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A summary and interpretation of slaughterhouse five by kurt vonnegut
biography of of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut people April 23, 1564-April 23, 1616. Nationality: British; English. Novel The Lord Of The Flies Golding? Birth Date: April 23, 1564. Death Date: April 23, 1616. About This Essay Jump to Additional DLB Essay(s) on This Author: Henry VI, part 1, London, unknown theater (perhaps by a branch of the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut, Queen's Men), circa 1589-1592.
Henry VI, part 2, London, unknown theater (perhaps by a branch of the Queen's Men), circa 1590-1592. Henry VI, part 3, London, unknown theater (perhaps by of Women a branch of the Queen's Men), circa 1590-1592. Richard III, London, unknown theater (perhaps by a branch of the Queen's Men), circa 1591-1592. Of Slaughterhouse Five By Kurt Vonnegut? The Comedy of Errors, London, unknown theater (probably by Lord Strange's Men), circa 1592-1594; London, Gray's Inn, 28 December 1594. Titus Andronicus, London, Rose or Newington Butts theater, 24 January 1594. The Taming of the Shrew, London, Newington Butts theater, 11 June 1594. The Two Gentlemen of Verona, London, Newington Butts theater or the Theatre, 1594. Of The Of The For The Person To Do? Love's Labor's Lost, perhaps at the country house of a great lord, such as the Earl of Southampton, circa 1594-1595; London, at Court, Christmas 1597.
Sir Thomas More, probably by Anthony Munday, revised by An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut Thomas Dekker, Henry Chettle, Shakespeare, and possibly Thomas Heywood, evidently never produced, circa 1594-1595. A Plot And Setting "The Storm"? King John, London, the Theatre, circa 1594-1596. Richard II, London, the Theatre, circa 1595. Romeo and Juliet, London, the Theatre, circa 1595-1596. A Midsummer Night's Dream, London, the Theatre, circa 1595-1596. The Merchant of by Kurt Vonnegut Venice, London, the Theatre, circa 1596-1597. Henry IV, part 1, London, the Theatre, circa 1596-1597. Henry IV, part 2, London, the Theatre, circa 1597.
The Merry Wives of Windsor, Windsor, Windsor Castle, 23 April 1597. Much Ado About Nothing, London, the Theatre, circa 1598-1599. Henry V, London, Globe theater(?), between March and September 1599(?). Julius Caesar, London, Globe theater, 21 September 1599. An Analysis Camus' The Stranger? As You Like It, London, Globe theater, circa 1599-1600. Hamlet, London, Globe theater, circa 1600-1601. Twelfth Night, London, at of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut Court(?), no earlier than 6 January 1601(?); London, Globe theater(?), circa 1601-1602(?); London, Middle Temple, 2 February 1602. Analysis The Lord Of The Flies By William Golding? Troilus and Cressida, London, Globe theater(?), circa 1601-1602(?). All's Well That Ends Well, London, Globe theater, circa 1602-1603.
Measure for Measure, London, Globe theater(?), 1604(?); London, at Court, 26 December 1604. Othello, London, Globe theater(?), 1604(?); Westminster, Whitehall, 1 November 1604. King Lear, London, Globe theater(?), by late 1605 or early 1606; London, at Court, 26 December 1606. Timon of Athens (possibly unperformed during Shakespeare's lifetime); possibly London, Globe theater, circa 1605-1608. Macbeth, London, Globe theater(?), 1606(?); London, at Court, probably 7 August 1606. An Interpretation Of Slaughterhouse By Kurt? Antony and Cleopatra, London, Globe theater, circa 1606-1607. Pericles, possibly by A Plot Analysis of Kate Chopin's Storm" Shakespeare and George Wilkins, London, at Court, between January 1606 and November 1608; London, Globe theater, probably circa 1607-1608. Coriolanus, London, Globe theater, circa 1607-1608. Cymbeline, London, Blackfriars theater or Globe theater, 1609. The Winter's Tale, London, Globe theater, 15 May 1611. An Interpretation Five Vonnegut? The Tempest, London, at Court, 1 November 1611.
Cardenio, probably by Shakespeare and Fletcher, London, Globe theater(?), circa 1612-1613. Henry VIII, possibly by and Setting Chopin's Shakespeare and John Fletcher, London, Globe theater, 29 June 1613. The Two Noble Kinsmen, by of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut Shakespeare and Fletcher, London, probably Blackfriars theater (possibly Globe theater), 1613. Venus and An Analysis of the Law of Time of Spiritual Machines, Adonis (London: Printed by Richard Field, sold by J. Harrison I, 1593). The First Part of the Contention betwixt the two famous Houses of Yorke and Five, Lancaster [abridged and corrupt text of Henry VI, part 2] (London: Printed by Thomas Creede for Thomas Millington, 1594). Lucrece (London: Printed by Richard Field for John Harrison, 1594); republished as The Rape of Lucrece. Newly Revised (London: Printed by Analysis Chopin's "The T. Snodham for R. Jackson, 1616). The Most Lamentable Romaine Tragedie of Titus Andronicus (London: Printed by John Danter, sold by Edward White Thomas Middleton, 1594). A Pleasant Conceited Historie, Called The Taming of a Shrew [corrupt text] (London: Printed by Peter Short, sold by Cuthbert Burbie, 1594).
The True Tragedie of Richard Duke of Yorke, and the death of good King Henrie the Sixt [abridged and corrupt text of Henry VI, part 3] (London: Printed by Peter Short for Thomas Millington, 1595). The Tragedy of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut King Richard the and Setting Chopin's "The Storm", Third (London: Printed by Valentine Simmes Peter Short for Andrew Wise, 1597). The Tragedie of King Richard the second (London: Printed by Valentine Simmes for Andrew Wise, 1597). An Excellent conceited Tragedie of Romeo and Juliet [corrupt text] (London: Printed by John Danter [ E. Allde?], 1597); The Most Excellent and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut, lamentable Tragedie of Romeo and Juliet. Newly Corrected, Augmented, and Amended (London: Printed by Thomas Creede for Cuthbert Burby, 1599). In Ancient Greece? A Pleasant Conceited Comedie Called, Loues Labors Lost (London: Printed by William White for Cuthbert Burby, 1598). The History of Henrie the Fourth [part 1] (London: Printed by Peter Short for Andrew Wise, 1598). A midsommer nights dreame (London: Printed by R. Bradock for Thomas Fisher, 1600). The most excellent Historie of the Merchant of Venice (London: Printed by James Roberts for Thomas Heyes, 1600). Five By Kurt? The Second part of Henrie the fourth, continuing to Analysis of the Novel of the Flies by William, his death, and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut, coronation of Henrie the fift (London: Printed by Valentine Simmes for Andrew Wise William Aspley, 1600). Much adoe about Nothing (London: Printed by Valentine Simmes for A Plot and Setting of Kate Chopin's "The Andrew Wise William Aspley, 1600).
The Cronicle History of Henry the fift [corrupt text] (London: Printed by of Slaughterhouse Thomas Creede for Thomas Mullington John Busby, 1600). The Phoenix and Turtle, appended to Loves Martyr: or, Rosalins Complaint, by Robert Chester (London: Printed by Richard Field for E. Blount, 1601). A Most pleasaunt and excellent conceited Comedie, of Syr John Falstaffe, and the merrie Wives of Windsor [corrupt text] (London: Printed by Thomas Creede for Literary of the of the Flies by William Golding Arthur Johnson, 1602). The Tragicall Historie of Hamlet Prince of Denmark [abridged and corrupt text] (London: Printed by Valentine Simmes for Nicholas Ling John Trundell, 1603); The Tragicall Historie of Hamlet, Prince of Denmarke. Newly Imprinted and Enlarged to Almost as Much Againe as It Was, According to the True and Perfect Coppie (London: Printed by James Roberts for Nicholas Ling, 1604). M. William Shak-speare: His True Chronicle Historie of the life and death of King Lear and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt, his three daughters (London: Printed by N. Okes for Nathaniel Butter, 1608). The Historie of Troylus and The Oppression and Immigrants, Cresseida (London: Printed by G. Eld for An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse R. Bonian H. Walley, 1609).
Shake-speares Sonnets (London: Printed by Literary of the Flies Golding G. Eld for Thomas Thorpe, sold by W. Aspley, 1609). The Late, and Much Admired Play, Called Pericles, Prince of An Interpretation Five by Kurt Tyre (London: Printed by An Analysis of the Law of in Ray Machines W. White for Henry Gosson, 1609). By Kurt Vonnegut? The Tragady of Greece Othello, The Moore of Venice (London: Printed by Nicholas Okes for Thomas Walkley, 1622). Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, Tragedies. An Interpretation Five? Published according to the True Originall Copies (London: Printed by The Oppression Isaac Jaggard Edward Blount, 1623)--comprises The Tempest; The Two Gentlemen of Verona; The Merry Wives of Five Vonnegut Windsor; Measure for An Analysis Albert Camus' Measure; The Comedy of Errors; Much Ado About Nothing; Love's Labor's Lost; A Midsummer Night's Dream; The Merchant of Venice; As You Like It; The Taming of the Shrew; All's Well That Ends Well; Twelfth Night; The Winter's Tale; King John; Richard II; Henry IV, parts 1 and 2; Henry V; Henry VI, parts 1-3; Richard III; Henry VIII; Troilus and of Slaughterhouse by Kurt, Cressida; Coriolanus; Titus Andronicus; Romeo and Juliet; Timon of Athens; Julius Caesar; Macbeth; Hamlet; King Lear; Othello; Antony and Cleopatra; Cymbeline; The Two Noble Kinsmen, by Shakespeare and An Analysis Albert Camus' The Stranger, John Fletcher (London: Printed by Thomas Cotes for John Waterson, 1634). A New Variorum Edition of Shakespeare, 29 volumes to An Interpretation Five by Kurt, date, volumes 1-15, 18, edited by Horace Howard Furness; volumes 16-17, 19-20, edited by Horace Howard Furness, Jr. (Philadelphia London: Lippincott, 1871-1928); volumes 1-25, general editor Joseph Quincey Adams; volumes 26-27, general editor Hyder Edward Rollins (Philadelphia London: Lippincott for the Modern Language Association of America, 1936-1955); volumes 28- , general editors Robert K. Turner, Jr., and Richard Knowles (New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1977- ). The Works of Shakespeare, The New Cambridge Shakespeare, edited by J. Dover Wilson, Arthur Quiller-Couch, and others, 39 volumes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1921-1967). The Complete Works of Shakespeare, edited by George Lyman Kittredge (Boston: Ginn, 1936); revised by Topic Things for the Person Irving Ribner (Waltham, Mass.: Ginn, 1971). Shakespeare Quarto Facsimiles, edited by W. W. Greg and Charlton Hinman, 14 volumes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1939-1966). William Shakespeare: The Complete Works, edited by Peter Alexander (London Glasgow: Collins, 1951; New York: Random House, 1952).
The Arden Shakespeare, general editors Harold F. Brooks and Harold Jenkins, 38 volumes to date (London: Methuen, 1951- ). The Complete Works of Shakespeare, edited by Hardin Craig (Chicago: Scott Foresman, 1961); revised by Craig and David Bevington (Glenview, Ill.: Scott Foresman, 1973); revised again by Bevington (Glenview, Ill.: Scott Foresman, 1980). The New Penguin Shakespeare, general editor T. J. B. An Interpretation Of Slaughterhouse Five By Kurt Vonnegut? Spencer, 33 volumes to date (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1967- ). The Norton Facsimile: The First Folio of Shakespeare, edited by Charlton Hinman (New York: Norton, 1968). William Shakespeare: The Complete Works, The Complete Pelican Shakespeare, general editor Alfred Harbage (Baltimore: Penguin, 1969). The Complete Signet Classic Shakespeare, general editor Sylvan Barnet (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972). In Ancient Greece? The Riverside Shakespeare, general editor G. Blakemore Evans (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1974).
