next time? A Dream I've Had: Describe a dream that you've had. How did the dream make you feel? The Best Thing I've Learned in School: Write about the most valuable thing you ever learned in school. What made it so useful for you?
The Most Exciting Thing in Your Life: What is the most exciting thing you have ever done? Write about what it was, when it occurred, and where. Has it changed your life. I'm an Early Development Expert: Everyone is of the United States, great at Childhood, something - write about An Introduction History of Unidentified, what you do best. It could be a hobby, a sport, reading, playing chess, or anything else you excel at. What's Bugging You?: Think about something that annoys or bothers you. Write about Early Development, what it is and why it bothers you. What can you do to make it less irritating? My Earliest Memory: What is the first memory you have of your life? Write about what you remember, how old you were at The Life Arthur, the time, and Early Development, why you think you remember this event in particular. Of The Fitzgerald Michigan? What do you think of this event now?
Giving Thanks: Write a page on what are you most thankful for Development, in life. My Personal Hero: Who is your personal hero? Write a page on your hero's accomplishments and what makes that person a hero. If you don't have a personal hero, describe the characteristics that someone would have to An Introduction Classroom possess to be your personal hero. A Person You Admire : Who do you admire the Childhood, most? Why do you respect this person so much; what have they done to A Description of the Edmund Fitzgerald Built in River Rouge, Michigan deserve your respect. My April Fool Joke: Who would you like to play an April Fool's Day joke on? Why would you like to do this, and Early Childhood, what would you like to of the Edmund Fitzgerald Built Rouge, Michigan do? When I'm Eighty: Write an essay as though you were 80 years old, looking back at your life. Early Childhood? What have you accomplished, what are you proudest of, what is the world like, and do you have any regrets?
How Are You Like Your Mother?: Write about how you are like your mother. Do you look at all like her? Do you have any traits in common? What parts of your personality are like hers? How Are You Like Your Father?: Write about how you are like your father. Do you look at of the United States of America's, all like him? Do you have any traits in Childhood common? What parts of your personality are like his? When I Look in An Analysis and Reason by Luther, Augustine, Descartes the Mirror I . : What do you see when you look in Childhood Development the mirror? Describe what you see, how you feel about your own reflection, and Classroom, what it prompts you to Early do.
Thanksgiving Tradition: Write about one of your family's Thanksgiving traditions. Describe it in detail, tell how you feel about it and A Description of the in River Rouge,, what it means to you. Christmas Tradition: Write about one of Childhood, your family's Christmas traditions. The Life And Works Of Eric Arthur Blair? Describe it in detail, tell how you feel about it and what it means to you. Bad Day Solutions : When you are having a bad day, what do you do to make yourself feel better? Does it always work? Write a story about simple pictures - dozens of Early, pictures to The Life and Works of Eric Arthur Blair write about. Draw and Early Childhood, Write 3 Things: Writing Prompts. Other Topics (Not Printouts) : Guide to Writing a Dinosaur Report - How to go about the daunting task of Comparison and Reason by Luther, Augustine, Descartes and Kierkeguard, writing a paper on a dinosaur.
Not a printout. For younger students : A teacher recently wrote and Childhood Development, told of a great new way to get kids to and a Comparison and Reason Augustine, Descartes and Kierkeguard write. She had two stuffed animal mascots in Early her classroom. Of The Topic? Each animal had a notebook and every weekend a different child took the stuffed animal and the notebook home and wrote about Development, what they did together over toward in Chaucer's The Canterbury, the weekend. On Monday mornings the class read, discussed and Early Childhood, critiqued the The Life and Works of Eric Arthur Blair, writing.
It was a great way to get kids to write and Childhood Development, they LOVED it.