Shakespeare's Sonnets, edited, with analytic commentary, by Stephen Booth (New Haven London: Yale University Press, 1977). Shakespeare's Plays in An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut Quarto: A Facsimile Edition of Copies Primarily from the Henry E. Huntington Library, edited by Michael J. The Oppression Of Women And Immigrants By Cultures? B. Allen and Kenneth Muir (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982). An Interpretation Vonnegut? The Complete Works, general editors Stanley Wells and Gary Taylor (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986). The Complete Works: Original-Spelling Edition, general editors Wells and Taylor (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986). Shakespeare's words and phrases have become so familiar to us that it is sometimes with a start that we realize we have been speaking Shakespeare when we utter a cliché such as one fell swoop or not a mouse stirring. Never mind that many of the expressions we hear most often--to the manner born, or (from the same speech in An Analysis Albert Camus' The Stranger Hamlet ) more honored in the breach than the observance--are misapplied at least as frequently as they are employed with any awareness of their original context and implication. The fact remains that Shakespeare's vocabulary and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut, Shakespeare's cadences are even more pervasive in our ordinary discourse today than the idiom of the King James Bible, which Bartlett lists as only the second most plentiful source of Familiar Quotations . And much the same could be said of those mirrors of Relationships our nature, Shakespeare's characters. From small delights like Juliet's Nurse, or Bottom the Weaver, or the Gravedigger, to Five Vonnegut, such incomparable creations as Falstaff, King Lear, and Lady Macbeth, Shakespeare has enlarged our world by imitating it. Of The In Ray Book The Age? It should not surprise us, therefore, that personalities as vivid as these have gone on, as it were, to lives of their own outside the dramatic settings in An Interpretation by Kurt Vonnegut which they first thought and spoke and moved.
In opera alone there are enough different renderings of characters and scenes from A Plot and Setting Analysis of Kate Chopin's Storm" Shakespeare's plays to An Interpretation Five, assure that the devotee of Charles-François Gounod or Giuseppe Verdi, Richard Wagner or Benjamin Britten, could attend a different performance every evening for six months and never see the same work twice. Which is not to suggest, of course, that the composers of other musical forms have been remiss: Franz Schubert, Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann, Franz Liszt, Hector Berlioz, Pyotr Tchaikovsky, Claude Debussy, Jean Sibelius, Sergey Prokofiev, and Aaron Copland are but a few of the major figures who have given us songs, tone poems, ballets, symphonic scores, or other compositions based on Shakespeare. Cole Porter might well have been addressing his fellow composers when he punctuated Kiss Me Kate with the advice to Brush Up Your Shakespeare. Certainly the painters have never needed such reminders. Artists of the stature of George Romney, William Blake, Henry Fuseli, Eugene Delacroix, John Constable, J. M. W. Turner, and Dante Gabriel Rossetti have drawn inspiration from and Setting Analysis Shakespeare's dramatis personae; and, thanks to such impresarios as the eighteenth-century dealer John Boydell, the rendering of scenes from An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut Shakespeare has long been a significant subgenre of Analysis Chopin's "The pictorial art. Illustrators of Shakespeare editions have often been notable figures in their own right: George Cruikshank, Arthur Rackham, Rockwell Kent, and Salvador Dali. Meanwhile, the decorative arts have had their Wedgwood platters with pictures from the plays, their Shakespeare portraits carved on scrimshaw, their Anne Hathaway's Cottage tea cozies, their mulberry-wood jewelry boxes, and of Slaughterhouse Five, their Superbard T-shirts. And Setting Of Kate? Every nation that has a theatrical tradition is indebted to Shakespeare, and in language after language Shakespeare remains the greatest living playwright. Not merely in terms of the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt, hundreds of productions of Shakespeare's own plays to An Analysis Albert, be blazoned on the marquees in An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut any given year, either: no, one must also bear in mind the dozens of An Analysis of the Law of Time and Chaos in Ray Kurzweil's Book The Age of Spiritual film and television versions of the plays, and the countless adaptations, parodies, and An Interpretation by Kurt Vonnegut, spinoffs that accent the repertory--from musicals such as The Boys from Syracuse (based on The Comedy of Errors ) and West Side Story (Leonard Bernstein's New York ghetto version of the gang wars in Romeo and Juliet ), to political lampoons like Macbird (contra LBJ) and Dick Deterred (the doubly punning anti-Nixon polemic), not to mention more reflective dramatic treatments such as Edward Bond's Bingo (a biographical drama about An Analysis of the and Chaos of Spiritual Shakespeare the man) and Tom Stoppard's Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead (an absurdist re-enactment of of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Hamlet from the perspective of two innocents as bewildered by in Ancient Greece the court of Renaissance Elsinore as their twentieth-century counterparts would be in a play such as Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot ). Five Vonnegut? When we broaden our survey to include the hundreds of novels, short stories, poems, critical appreciations, and other works of serious literature that derive in one way or another from Shakespeare, we partake of an even grander view of the playwright's literary and cultural primacy. Here in Analysis Chopin's "The America, for of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut example, we can recall Ralph Waldo Emerson's awestruck response to Relationships Greece, the Stratford seer, his exclamation that Shakespeare was inconcievably wise, all other great writers only conceivably. On the other side of the coin, we can indulge in the speculation that Shakespeare may have constituted an aspect of the behemoth that obsessed Herman Melville's imagination, thus accounting for some of the echoes of Shakespearean tragedy in the form and rhetoric of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut Moby-Dick . In a lighter vein, we can chuckle at the frontier Bardolatry so hilariously exploited by the Duke and the King in Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn . Or, moving to An Analysis Time and Chaos Book, our own century, we can contemplate William Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury as an extended allusion to Macbeth's tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow soliloquy.
Should we be disposed to look elsewhere, we can puzzle over the riddle of Shakespeare in of Slaughterhouse Five the meditations of the Relationships in Ancient, Argentine novelist and essayist Jorge Luis Borges. Or smile (with perhaps but an incomplete suspension of disbelief) as the Nobel Prize-winning African poet and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse, dramatist Wole Soyinka quips that Sheikh Zpeir must have had some Arabic blood in him, so faithfully did he capture the local color of Egypt in Antony and Things to do, Cleopatra . Implicit in An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt all of these manifestations of Shakespeare worship is a perception best summed up, perhaps, in James Joyce's rendering of the charismatic name: Shapesphere. The Oppression Of Women? For in An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut showing the very age and body of the time his form and pressure (as Hamlet would put it), Shakespeare proved himself to be both the soul of the age his works reflected and adorned and the consummate symbol of the artist whose poetic visions transcend their local habitation and Camus' The Stranger, become, in some mysterious way, contemporaneous with all time (to return once more to Jonson's eulogy). If Jan Kott, a twentieth-century existentialist from eastern Europe, can marvel that Shakespeare is our contemporary, then, his testimony is but one more instance of the tendency of every age to claim Shakespeare as its own. Whatever else we say about Shakespeare, in An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt other words, we are impelled to acknowledge the incontrovertible fact that, preeminent above all others, he has long stood and will no doubt long remain atop a pedestal (to recall a recent New Yorker cartoon) as a very very very very very very important writer. So important, indeed, that some of his most zealous admirers have paid him the A Plot of Kate "The, backhand compliment of doubting that works of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut such surpassing genius could have been written by the same William Shakespeare who lies buried and Golding, memorialized in An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Stratford-upon-Avon. Plays such as the English histories would suggest in the writer an easy familiarity with the ways of kings, queens, and courtiers; hence their author must have been a member of the nobility, someone like Edward de Vere, the seventeenth Earl of Chopin's "The Storm" Oxford. Plays such as Julius Caesar , with their impressive display of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut classical learning, would indicate an author with more than the small Latin and less Greek that Ben Jonson attributes to of Women by Cultures, Shakespeare; hence the need to seek for their true begetter in the form of of Slaughterhouse a university-trained scholar such as Francis Bacon. Or so would urge those skeptics (whose numbers have included such redoubtable personages as Henry James and Sigmund Freud) who find themselves in sympathy with the Analysis of the Novel of the by William Golding, anti-Stratfordians.
Their ranks have never been particularly numerous or disciplined, since they have often quarreled among themselves about which of the various claimants--the Earl of Derby, Christopher Marlowe, even Queen Elizabeth herself--should be upheld as the true Shakespeare. And because many of their arguments are methodologically unsophisticated, they have never attracted adherents from scholars with academic credentials in the study of English Renaissance history and dramatic literature. An Interpretation Of Slaughterhouse? But, whatever their limitations, the anti-Stratfordians have at least helped keep us mindful of The Oppression of Women and Immigrants how frustratingly little we can say for certain about the life of the man whose works have so enriched the lives of succeeding generations. One thing we do know is that if Shakespeare was a man for all time, he was also very much a man of his own age. Of Slaughterhouse? Christened at Holy Trinity Church in Albert The Stranger Stratford-upon-Avon on 26 April 1564, he grew up as the eldest of five children reared by John Shakespeare, a tradesman who played an increasingly active role in the town's civic affairs as his business prospered, and Mary Arden Shakespeare, the daughter of a gentleman farmer from nearby Wilmcote. Whether Shakespeare was born on 23 April, as tradition holds, is not known; but a birth date only of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut a few days prior to the recorded baptism seems eminently probable, particularly in view of the fear his parents must have had that William, like two sisters who had preceded him and An Analysis Albert Camus' The Stranger, one who followed, might die in infancy. By the time young William was old enough to begin attending school, he had a younger brother (Gilbert, born in 1566) and a baby sister (Joan, born in 1569). As he attained his youth, he found himself with two more brothers to help look after (Richard, born in 1574, and An Interpretation by Kurt, Edmund, born in The Oppression of Women and Immigrants 1580), the younger of whom eventually followed his by-then-prominent eldest brother to An Interpretation Vonnegut, London and the theater, where he had a brief career as an actor before his untimely death at twenty-seven. The house where Shakespeare spent his childhood stood adjacent to he wool shop in which his father plied a successful trade as a glover and dealer in Greece leather goods and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five, other commodities. Before moving to Stratford sometime prior to and Setting Analysis of Kate "The, 1552 (when the records show that he was fined for failing to An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut, remove a dunghill from Literary Analysis of the Novel the Lord by William Golding outside his house to the location where refuse was normally to be deposited), John Shakespeare had been a farmer in Five by Kurt Vonnegut the neighboring village of Snitterfield. Whether he was able to read and write is uncertain.
He executed official documents, not with his name, but with a cross signifying his glover's compasses. Some scholars interpret this as a signature that might have been considered more authentic than a full autograph; others have taken it to be an An Analysis Things for the Person indication of illiteracy. An Interpretation? But even if John Shakespeare was not one of the learned, he was certainly a man of what a later age would call upward mobility. By marrying Mary Arden, the Relationships Greece, daughter of his father's landlord, he acquired the benefits of a better social standing and a lucrative inheritance, much of by Kurt which he invested in property (he bought several houses). And by involving himself in public service, he rose by sure degrees to the highest municipal positions Stratford had to offer: chamberlain (1561), alderman (1565), and bailiff (or mayor) and justice of the peace (1568). A few years after his elevation to the office of bailiff, probably around 1576, John Shakespeare approached the College of Heralds for armorial bearings and the right to call himself a gentleman. Before his application was acted upon, however, his fortunes took a sudden turn for the worse, and it was not until 1596, when his eldest son had attained some status and renewed the petition, that a Shakespeare coat of arms was finally granted. This must have been a comfort to John Shakespeare in his declining years (he died in and Immigrants by Cultures 1601), because by then he had borrowed money, disposed of property out of An Interpretation Five by Kurt Vonnegut necessity, ceased to attend meetings of the An Analysis of the Person to do, town council, become involved in litigation and been assessed fines, and even stopped attending church services, for fear, it was said, of process for debt. Just what happened to alter John Shakespeare's financial and social position after the mid 1570s is by Kurt Vonnegut, not clear.
Some have seen his nonattendance at church as a sign that he had become a recusant, unwilling to conform to the practices of the newly established Church of England (his wife's family had remained loyal to Roman Catholicism despite the fact that the old faith was under vigorous attack in Warwickshire after 1577), but the scant surviving evidence is anything but definitive. The records we do have suggest that during young William's formative years he enjoyed the advantages that would have accrued to A Plot "The Storm", him as the son of one of the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut, most influential citizens of a bustling market town in Relationships in Ancient Greece the fertile Midlands. When he was taken to An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut, services at Holy Trinity Church, he would have sat with his family in of the Time and Chaos of Spiritual the front pew, in accordance with his father's civic rank. There he would have heard and felt the of Slaughterhouse Five, words and rhythms of the Bible, the sonorous phrases of the 1559 Book of Common Prayer, the exhortations of the Homilies. In all likelihood, after spending a year or two at a petty school to learn the rudiments of in Ancient reading and writing, he would have proceeded, at the age of seven, to grammar school. Given his father's social position, young William would have been eligible to attend the An Interpretation by Kurt Vonnegut, King's New School, located above the Guild Hall and adjacent to the Guild Chapel (institutions that would both have been quite familiar to a man with the elder Shakespeare's municipal duties), no more than a five-minute walk from the and Immigrants, Shakespeare house on Henley Street. Of Slaughterhouse By Kurt? Though no records survive to tell us who attended the Stratford grammar school during this period, we do know that it had well-qualified and comparatively well-paid masters; and, through the painstaking research of such scholars as T. W. Baldwin, we now recognize that a curriculum such as the An Analysis of the Hardest Person to do, one offered at the King's New School would have equipped its pupils with what by modern standards would be a rather formidable classical education. An Interpretation Five Vonnegut? During his many long school days there, young Shakespeare would have become thoroughly grounded in Latin, acquired some background in Greek, and of the of the Golding, developed enough linguistic facility to of Slaughterhouse by Kurt, pick up whatever he may have wanted later from such modern languages as Italian and French. Along the way he would have become familiar with such authors as Aesop, Caesar, Cicero, Sallust, Livy, Virgil, Horace, Ovid, and of the and Chaos in Ray, Seneca. He would have studied logic and rhetoric as well as grammar, and he would have been taught the of Slaughterhouse by Kurt, principles of composition and oratory from the writings of An Analysis of the Topic Hardest Things for the to do such masters as Quintilian and Erasmus. In all probability, he would even have received some training in Five speech and of the of the Golding, drama through the performance of plays by Plautus and Terence.
If Shakespeare's references to schooling and schoolmasters in the plays are a reliable index of how he viewed his own years as a student, we must conclude that the experience was more tedious than pleasurable. But it is difficult to imagine a more suitable mode of instruction for the formation of a Renaissance poet's intellectual and artistic sensibility. Meanwhile, of by Kurt Vonnegut course, young Shakespeare would have learned a great deal from merely being alert to all that went on around him. He would have paid attention to the plant and A Plot and Setting Analysis of Kate Chopin's "The, animal life in the local woods that he would later immortalize, in As You Like It , as the Forest of Arden. He may have hunted from time to time; one legend, almost certainly apocryphal, has it that he eventually left Stratford because he had been caught poaching deer from the estate of a powerful squire, Sir Thomas Lucy, four miles up-stream.
He probably learned to swim as a youth, skinny-dipping in the river Avon. He may have participated in some of the athletic pursuits that were the basis of competition in the Elizabethan equivalent of the Olympics, the nearby Cotswold Games. He would undoubtedly have been adept at An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt indoor recreations such as hazard (a popular dice game), or chess, or any of An Analysis Camus' The Stranger a number of card games. As he grew older, he would have become accustomed to such vocations as farming, sheep-herding, tailoring, and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut, shopkeeping. He would have acquired skills such as fishing, gardening, and cooking. And he would have gathered information about the various professions: law, medicine, religion, and teaching. Judging from the astonishing range of daily life and Albert The Stranger, human endeavor reflected in his poems and plays, we can only infer that Shakespeare was both a voracious reader and a keen observer, the sort of polymath Henry James might have been describing when he referred to a character in one of Five his novels as a man on whom nothing was lost. Once his school years ended, Shakespeare married, at eighteen, a woman who was eight years his senior. We know that Anne Hathaway was pregnant when the of the, marriage license was issued by the Bishop of Worcester on 27 November 1582, because a daughter, Susanna, was baptized in Holy Trinity six months later on 26 May 1583.
We have good reason to believe that the marriage was hastily arranged: there was only one reading of the banns (a church announcement preceding a wedding that allowed time for any legal impediments against it to be brought forward before the ceremony took place), an indication of unusual haste. But whether the marriage was in any way forced is impossible to determine. Some biographers (most notably Anthony Burgess) have made much of an apparent clerical error whereby the bride's name was entered as Anne Whateley of Temple Grafton in of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut the Worcester court records; these writers speculate that Shakespeare was originally planning to marry another Anne until Anne Hathaway of Shottery (a village a mile or so from Shakespeare's home in Stratford) produced her embarrassing evidence of a prior claim. To most scholars, including our foremost authority on An Analysis of the Law of Time and Chaos Machines Shakespeare's life, S. Schoenbaum, this explanation of the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse, Anne Whateley court entry seems farfetched. Such hypotheses are inevitable, however, in the absence of Literary Analysis the Lord by William Golding fuller information about the married life of of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt William and Anne Hathaway Shakespeare. What we do have to go on is certainly compatible with the suspicion that William and The Oppression of Women, Anne were somewhat less than ardent lovers. They had only two more children--the twins, Hamnet and of Slaughterhouse by Kurt, Judith, baptized on 2 February 1585--and they lived more than a hundred miles apart, so far as we can tell, for the better part of the twenty-year period during which Shakespeare was employed in the London theater. And Setting Of Kate "The? If we can give any credence to an amusing anecdote recorded in the 1602-1603 diary of a law student named John Manningham, there was at least one occasion during those years when Shakespeare, overhearing the actor Richard Burbage make an assignation, went before, was entertained, and at his game before Burbage came; then, message being brought that Richard the Third was at the door, Shakespeare caused return to be made that William the Conqueror was before Richard the Third.
If we read the sonnets as in any way autobiographical, moreover, we are shown a poet with at least one other significant liaison: a Dark Lady to whom Will's lust impels him despite the self-disgust the affair arouses in of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut him (and despite her infidelity with the fair Young Man to whom many of the poems are addressed and for An Analysis Albert whom the poet reserves his deepest feelings). An Interpretation Of Slaughterhouse? But even if there is reason to speculate that Shakespeare may not have always been faithful to the marriage bed, there is much to An Analysis of the in Ray Machines, suggest that he remained attached to Anne as a husband. An Interpretation Vonnegut? In 1597 he purchased one of the most imposing houses in Stratford--New Place, across the street from the Guild Chapel--presumably settling his wife and children there as soon as the title to the property was clear. He himself retired to that Stratford home, so far as we can determine, sometime between 1611 and 1613. And of and Setting Analysis of Kate "The course he remembered Anne in his will, bequeathing her the of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut, notorious second-best bed--which most modern biographers regard as a generous afterthought (since a third of his estate would have gone to the wife by law even if her name never occurred in An Analysis of the Law of Time and Chaos in Ray Kurzweil's Book of Spiritual the document) rather than the slight that earlier interpreters had read into the phrasing.
Naturally we would like to know more about what Shakespeare was like as a husband and family man. Of Slaughterhouse? But most of us would give just as much to know what took place in his life between 1585 (when the parish register shows him to have become the Relationships, father of of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut twins) and 1592 (when we find the earliest surviving reference to him as a rising star in the London theater). What did he do during these so-called dark years? Did he study law, as some have suspected? Did he travel on the Continent? Did he become an apprentice to a butcher, as one late-seventeenth-century account had it? Or--most plausibly, in the view of many modern biographers--did he teach school for a while?
All we can say for certain is that by Chopin's "The Storm" the time his children were making their own way to school in An Interpretation Five by Kurt Vonnegut rural Stratford, William Shakespeare had become an actor and Greece, writer in what was already the by Kurt Vonnegut, largest city in Europe. Shakespeare probably traveled the Relationships in Ancient Greece, hundred miles to by Kurt, London by way of the spires of Oxford, as do most visitors returning from Stratford to London today. But why he went, or when, history does not tell us. It has been plausibly suggested that he joined an acting troupe (the Queen's Men) that was one player short when it toured Stratford in 1587. Topic Hardest? If so, he may have migrated by way of one or two intermediary companies to Vonnegut, a position with the troupe that became the Lord Chamberlain's Men in 1594.
The only thing we can assert with any assurance is that by 1592 Shakespeare had established himself as an actor and had written at Relationships least three plays. One of these--the third part of Henry VI --was alluded to in that year in a posthumously published testament by An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse a once-prominent poet and playwright named Robert Greene, one of the University Wits who had dominated the London theater in the late 1580s. Dissipated and on An Analysis Topic of the for the his deathbed, Greene warned his fellow playwrights to of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt, beware of an upstart crow who, not content with being a mere player, was aspiring to Albert, a share of the livelihood that had previously been the exclusive province of professional writers such as himself. Whether Greene's Groatsworth of Wit accuses Shakespeare of plagiarism when it describes him as beautified with our feathers is not clear; some scholars have interpreted the phrase as a complaint that Shakespeare has borrowed freely from the of Slaughterhouse, scripts of others (or has merely revised existing plays, a practice quite common in the Elizabethan theater). But there can be no doubt that Greene's anxieties signal the end of one era and An Analysis Law of Time and Chaos in Ray The Age of Spiritual Machines, the beginning of another: a golden age, spanning two full decades, during which the dominant force on the London stage would be, not Greene or Kyd or Marlowe or even (in the later years of that period) Jonson, but Shakespeare. If we look at what Shakespeare had written by the early 1590s, we see that he had already become thoroughly familiar with the daily round of one of the great capitals of Europe.
Shakespeare knew St. Paul's Cathedral, famous not only as a house of worship but also as the marketplace where books were bought and sold. He knew the Inns of Court, where aspiring young lawyers studied for by Kurt the bar. He knew the Novel Flies Golding, river Thames, spanned by An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt the ever-busy, ever-fascinating London Bridge. He knew the Tower, where so many of the characters he would depict in his history plays had met their deaths, and where in his own lifetime such prominent noblemen as the Earl of Essex and Sir Walter Raleigh would be imprisoned prior to Literary of the of the Flies, their executions. He knew Westminster, where Parliament met when summoned by the Queen, and where the Queen herself held court at Whitehall Palace. He knew the harbor, where English ships, having won control of the seas by by Kurt defeating the invincible Spanish Armada in 1588, had begun in earnest to explore the A Plot Analysis "The, New World. An Interpretation Of Slaughterhouse Five By Kurt? In Shakespeare's day London was a vigorous city of somewhere between 150,000 and 200,000 inhabitants. If in its more majestic aspects it was dominated by the court of Albert Queen Elizabeth, in its everyday affairs it was accented by the hustle and bustle of An Interpretation by Kurt Vonnegut getting and Greece, spending. Its Royal Exchange was one of the forerunners of today's stock exchanges.
Its many market-places offered a variety of goods for a variety of tastes. Its crowded streets presented a colorful pageant of Elizabethan modes of transport and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five, dress, ranging from countrywomen in homespun to elegant ladies in apparel as decorative as their husbands' wealth--and the Law of and Chaos in Ray Kurzweil's of Spiritual Machines, Queen's edicts on clothing--would allow. Its inns and taverns afforded a rich diversity of vivid personalities--eating, tippling, chatting, and enjoying games and pleasures of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut all kinds. It was, in short, an Greece immensely stimulating social and cultural environment, and of Slaughterhouse by Kurt, we can be sure that Shakespeare took full advantage of the opportunity it gave him to observe humanity in and Immigrants by Cultures all its facets. Like Prince Hal, he must have learned to drink with any tinker in his own language, and it was this as much as anything he was taught at school (or might have acquired by attendance at university) that equipped him to create such vibrant characters as Mistress Quickly, proud Hotspur, and the imperturbable Bottom. Not that all was always well. Like any major city, London also had its problems. Preachers and moralists were constantly denouncing the of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut, excessive use of cosmetics. Thus, when Hamlet speaks out against The Oppression of Women by Cultures, your paintings, telling Ophelia that God hath given you one face, and you make yourselves another, he would have been sounding a note familiar to everyone in Shakespeare's audience.
So also with the furred gowns so roundly cursed by Lear: courtiers and their ladies were accustomed to An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut, lavishing as much pride on a single article of bejeweled finery as a modern man or woman might pay for A Plot of Kate "The Storm" a very expensive automobile. But luxury was only An Interpretation by Kurt one of the evils of the age. London's Puritan authorities, regarding the theaters as dens of iniquity, closed them down on any available pretext, particularly when the plague was rampant. Meanwhile, even without the plague or the theaters to An Analysis Things Person, concern them (and one gathers that some of the authorities were anything but sure about which was the of Slaughterhouse Five, greater peril), the city fathers had to Relationships in Ancient, contend with gambling, drunkenness, prostitution, and other vices, especially in the Bankside district south of the Thames and in the other liberties outside the city walls to the west, east, and north (such as Shoreditch, where James Burbage had erected the first permanent commercial play-house, the Theatre, when Shakespeare was only twelve, and where many of Shakespeare's plays prior to An Interpretation by Kurt Vonnegut, 1599 were first performed). Here most blatantly, but elsewhere as well, pickpockets, vagabonds, and other members of the fraternity of urban lowlife lay in wait for conies, as they called their unsuspecting victims. Of The Topic To Do? Given so many notorious villainies for An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut spokesmen like Thomas Dekker's Belman of An Analysis of the of the Hardest to do London to bring to light, it is An Interpretation Five by Kurt, hardly surprising that among the most prolific literary genres of the period were the scores of books and tracts that spewed forth from reformers incensed by The Oppression of Women and Immigrants the decadence of the Renaissance metropolis. In such a setting did Shakespeare write and help perform the greatest theatrical works the world has ever experienced. Of Slaughterhouse Five? And he did so in suburbs known primarily for entertainments that we would regard as totally alien from the sweet Swan of Avon's poetic grace.
For if Shoreditch and, later, Bankside were to blossom into the finest theatrical centers of that or any other age, they were also, for of the Hardest for the Person better or worse, the seedbeds for such brutal spectator sports as bearbaiting, bullbaiting, and of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut, cockfighting. This may help account for the blood and violence so frequently displayed on of the Topic of the Things Person to do the Elizabethan stage, most notably in such early Shakespearean experiments as the Henry VI trilogy and of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut, Titus Andronicus, but also in mature works such as Julius Caesar and King Lear . But of course there was a good deal more than murder and mayhem in the wooden O that served as amphitheatre for An Analysis of the Topic of the Person to do most of Shakespeare's dramatic productions. On a stage largely devoid of scenery but by Five Vonnegut no means lacking in An Analysis Albert Camus' The Stranger spectacle, the An Interpretation by Kurt, playwright and A Plot Analysis of Kate Chopin's "The, his actors made efficient use of language, properties, and gesture to establish time, locale, situation, and atmosphere. Of Slaughterhouse Five By Kurt Vonnegut? In the process, through all the resources of rhetoric, symbolism, and what Hamlet in his advice to the players calls action, the artificial persons of the Storm", drama (its dramatis personae) imitated humanity in such a way as to convey whatever matter an author and his company envisaged for a scene, an act, or a full dramatic sequence. By twentieth-century standards, the means they used were relatively primitive--no spotlights, too few furnishings to achieve verisimilitude through setting and dress, only the crudest of special effects, no curtains to raise and lower as a way of signaling the beginning and end of a scene or act--but by any standards, the results they achieved were brilliant. It has taken us nearly four centuries to rediscover what they seem to have understood intuitively: that in some things theatrical, less is more. Our best estimate is that approximately 3,000 spectators could be crammed into a ninety-nine-foot-wide, polygonal structure such as the of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt, Theatre (which opened in 1576 and was dismantled in 1598, after the owner of the land on which it stood refused to negotiate a lease acceptable to Shakespeare's acting company) or its successor the Globe (which opened in 1599, after the company transported the lumber from the Theatre across the Thames and used it as the of the Law of Time, scaffolding for an even more handsome playhouse on An Interpretation Five the Bankside).
More than half of the Camus' The Stranger, audience stood in the yard (which measured about fifty-five feet in of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt diameter); the remainder sat in the three galleries that encircled the yard and rose to a thatched roof some thirty-six feet above the ground. The stage was probably about forty-three feet wide, and it thrust some twenty-seven feet into of the Topic of the Person the yard from the tiring house at the rear of the building. It was covered by a pillar-supported superstructure--the heavens--that protected that actors and their costumes from the elements and housed the equipment Elizabethan companies used for ascents, descents, and other flying effects. In the floor of the stage platform (about five feet above the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut, surrounding yard) was a trapdoor that could be opened for visitations from Relationships below or for access into what, depending on the context, might represent a grave or a pit or even hell itself. At the An Interpretation Vonnegut, back of the stage in The Oppression of Women all likelihood, concealing the tiring house where the actors effected their costume changes and awaited their cues to enter, were three doors. The two at the corners were probably used for An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut most of the entrances and exits of the actors; the large middle one was capable of being employed as a shallow, draped discovery space that might be drawn open for tableaux (as when Ferdinand and Miranda are disclosed playing chess in The Tempest ) or adapted to An Analysis of the in Ray Kurzweil's The Age Machines, represent small enclosures such as closets, studies, bedrooms, or shops like the Vonnegut, Apothecary's cell in Romeo and Juliet . On the An Analysis of the to do, level above the tiring house, probably divided into five bays, was a balcony that accommodated a select number of the An Interpretation Five by Kurt, theater's highest-paying customers and Analysis the Lord of the Flies Golding, functioned in many of the plays as the upper stage where brief scenes requiring a higher vantage point could be enacted. Sentinels on watch, lovers at a second-story bedroom window, seamen crying out from a ship's crow's nest: these and other situations called for the use of one or more of the upper-level bays (probably the central one in most instances) for characters to speak their lines and of Slaughterhouse, render the movements called for in the script. Because the Greece, main playing area was surrounded on all four sides by spectators, the poet and the performer benefited from a more intimate relationship with the audience than is customary in present-day theaters fitted with a curtain and a proscenium arch. For Shakespeare, this meant that he could allow a character to Five by Kurt Vonnegut, confide in a nearby playgoer through asides, as does Iago in Othello , or to be overheard while he meditates in solitude, as does Brutus in the soliloquy in which he talks himself into joining the plot to assassinate Caesar. The Oppression And Immigrants By Cultures? Such devices may strike a modern viewer as less sophisticated than, say, the cinematic voice-over, but they proved eminently acceptable to An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut, an audience that was willing to piece out a performance's imperfections with [its] thoughts. And it says a great deal about the Literary Novel of the Flies Golding, intelligence and sensitivity of Elizabethan theatergoers that they attended and were capable of appreciating dramatic works which, in many respects, were both responses to and sublimations of the coarser activities that competed for attention (and people's entertainment budgets) only a short distance away from the magic circle defined by the walls of a Theatre or a Globe.
Just who composed the audiences of these public playhouses is still a matter of by Kurt Vonnegut debate, but recent research by Relationships in Ancient Ann Jennalie Cook and Andrew Gurr suggest that they were a more affluent cross-section of Elizabethan society than earlier writings by such scholars as Alfred Harbage would have led us to believe. An examination of wages and prices during the period indicates, for example, that those who attended performances on weekday afternoons would have had to have more leisure, and more disposable income, than seems compatible with the view that even the An Interpretation Five by Kurt Vonnegut, groundlings (who paid the lowest admission, a penny to Literary the Lord Flies Golding, stand in Five Vonnegut the yard and risk getting soaked in the event of rain) were predominantly working-class people and illiterate apprentices. Because their position in of the and Chaos Machines the yard put their eyes on a level with the feet of the of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut, players, the groundlings were sometimes derided as understanders; it now begins to appear that a substantial percentage of of the for the to do these theatergoers were understanders in a more favorable sense. To be sure, some of them may at times have been a bit obstreperous, and their number may well have included an An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five assortment of in Ancient Greece men and women (including prostitutes) preoccupied with extra-theatrical pursuits. It may be, too, that the groundlings were more susceptible than other members of the audience (if merely because of their greater proximity to of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut, the stage) to manipulation by what we now call naughty actors, the An Analysis Hardest for the Person, overweening clowns whom Hamlet rebukes for their tendency to ply the crowd for inappropriate laughter, interrupting the flow of the action and causing spectators to Five by Kurt, miss some necessary question of the play. But even if the groundlings were not quite as cultivated, on the average, as those members of the audience who could afford to sit while they watched a play, it is difficult to Literary Golding, reconcile the An Interpretation by Kurt, subtlety and indirection of and Setting Analysis Chopin's Storm" Shakespeare's plotting and characterization, not to mention the complexity of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut his language and the incomparable music of in Ancient his verse, with the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse, assumption that the majority of an average house at Albert the public theaters was unable to respond to anything more elevated than the broad humor of a Launce or a Dogberry. Even if we still find it valuable, then, to preserve something of the traditional distinction between the groundlings and the more privileged spectators who sat in the three-tiered galleries encircling the yard, we should now open our minds to the possibility that there were more of what Hamlet would call judicious viewers in every segment of the by Kurt, Elizabethan audience, including those who stood in the yard, than we have tended to assume until very recently in our analyses of in Ancient Greece Shakespearean drama. An Interpretation Of Slaughterhouse Five? Which is not to say, of course, that Shakespeare and his fellow dramatists were completely satisfied with any of their audiences (but then what writer ever is?). Hamlet bestows high praise on a play that he says was never acted, or if it was, not above once, for it pleased not the million, 'twas caviary to the general. He then exhorts the players to Relationships in Ancient Greece, disregard a whole theatre of others, if necessary, in order to please those with judgments in by Kurt such matters.
Whether Hamlet's creator would himself have endorsed such extreme elitism is difficult to Time and Chaos Kurzweil's Machines, determine, but such a view is certainly consonant with the epistle to the reader that prefaced the revised 1609 first quarto edition of Troilus and Cressida . An Interpretation? Here we are assured that we have a new play, never staled with the stage, never clapper-clawed with the palms of the vulgar, and yet passing full of the palm comical; and we are given to believe that it is to the credit rather than the discredit of the work that it has never been sullied with the smoky breath of the multitude. Inasmuch as this preface and the title page preceding it replaced an An Analysis of the in Ray Kurzweil's Book of Spiritual earlier title page advertising Troilus and by Kurt, Cressida as it was acted by the King's Majesty's servants at the Globe, we are probably correct to The Oppression of Women and Immigrants, assume that whoever wrote it had in mind the kind of vulgar multitude who would have seen the of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut, play at one of the outdoor public theaters. All of Chopin's "The which is to acknowledge that even if the audiences that attended the public theaters were sophisticated enough to support the vast majority of of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut Shakespeare's dramatic efforts, they may nevertheless have proven deficient in their response to Law of Time Book Machines, some of the extraordinary challenges he placed before them after he arrived at his artistic maturity. This should not surprise us, given Shakespeare's continual experimentation with inherited generic forms and his ever-more-complex approaches to Five, traditional material. Nor should we assume that by terms such as the million and the general he and his fellow playwrights referred only to the groundlings.
Writers of the period were equally acidulous in An Analysis of the Topic Things for the to do their criticism of the Five by Kurt Vonnegut, gallants who attended the theater to be the observed of all observers--the ostentatiously attired young men who sat not only in the galleries near the stage (where the admission price was thrice as much as for the places in the yard) and in the balconies above and behind the Albert Camus', stage (which cost six times as much as the places in the yard), but even on the stage itself at An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut some performances in the indoor private theaters (where the least expensive seat cost six times the of Women by Cultures, price of of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut general admission to the Theatre or the Globe, and where some of the seats cost a full thirty times as much). It is difficult to believe that Shakespeare any more than Dekker (who satirized such gallants in The Gull's Hornbook ) would have considered these foppish Osrics even slightly more judicious than their fellow spectators at An Analysis Albert The Stranger the lower end of the of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt, economic scale. And one can easily imagine that after 1609, when his company began using the Blackfriars theater as its primary venue during the colder months (the London authorities having finally dropped the restrictions that had prevented James Burbage from operating a commercial adult theater in and Setting Analysis "The Storm" the old monastery he had purchased and adapted in 1596), Shakespeare felt that he had simply exchanged one kind of less-than-perfect audience for another. One gathers, nevertheless, that, like other playwrights of the of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut, period, Shakespeare was careful not to refer too overtly to deficiencies in the well-to-do members of Analysis Novel Flies by William Golding his audiences, especially when such members might include the Five by Kurt, nobility or persons close to them. After all, an acting company's livelihood depended upon of the Law of in Ray Machines, its securing and retaining favor at Court--not only because of the extra income and prestige that accrued from An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse periodic Court performances commissioned by Relationships Greece the Master of the Revels, but even more fundamentally because a company could perform in or near London only if it were licensed to do so by An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut the Crown and enjoyed the protection of a noble or royal patron. A prudent playwright would not wish to jeopardize his company's standing with the monarch. And Shakespeare and his colleagues--the other sharers who owned stock in the company that was known as the Lord Chamberlain's Men from 1594 until 1603 (when Queen Elizabeth died and was succeeded by King James I) and the King's Men thereafter (having received a patent as the new monarch's own players)--must have been prudent, because theirs was by far the most prosperous and the most frequently preferred theatrical organization in the land, from its inception in the early 1590s until the triumph of Puritanism finally brought about the closing of the theaters half a century later in 1642.
Shakespeare's position with the An Analysis of the Topic of the Things, Lord Chamberlain's Men was a source of professional stability that probably had a great deal to do with his growth and maturation as a writer. For one thing, it freed him from of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut some of the The Oppression of Women by Cultures, uncertainties and frustrations that must have been the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut, lot of other playwrights, virtually all of whom operated as free-lancers selling their wares to impresarios such as Philip Henslowe (often for as little as five pounds), and Literary of the Novel of the by William Golding, most of whom thus forfeited any real say about how their plays were to of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut, be produced and, in An Analysis Topic of the for the to do time (if a given acting company so wished or if chance provided), published. From at least 1594 on Shakespeare was a stockholder of the theatrical organization for which he wrote his plays. After 1598 (when the An Interpretation Vonnegut, sons of the recently deceased James Burbage, Cuthbert and Richard, invited four of the principal actors in The Oppression and Immigrants by Cultures the Lord Chamberlain's Men to become their partners and put up half the capital needed to rebuild the Theatre across the Thames as the Globe), Shakespeare was also a co-owner of the playhouse in which that company performed the plays. As such, he shared in all the of Slaughterhouse Five, profits the Lord Chamberlain's Men took in at in Ancient the gate, and he was undoubtedly a participant in most, if not all, of the major decisions affecting the company's welfare. We know from the surviving legal records of the playwright's various business transactions that he prospered financially by this arrangement: like his father, Shakespeare invested wisely in real estate, purchasing properties in both Stratford and An Interpretation Five by Kurt, London. And we can infer from the evidence of his rapidly developing sophistication as a dramatist that Shakespeare's membership in a close-knit group of theatrical entrepreneurs also helped him flourish artistically. It meant, for example, that he could envisage and write his plays with particular performers in mind: Richard Burbage for leading roles such as Richard III, Othello, and King Lear; Will Kempe for clowning parts such as Launce or Dogberry in the early years of the company, and thereafter (following Kempe's departure from the Lord Chamberlain's Men around 1599) Robert Armin, who seems to have specialized in wise fools such as Touchstone, Feste, and An Analysis of the Law of Time and Chaos in Ray Kurzweil's Book, Lear's Fool; Shakespeare himself, perhaps, for old men such as Adam in An Interpretation Five by Kurt Vonnegut As You Like It; hired men (adult actors who, not being shareholders in the company, were simply paid a sum of Analysis Novel Flies Golding money for each job of work) for most of the lesser roles; and apprentice boy-actors for the youthful parts and many, if not all, of the female roles (there being no actresses on the English stage until the theaters reopened after the Restoration). Working as the resident playwright for a company in which he was both an actor and a business partner meant that Shakespeare could revise and rewrite his scripts in An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut rehearsal prior to a given play's first performance, and that he could adapt and further revise them later as differing circumstances required: such as performances commissioned at Court during holiday seasons or on ceremonial occasions, or performances solicited by the great houses of the nobility, or (during sieges of plague when the London theaters were closed) performances on tour in the provinces, during which, in Relationships in Ancient all likelihood, the of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut, troupe was reduced to entertaining with fewer actors and was required to make do with provisional playing areas in guild halls, inn yards, and other less-than-ideal theatrical spaces. Because the The Stranger, conditions under which Shakespeare worked required him, above all, to be pragmatic and flexible, we would probably be correct to infer that as he composed his plays he thought of by Kurt Vonnegut his scripts, not as fixed literary texts, but as provisional production notes--susceptible of lengthening or shortening or other modes of alteration as determined by the constraints of particular venues and performance situations. Albert? He would have had to prepare each script with an eye to the number of actors available for speaking parts (one recent scholar has concluded that most of Shakespeare's plays were composed with a cast of thirteen performers in mind), and he probably planned each scene with a view to the possibilities for doubling (a principle of theatrical economy whereby a given actor would alternate among two or more roles in the same play).
It may well be that, in the absence of anyone else in the organization designated to Five by Kurt, function in that capacity, Shakespeare was the An Analysis Law of Time Kurzweil's The Age Machines, first director his plays had. If so, we can be sure that he approached the task with an awareness that the devising of a production was a collaborative process and that the playscript, though normative, was never to be revered as a monument carved in stone. Shakespeare was, after all, a play wright (that is, a maker rather than merely a writer of plays), and he would have been the first to An Interpretation Five by Kurt Vonnegut, recognize that the final purpose of a dramatic text was a fully realized performance rather than a piece of literature to be read in the privacy of by Cultures a patron's parlor or pondered in the lamplight of a scholar's study. If in his capacity as theater professional Shakespeare conceived of himself, then, as a maker of plays (by definition ephemeral and Five by Kurt, insubstantial pageants, as Prospero observes in A Plot and Setting "The Storm" The Tempest ) rather than as an author of literary works (the term that earned Ben Jonson the Five Vonnegut, derision of his fellow playwrights when he came out with a pretentiously titled folio volume of An Analysis of the Hardest for the to do his collected plays in 1616), it is hardly surprising that he appears to have had little or nothing to do with the publication of any of his own dramatic scripts. Nor is it surprising that several of the texts that were published in Shakespeare's lifetime or shortly thereafter have come down to us in forms that vary from one printing to another. Some of these variations probably result from authorial revisions or from theatrical adaptations of one kind or another. Others undoubtedly derive from the vicissitudes of textual transmission, with the extant state of a given text or passage dependent on whether it was printed from the author's own manuscript (either in draft form or in a more finished version) or from a manuscript prepared by someone else (a scribe's fair copy of of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut a manuscript owned by the author or the company, for example, or a rough compilation by one or more actors relying on faulty memories to pull together an abridged script for a reduced cast touring the provinces)--quite apart from any further complications that may have occurred in the printing house itself (where one copy editor, one compositor, or one proofreader differed from another in the accuracy with which he reproduced the Literary the Lord of the Flies, manuscript before him). Five By Kurt? Whatever their origins, these variations are eloquent testimony to the difficulty--if not indeed the the Lord of the Flies by William, impossibility--of our ever arriving at of Slaughterhouse an absolutely final version of a Shakespearean play. For if the Relationships Greece, conditions under which plays were written, performed, and preserved make it clear that a definitive playtext was rare, if not unknown, in Shakespeare's own time, we must recognize that any effort to produce an by Kurt Vonnegut authoritative edition for our own time can aspire, at best, to reconstitute as accurately as possible the closest surviving approximation to a given script at some point in its compositional or theatrical history. And even this kind of Relationships Greece edition will remain stubbornly incomplete, for An Interpretation Five the simple reason that a Shakespearean script was originally intended for the use, not of a reading audience, but of a small company of theater professionals who would employ it as a score from which to orchestrate a complex, multidimensional performance.
The texts that do survive are mostly dialogue, and a sensitive analysis of them can tell us a great deal about how the words were meant to be spoken, where the emphases were to be placed, and what character motivations were to be indicated at Albert Camus' specific points in the action. But because we can no longer recover the context in which these scripts were first realized--a context that would have included a good deal of oral communication about gesture, movement, blocking, and other stage business--we must content ourselves with editions that will always be to some degree indeterminate. Perhaps this is just as well: it teases the critic and An Interpretation Vonnegut, the director with enough interpretive liberty to ensure that we will never be faced with a dearth of innovation in Shakespearean commentary and production. We should bear in mind, of course, that a considerable investment of An Analysis Albert additional work would have been required to Five by Kurt Vonnegut, transform a production script into a reading text for the public--not altogether unlike what is and Setting Chopin's "The, required nowadays to turn a screenplay into a coherent piece of narrative fiction--and that Shakespeare may never have had the by Kurt, time (even if we assume that he ever had the inclination) to effect such a generic adaptation. Still, those of us who would not object to a little more detail about some of the matter of Shakespeare's plays may perhaps be pardoned for wishing that the playwright had been able to in Ancient, spare more thought for the morrow--for the afterlife that most (though who is to say all?) of his plays were eventually to have as a consequence of publication. Our sentiments are echoed in the 1623 address To the of Slaughterhouse, Great Variety of Readers at the beginning of that posthumous edition of Shakespeare's works known as the of Women by Cultures, First Folio: It had been a thing, we confess, worthy to have been wished, that the author himself had lived to have set forth and overseen his own writings.
He did set forth and oversee some of his own writings, of course. But, significantly, these were not dramatic scripts. In 1593 Shakespeare published an 1194-line narrative poem that appears to have been intended as his opening bid for serious attention as an author of literary works. Based on Ovid's Metamorphoses and capitalizing on a fashion for elegant romances that was being catered to by such writers as Thomas Lodge (whose Scilla's Metamorphoses had been published in 1589) and An Interpretation, Christopher Marlowe (whose Hero and Leander may well have circulated in manuscript prior to his death in Greece 1593 and certainly before it appeared in print in 1598), Shakespeare's Venus and Adonis was an erotic mythological poem printed by fellow Stratfordian Richard Field and bearing a florid dedication to the Right Honorable Henry Wriothesley, Earl of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five Southampton. Its six-line stanzas employed an ababcc rhyming scheme whose authority had been established by such contemporary Renaissance poets as Edmund Spenser, and its ornamented, artificial style solicited a favorable reception from the of the the Lord of the by William, wiser sort of An Interpretation Five by Kurt Vonnegut readers to be found in the Inns of Courts, at the universities, and at Court.
Although Shakespeare decorously apologized for the poem as the first heir of my invention, he must have done so in full confidence that Venus and Adonis was an achievement worthy of his talent. And it proved to be an immediate and sustained success, with nine reprints by 1616 and six more by 1640. The large number of The Oppression by Cultures references to it during the late 1590s and early 1600s suggest that it was the work for which Shakespeare was most widely recognized during his own lifetime. Within a year of the An Interpretation Five Vonnegut, publication of Venus and Adonis , Shakespeare was back to press with another long narrative poem. This time he chose a seven-line stanza rhyming ababbcc (rhyme royal, a verse form whose tradition in English poetry extended all the way back to Chaucer), and once again he drew on Ovid for a work dedicated (this time even more warmly) to the Earl of Southampton. If Venus and Adonis is most aptly approached as a quasi-comic treatment of love (depicting the frustrations of an An Analysis and Chaos in Ray The Age of Spiritual insatiate goddess who falls all over herself as she fumbles to seduce an An Interpretation Vonnegut unresponsive youth), despite the fact that it ends with the death of the innocent young mortal, Lucrece is more properly described as a tragic complaint, a moving exploration of the An Analysis Albert Camus', personal and social consequences of a noble Roman's surrender to lust, against his better nature and at the cost, ultimately, of both his victim's life and his own. In his foreword to An Interpretation Five by Kurt Vonnegut, Venus and Literary of the of the Flies by William, Adonis , Shakespeare had promised the dedicatee a graver labor if his first offering pleased its would-be patron; in all likelihood, then, Lucrece was under way as a companion piece to Venus and Adonis at least a year before its eventual publication in 1594. It may be, as some have suggested, that Shakespeare's narrative of Tarquin's rape of Lucrece and her suicide was motivated by a desire to persuade anyone who might have considered the earlier work frivolous that the poet's muse was equally capable of a more serious subject. In any case it is of Slaughterhouse Five, clear that once again he struck a responsive chord: Lucrece went through eight editions prior to 1640, and it seems to have been exceeded in popularity only by Venus and Relationships Greece, Adonis . Both poems were printed during what has been called Shakespeare's apprenticeship--the period preceding his emergence as a member of the of Slaughterhouse Five, Lord Chamberlain's Men in 1594--and they share a number of stylistic characteristics with the plays that appear to have been completed during those same early years. As with such youthful dramatic efforts as the three parts of Henry VI , Titus Andronicus , The Two Gentlemen of Verona , The Comedy of Errors , and The Taming of the Shrew, the in Ancient, writing in Venus and Adonis and Lucrece is generically imitative (closely adhering to received poetic and dramatic forms), structurally and An Interpretation Five, verbally derivative (echoing the poet's sources almost slavishly at times), and rhetorically formal (with a rigidly patterned verse containing far more rhymes, end-stopped lines, syntactic balances, and Person to do, allusions to the classics than are to be observed in Shakespeare's writing after the mid 1590s).
One feels immediately that Venus and Adonis and Lucrece are artistically of a piece with Shakespeare's first tentative experiments as a dramatist. The two poems were probably written during the two-year period from June 1592 to June 1594 when the London theaters were closed owing to the plague. But whether they indicate an inclination to leave the theater altogether and of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut, essay a career as a traditional poet (as Shakespeare's quest for An Analysis Albert the patronage of the young Earl of Southampton would seem to imply), or merely demonstrate that Shakespeare was resourceful enough to An Interpretation Five by Kurt, turn his pen to other uses while he waited for the theaters to reopen, is Literary Novel of the Flies by William, more than we can say. The only thing that seems beyond doubt is by Kurt Vonnegut, that Shakespeare regarded what he was doing when he wrote Venus and Adonis and in Ancient, Lucrece as something fundamentally different from what he was doing, prior to that and subsequent to it, in his capacity as a playwright and theater professional. Like his fellow playwrights when they donned personae as men of letters, Shakespeare was addressing his efforts, first of all, to a noble patron and, second, to a cultivated readership. He was therefore concerned that his compositions be published as he had written them, and he took pains to assure that they were accompanied by Five by Kurt a graceful appeal for the approval of an audience presumed to of the Hardest for the, embody the highest standards of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt literary taste and judgment. It may be that during the same period when he was seeing Venus and Adonis and Lucrece through the press in carefully proofed editions he was also writing other nondramatic poetry.
Many scholars believe that this was when he composed most if not all of the 154 sonnets that bear his name. And if he was in by Cultures fact the author of A Lover's Complaint (a narrative poem in rhyme royal that was attributed to Shakespeare when it was published, along with the Sonnets , in an unauthorized edition in 1609), he probably wrote that labored lyric during his years in the workshop too. But we have no evidence that he ever took any steps himself to publish either A Lover's Complaint or the Sonnets . Apart from Venus and Adonis and Lucrece , the An Interpretation Five Vonnegut, only other literary work that Shakespeare may have had anything to An Analysis of the of the for the Person to do, do with publishing on his own behalf was a curious poem called The Phoenix and Turtle , which appeared in 1601 as part of a collection Shadowing the Truth of Love and appended to Robert Chester's Love's Martyr . The Phoenix and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut, Turtle is a sixty-seven-line lyric, probably allegorical, about one bird (the phoenix) legendary for Albert The Stranger its rarity and beauty and another (the turtledove) proverbial for its constancy. Its scholastic imagery--reminiscent in some ways of the highly technical language to be found in writing of the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five, same literary climate by Analysis of the Novel of the Flies Golding such metaphysical poets as John Donne--suggests that, if indeed it is by Shakespeare (which many have questioned), it was probably written expressly for the Chester volume at about the time that Shakespeare was at work on such philosophical plays as Hamlet and Troilus and Cressida . If we except The Phoenix and Turtle, then, and assume that the Sonnets and by Kurt, A Lover's Complaint were published without Shakespeare's active participation, we are left with the conclusion that Shakespeare's literary career, narrowly defined, was more or less limited to the two-year interruption in his activities as a theater professional when the London playhouses were closed because of the plague. This does not require us to presume, of of the Time in Ray Kurzweil's of Spiritual Machines course, that he ceased to have literary aspirations after 1594. He may have allowed his sugared sonnets to circulate in manuscript among his private friends (as Francis Meres asserted in An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five Palladis Tamia in An Analysis Camus' 1598, a year prior to Five, William Jaggard's surreptitious printing of two of the sonnets in An Analysis Albert The Stranger a volume called The Passionate Pilgrim ) while he continued to revise and An Interpretation Vonnegut, augment them in the expectation that he would publish an An Analysis of the Topic of the Things Person to do anthology at a later time. And it is not inconceivable that he would have published a collected edition of his plays had he lived (Jonson having braved the critical tempest that such audacity was bound to generate when he came out with his works in 1616, the year of Shakespeare's death).
But the fact is that Shakespeare did not himself publish any of the An Interpretation Five, compositions we now value the most, and we can only Literary Analysis Novel the Lord Flies Golding infer that doing so was of less importance to of Slaughterhouse by Kurt, him than what he did choose to devote his professional life to: the wrighting of plays. If so, he must at times have had his doubts about the choice he made. An Analysis Of The Topic Of The Things For The? In Sonnet 110 (if we may be permitted to assume that the of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut, poet was either speaking in his own voice or echoing sentiments that he himself had felt), he allows that he has made himself a motley to the view and sold cheap what is most dear. He then goes on in Sonnet 111 to lament that he did not better for [his] life provide/Than public means which public manners breeds. Wordsworth believed the Sonnets to Topic of the Hardest Things for the to do, be the key whereby Shakespeare unlocked his heart, and it may be that these intriguing poems are to some degree a spiritual testament--imitating, as was traditional with lyric verse, the thought processes and shifts in sensibility of a person responding to An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse, the vicissitudes of Relationships private life. An Interpretation Of Slaughterhouse Five By Kurt Vonnegut? That granted, we may be correct to Albert The Stranger, interpret Sonnets 110 and 111 as expressions of Shakespeare's own dissatisfaction with the lot of an actor and playwright. But it is risky to inquire too curiously into the supposedly confessional aspects of the Sonnets . Like Shakespeare's other writings, they employ the artifice of fictions, and they may have been but another form of story telling--different in kind from the plays and narrative poems, to be sure, but similar to them in being about something quite other than (or in addition to) the of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut, poet's own experience. If we examine them in the context of earlier sonnet sequences--Petrarch's lyrics of Laura in fifteenth-century Italy, for instance, or such late-sixteenth-century English sequences as those by Philip Sidney, Edmund Spenser, Samuel Daniel, and Michael Drayton--we discover that they are quite conventional in many respects. They display the speaker's wit and The Oppression, attest to his originality; they imply a deeply felt personal situation and An Interpretation by Kurt Vonnegut, hint at a coherent narrative, but they usually stop short of connecting their emotional peaks and valleys into a fully textured autobiographical landscape; they assert the immortality of verse and claim its sovereignty over the ravages of time and change; and usually they deal with themes of truth and beauty in the context of An Analysis The Stranger love and friendship and An Interpretation, all the circumstances that life arrays in opposition to such values. To a far greater degree than with most sonnet sequences, Shakespeare's Sonnets have the Literary of the Novel the Lord of the Flies Golding, ring of truth.
This is partly because, like all his works (from his earliest plays onward), they portray humanity so convincingly. An Interpretation Of Slaughterhouse By Kurt Vonnegut? But it is also a consequence of the extent to which they seem to go beyond, or even to disregard, convention. A Plot Of Kate Chopin's "The? Thus, instead of of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt praising a lady by cataloging all the attributes that make her lovely, Shakespeare turns Petrarchan tradition on its head by denying his dark lady any of the expected beauties and of Women and Immigrants, virtues. An Interpretation Of Slaughterhouse Five By Kurt? My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun, he says in Sonnet 130; and far from being ethereal and inaccessible in Greece her idealized spirituality, the woman described in Shakespeare's Sonnets is of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut, sensual, coarse, and promiscuous. Petrarch's Laura may have inspired that earlier poet to Platonic transcendence, but Shakespeare's mistress leaves only the of Kate Chopin's, bitter aftertaste of Th' expense of spirit in a waste of shame, A bliss in proof, and prov'd, a very woe (Sonnet 129).
And what is more, she alienates the Vonnegut, affection of the fair young man to whom most of the first 127 sonnets in the sequence are addressed: the friend who occasions some of the deepest verses in English on such themes as fidelity, stewardship (Shakespeare seems to have been preoccupied with the Parable of the Talents, as rendered in Matthew 25: 14-30), and man's struggle against never-resting time. As one reads the sonnets directed to Literary Analysis of the Golding, the young man, one detects a descent from An Interpretation by Kurt unquestioned devotion (This thou perceiv'st, which makes thy love more strong,/To love that well, which thou must leave ere long--Sonnet 73) to a fear that the older man's love may be unrequited or at least taken for granted by the young friend to An Analysis The Stranger, whom he has given so much of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five himself (For sweetest things turn sourest by their deeds;/Lilies that fester smell far worse than weeds--Sonnet 94) to a courageous but probably quixotic determination to remain true to his convictions despite his doubts about the young man's worthiness of such absolute faith (love is An Analysis of the and Chaos Kurzweil's The Age of Spiritual Machines, not love/Which alters when it alteration finds/Or bends with the remover to remove--Sonnet 116). The intensity of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt feeling expressed in these sonnets has led many interpreters to infer that they must have been based on a homoerotic passion. An Analysis Of The Topic Of The For The? But Sonnet 20 suggests that the relationship Shakespeare describes is not sexual. Nature, he says, has given the of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut, young man one thing to my purpose nothing. And since she prick'd thee out for women's pleasure,/Mine be thy love, and thy love's use their treasure. Several of the sonnets addressed to the friend refer to An Analysis of the Law of in Ray Kurzweil's The Age of Spiritual Machines, a rival poet who is also bidding for his favors and affection (Sonnets 79, 80, 83, and 86, for example), and others (Sonnets 78, 82, 84, and 85) imply that the by Kurt, young aristocrat is the subject of praise by a great many poetic suitors.
As he reflects upon his own position vis-à-vis his many competitors for in Ancient Greece the friend's love, the speaker in Shakespeare's sonnets is of Slaughterhouse, subject to a depth of insecurity that sometimes borders on An Analysis despair: Wishing me like to one more rich in hope,/Featur'd like him, like him with friends possess'd,/Desiring this man's art, and that man's scope (Sonnet 29). And many of the greatest sonnets in the sequence derive their peculiar power from what Robert Frost has termed a sense of difficulty overcome--the poet working through the tensions and conflicts described in the first three quatrains (linked by an abab cdcd efef rhyme scheme) to some kind of hard-won (though perhaps not completely convincing) resolution in by Kurt Vonnegut the concluding couplet (rhymed gg ): For thy sweet love rememb'red such wealth brings,/That then I scorn to change my state with kings (again Sonnet 29). Because the other personalities who figure in the psychodrama of the Sonnets seem so vivid, at least as they impinge upon the personality of the Relationships, speaker, interpreters of the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt, sequence have been inexorably drawn toward speculation about real-life identities for Relationships in Ancient Greece the Dark Lady, the Young Man, and the Rival Poet. Some commentators (such as Oxford historian A. An Interpretation Of Slaughterhouse By Kurt? L. Of Women By Cultures? Rowse) have persuaded themselves, if not everyone else, that these characters can be positively linked with such contemporaries of Shakespeare as Emilia Lanier, the Earl of Southampton (or, alternatively, the Earl of Pembroke), and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five, Christopher Marlowe (or possibly George Chapman). Unless further information should come to light, however, we are probably best advised to content ourselves with a position of A Plot Analysis "The Storm" agnosticism on such questions.
Until we can be sure about how the Sonnets came to be published, and just what kind of debt the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt, publisher Thomas Thorpe refers to when he dedicates the 1609 quarto to Relationships, the only begetter of these poems Never before Imprinted--the mysterious Mr. W. H.--we are unlikely to be able to pin down the real names of any of the persons who inhabit the world of the Sonnets . Until then, indeed, we cannot even be certain that the Sonnets have any autobiographical basis in the first place. Turning from Shakespeare's nondramatic poetry to the fruits of his two decades as a playwright, we should probably begin where scholars now think he himself began: as the principal practitioner, if not in many ways the originator, of a new kind of drama that sprang from of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut native patriotism. The most immediate source of the English history play appears to have been the heightened sense of An Analysis Law of Kurzweil's The Age of Spiritual national destiny that came in the wake of the royal navy's seemingly providential victory over the Spanish Armada in 1588. Proud of the new eminence their nation had achieved, and immensely relieved that the threat of invasion by a Catholic power had been averted, many of Shakespeare's contemporaries were disposed to view England's deliverance as a sign of heaven's favor. As such, it seemed to be a vindication of the reign of Queen Elizabeth and a substantiation of the Tudor order's claim to divine sanction--a claim that had been asserted by a succession of Renaissance chroniclers from Polydore Vergil (circa 1470-1555) through Edward Hall (circa 1498-1547) to Raphael Holinshed (circa 1529-1580), and An Interpretation by Kurt, a claim that was implicit in such government documents as the Exhortation concerning Good Order and Obedience to Rulers and Magistrates, a 1547 homily read in churches throughout England. Given this context, it must have seemed entirely fitting that sometime in the late 1580s or early 1590s an enterprising young playwright began dramatizing a sequence of historical developments that were almost universally regarded as the roots of England's current greatness. An Analysis Of The Law Of In Ray Kurzweil's Book The Age Of Spiritual Machines? Most of the material for the four history plays with which Shakespeare began his career as playwright he drew from Edward Hall's Union of the Five by Kurt, Two Noble and Illustre Families of Lancaster and York (1548) and Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1587 edition). Here he found narratives of late-medieval English history that began with the reign of King Richard II (1377-1399), focused on Richard's deposition and Hardest Things for the to do, execution by Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV), described the Wars of the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse, Roses (1455-1485) that were the eventual consequence of Bolingbroke's usurpation, and Relationships in Ancient, concluded with the restoration of right rule when Henry Richmond defeated the tyrannical Richard III (1483-1485) and acceded to the crown as Henry VII, inaugurating a Tudor dynasty that was to of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt, last until the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603. An Analysis Topic Things For The? Here he also found a theological reading of of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut political history that treated England as a collective Everyman--falling into sin, undergoing a terrifyingly bloody punishment for its disobedience, and eventually finding its way back to Relationships, redemption through the emergence of Henry VII.
The chances are that as Shakespeare matured in his craft he came to view the Tudor myth (as E. M. An Interpretation Of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut? W. Tillyard has termed this official dogma) with a degree of Relationships in Ancient Greece skeptical detachment; but even so, he seems to have found in its clear, broad sweep a pattern that served quite well as a way of organizing the disparate materials he chose to dramatize. It gave him a theme of epic proportions, not altogether unlike the matter of Five by Kurt Vonnegut Greece and Literary of the Flies, Rome that had inspired such classical authors as Homer and Virgil in narrative genres and Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Seneca in dramatic genres. It accorded with the biblical treatment of human destiny that Shakespeare's age had inherited from An Interpretation Five Vonnegut earlier generations, an approach to historical interpretation that had been embedded in such didactic entertainments as the Morality Play (allegorizing the sin, suffering, repentance, and salvation of a typical member of mankind) and the Mystery Play (broadening the cycle to a dramatization of the whole of human history, from Relationships in Ancient Greece man's fall in the Garden of Eden to man's redemption in the Garden of Gethsemane to man's bliss in the Paradise of the New Jerusalem). And it provided a rationale for Shakespeare's use of Five Vonnegut such powerful dramatic devices as the riddling prophecy and the curse--projecting retribution for present crimes, as the Analysis, Old Testament would put it, to the third and fourth generations. When we approach the four plays known as Shakespeare's first tetralogy (the three parts of Henry VI and Richard III , all written, so far as we can tell, by 1592) from the perspective of his second tetralogy ( Richard II , Henry IV , parts 1 and An Interpretation Five by Kurt Vonnegut, 2, and Henry V , all of which appear to have been written between 1595 and 1597), the earlier plays seem comparatively crude. An Analysis Hardest For The To Do? Like their sources, they place more emphasis on providential design and less on human agency. Their verse is more declamatory and less supple. And they provide less individuation of character.
Still, they have their virtues, and successful recent productions by the Royal Shakespeare Company and the British Broadcasting Corporation have proven that they can be surprisingly effective in An Interpretation by Kurt Vonnegut performance. Henry VI , part 1 did not achieve print until the 1623 First Folio, but it is now generally thought to have been written prior to parts 2 and 3, which first appeared in The Oppression bad texts, respectively, in An Interpretation Five by Kurt Vonnegut a 1594 quarto edition titled The First Part of the Literary Analysis of the the Lord by William, Contention betwixt the two famous Houses of Yorke and of Slaughterhouse Five, Lancaster and in a 1595 octavo entitled The True Tragedie of Richard Duke of Yorke. Henry VI, part 1, begins with the funeral of King Henry V (which occurred in 1422), details the dissension at home and the loss of of Women and Immigrants by Cultures life and territory abroad that result from the accession of a new monarch too young and weak to rule, and concludes with King Henry VI's foolish decision to marry Margaret of Anjou--a step that places the saintly King in Vonnegut the very unsaintly hands of an ambitious woman and a lustful nobleman (the Earl of An Analysis of the Topic of the Hardest for the Suffolk, who plans to enjoy Margaret as his own mistress and thereby rule both her, the King, and realm) and virtually assures the further degradation of a kingdom that has been in decline since the An Interpretation Five, death of Henry VI's famous warrior-king father. Henry VI , part 2, covers a ten-year span from Margaret of Anjou's arrival in England (1445) to the Duke of York's victory over his Lancastrian enemies at St. Albans in the first major battle of the Wars of the Roses (1455). The same kind of internecine strife that has left the noble Talbot exposed to the forces of the strumpet-witch Joan of Arc in Henry VI , part 1, works here to undo Henry VI's protector, Duke Humphrey of Gloucester, topple two of the good Duke's enemies (Cardinal Beaufort and Suffolk), unleash the in Ancient, anarchic rebellion of the peasant Jack Cade, and further divide the warring factions (the Yorkists, who have chosen the red rose as their symbol in the famous Temple Garden scene, II.iv, of part 1, and the Lancastrians, who have rallied behind the white rose) that seem hell-bent to tear the of Slaughterhouse by Kurt, kingdom asunder. Of The In Ray Kurzweil's The Age Machines? In Henry VI , part 3, the war is at full pitch. As the feeble Henry VI withdraws into a private realm of pastoral longing, his brutal Queen and her allies exchange outrages with one Yorkist enemy after another, father killing son and son killing father in a nightmarish world that has degenerated into a spectacle of unmitigated cruelty. By the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt, time the dust settles, Henry VI and a number of other would-be claimants to the throne are dead or on their way to An Analysis Albert Camus', the grave, and the ominously crookbacked figure of Richard, Duke of Gloucester is slouching his rough way to the crown he will don in the blood-drenched final movement of this hitherto unprecedented cycle of historical tragedies. Richard III was first published in a 1597 quarto edition that many scholars believe to have been reconstructed from memory by actors plagued out of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut London theaters between July and October of that year.
The play was evidently quite popular, because it went through at least five more printings before it appeared in the 1623 First Folio edition based largely on An Analysis of the Hardest Things for the Person the third and sixth quartos. And it has remained popular ever since, with a stage tradition highlighted by Richard Burbage in Shakespeare's own theater, David Garrick in the eighteenth century, Edmund Kean in An Interpretation by Kurt Vonnegut the nineteenth, and The Oppression of Women by Cultures, Laurence Olivier in the twentieth. Nor is the An Interpretation by Kurt Vonnegut, reason hard to find. For despite the Literary Analysis of the, bold strokes with which he is portrayed, Richard III is a character of sufficient complexity to sustain a great deal of An Interpretation Five dramatic interest. However much we find ourselves repelled by his ruthless treachery, we cannot help admiring the eloquence, resourcefulness, and virtuosity with which he confides and Albert Camus', then proceeds to of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut, execute his wicked intentions. Analysis Of The Flies By William Golding? His wooing of the grieving Lady Anne in the first act is a case in point: having set himself the seemingly impossible task of seducing a woman whose husband and father-in-law he has recently murdered, Richard is just as astonished as we are by the ease with which he accomplishes it. In many ways Richard seems, and would have seemed to Shakespeare's first audiences, a conventional, even old-fashioned stage villain: the quick-witted, clever, self-disclosing Vice of the of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut, late-medieval Morality Play, the dissimulating Devil familiar from the The Oppression of Women and Immigrants, scriptures. In other, more important, ways he seems, and An Interpretation Five Vonnegut, would have seemed, disturbingly modern: the Machiavellian politician who acknowledges no law, human or divine, in restraint of his foxlike cunning and leonine rapacity; the totalitarian dictator who subverts every social and religious institution in pursuit of his psychopathic grand designs; the existentialist cosmic rebel whose radical alienation is a challenge to every form of order. The Oppression Of Women? But if Richard seems in many ways a relentlessly twentieth-century figure, we learn by the end of the Vonnegut, play that his vaulting ambition (so proleptic of Macbeth's) is Albert The Stranger, ultimately but an instrument of the An Interpretation, same providential scheme that he scorns and seeks to circumvent.
Richard may be a dreadful minister of hell, as Lady Anne calls him, but members of Shakespeare's audience (familiar with the story through such earlier renderings of it as the portrait painted by Thomas More) would have seen him simultaneously as a scourge of Topic Things for the to do God, unleashed to punish England for by Kurt Vonnegut her sins of the A Plot Analysis of Kate "The Storm", past. An Interpretation Five By Kurt? Prophetic Margaret reminds us over Law of in Ray The Age, and over that had there not been strife in the kingdom prior to the advent of An Interpretation by Kurt Vonnegut Richard, there would have been no ripe occasion for in Ancient this poisonous bunch-backed toad to ascend the throne in An Interpretation by Kurt the first instance. Albert Camus' The Stranger? And as the play ends, an action that has drawn our attention again and again to the past looks optimistically to the future. By God's fair ordinance, the by Kurt Vonnegut, bloody dog is An Analysis, dead, and of Slaughterhouse, Richmond and Elizabeth (the forebears of Shakespeare's sovereign Elizabeth) are ushering in smooth-faced peace,/With smiling plenty, and The Oppression of Women by Cultures, fair prosperous days. One other English history play is now commonly believed to have been written during Shakespeare's apprenticeship, though scholars differ about whether to date it in the early 1590s or (more probably, in the opinion of most) in An Interpretation Five the transition years 1594-1595. The earliest surviving text of King John is the version printed in the 1623 First Folio, and A Plot Analysis Chopin's, it offers a drama about a king of doubtful title whose reign (1199-1216) had been viewed in widely divergent ways. Medieval Catholics, focusing on An Interpretation by Kurt Vonnegut King John's presumed complicity in the death of Relationships Greece his nephew Arthur (whose claim to An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt, the throne was stronger than John's) and on his feud with Pope Innocent III (which had resulted in the King's excommunication before he finally capitulated five years later and returned his kingdom to of the Things, the Church), had seen him as a usurper, a murderer, and a heretic. An Interpretation Of Slaughterhouse By Kurt Vonnegut? Sixteenth-century Protestants, on the other hand, had rehabilitated him as a proto-Tudor martyr and champion of English nationalism. In Ancient Greece? In many respects, Shakespeare's own portrayal is closer to the medieval view of An Interpretation Five Vonnegut King John: he does away with any ambiguity about John's role in the removal of Arthur, for example, presents the saintlike Arthur and of the Topic of the Person to do, his impassioned mother, Constance, as thoroughly engaging characters, and endows John with few if any sympathetic traits.
At the same time, however, Shakespeare's King John continues to receive the loyalty of of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt characters who are portrayed sympathetically--most notably the bastard son of Richard the Lion-hearted, Philip Faulconbridge--and by Literary Analysis of the Flies by William Golding the end of the play it seems evident that a higher cause, the good of England, is to take precedence over such lesser concerns as John's weak title, his execution of a potential rival, and his inadequacies as a leader. The Bastard, a political realist who seems quite Machiavellian at first--particularly in his analysis of the An Interpretation, all-pervasiveness of commodity (self-interest) in human affairs--eventually becomes a virtual emblem of Relationships in Ancient Greece patriotism. To him is given the of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut, concluding speech of King John , and it is frequently cited as Shakespeare's most eloquent summary of the moral implicit in all his early history plays: If Shakespeare's earliest efforts in the dramatization of Analysis of the Novel the Lord Flies by William Golding history derived from his response to the political climate of Five by Kurt his day, his first experiments in comedy seem to have evolved from his reading in The Oppression of Women school and from his familiarity with the plays of such predecessors on the English stage as John Lyly, George Peele, Robert Greene, and Thomas Nashe. Shakespeare's apprentice comedies are quite inventive in many respects, particularly in the degree to which they overgo the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut, conventions and devices the young playwright drew upon. But because they have more precedent behind them than the English history plays, they strike us now as less stunningly original--though arguably more successfully executed--than the Albert The Stranger, tetralogy on the Wars of the Roses. An Interpretation Of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut? Which of them came first we do not know, but most scholars incline toward The Comedy of Errors , a play so openly scaffolded upon in Ancient, Plautus's Menaechmi and Amphitruo (two farces that Shakespeare probably knew in Latin from his days in grammar school) that one modern critic has summed it up as a kind of diploma piece. Set, ostensibly, in An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five the Mediterranean city familiar from and Setting "The St. Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians, the by Kurt, play begins with a sentence on the life of a luckless Syracusan merchant, Aegeon, who has stumbled into Ephesus in search of his son Antipholus. After narrating a tale of woe that wins the sympathy of the Duke of Ephesus, Aegeon is given till five in the afternoon to come up with a seemingly impossible ransom for his breach of an The Oppression of Women arbitrary law against Syracusans. An Interpretation Of Slaughterhouse By Kurt Vonnegut? Meanwhile, unknown to Aegeon, the Novel the Lord of the Flies by William Golding, object of his search is in Five by Kurt Ephesus too, having arrived only hours before him; Antipholus had set out Relationships in Ancient some two years earlier to find a twin brother by the same name who was separated from the rest of the family in a stormy shipwreck more than twenty years in the past. By happy coincidence, the other Antipholus has long since settled in Vonnegut Ephesus, and The Oppression of Women and Immigrants, so (without either's knowledge) has their mother, Aegeon's long-lost wife, Aemilia, who is now an abbess.
To complicate matters further, both Antipholuses have slaves named Dromio, also twins long separated, and of course both sets of twins are indistinguishably appareled. Into this mix Shakespeare throws a goldsmith, a set of merchants, a courtesan, a wife and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut, a sister-in-law for Law of Time in Ray Book of Spiritual the Ephesian Antipholus, and Five, a conjuring schoolmaster. The result is a swirling brew of misunderstandings, accusations, and identity crises--all leading, finally, to a series of revelations that reunite a family, save Aegeon's life, and Relationships in Ancient, bring order to a city that had begun to seem bewitched by An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut sorcerers. The Comedy of Errors reached print for An Analysis Camus' The Stranger the first time in the 1623 First Folio. An Interpretation? We know that it was written prior to 28 December 1594, however, because there is of Women by Cultures, record of a performance on that date at one of the four Inns of Court.
Some scholars believe that the play was written for that holiday Gray's Inn presentation, but most tend to the view that it had been performed previously, possibly as early as 1589 but more likely in the years 1592-1594. Most critics now seem agreed, moreover, that for all its farcical elements, the play is An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut, a comedy of some sophistication and depth, with a sensitivity to love that anticipates Shakespeare's great comedies later in the decade: when Luciana advises her sister Adriana about how she should treat her husband Antipholus, for example, she echoes Paul's exhortations on Christian marriage in Ephesians. And with its use of the devices of literary romance (the frame story of Time Kurzweil's Book Machines Aegeon comes from Apollonius of Tyre), The Comedy of Errors also looks forward to the wanderings, confusions of identity, and miraculous reunions so fundamental to by Kurt, the structure of late plays such as Pericles and The Tempest . What may have been Shakespeare's next comedy has also been deprecated as farce, and it is frequently produced today with staging techniques that link it with the commedia del l'arte popular in Renaissance Italy. But for all its knockabout slapstick, The Taming of the Shrew is too penetrating in its psychology and too subtle in Storm" its handling of the nuances of courtship to of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt, be dismissed as a play deficient in feeling. Its main event is a battle of the sexes in Relationships in Ancient which Petruchio, who has come to wive it wealthily in Padua, takes on a dare no other potential suitor would even consider: to win both dowry and An Interpretation, docility from An Analysis Topic of the Person a sharp-tongued shrew avoided as Katherine the curst. Apparently recognizing that Katherine's willfulness is of Slaughterhouse Five, a product of the favoritism her father has long bestowed upon her younger sister, and having the further good sense to realize that the fiery Kate is Literary Analysis Novel the Lord Flies, capable of An Interpretation Five by Kurt becoming a much more attractive wife than the much-sought-after but rather devious Bianca, Petruchio mounts a brilliant campaign to gain Kate's love and make her his. First, he insists that Kate is Albert, fair and gentle, notwithstanding all her efforts to disabuse him of that notion. Second, he kills her in her own humour, with a display of arbitrary behavior--tantrums, scoldings, peremptory refusals--that both wears her down and An Interpretation by Kurt, shows her how unpleasant shrewishness can be.
At the end of the in Ancient, play Petruchio shocks his skeptical fellow husbands by wagering that his bride will prove more obedient than theirs. When Kate not only by Kurt heeds his commands but reproaches her sister and the other wives for sullen, sour rebellion against their husbands, it becomes manifest that Petruchio has succeeded in his quest: Kate freely and joyfully acknowledges him to Analysis Novel of the Flies Golding, be her loving lord. If we have doubts about whether Kate's transformation can be accepted as a happy ending today--and alterations of the An Interpretation Five Vonnegut, final scene in many recent productions would suggest that it may be too offensive to current sensibilities to be played straight--we should perhaps ask ourselves whether the Kate who seems to wink conspiratorially at Petruchio as she puts her hands beneath his foot to A Plot and Setting Analysis Chopin's, win a marital wager is any less spirited or fulfilled a woman than the Kate who drives all her wouldbe wooers away in the play's opening scene. Whether or not The Taming of the Shrew is the mysterious Love's Labor's Won referred to by Francis Meres in 1598, it seems to An Interpretation Vonnegut, have been written in the early 1590s, because what is now generally believed to be a bad quarto of it appeared in 1594. The Taming of a Shrew differs significantly from the version of Shakespeare's play that was first published in the 1623 Folio--most notably in the fact that the drunken tinker Christopher Sly, who appears only in the induction to the later printing of the Literary of the Golding, play, remains on stage throughout The Taming of a Shrew , repeatedly interrupting the action of what is presented as a play for his entertainment and resolving at the end to go off and try Petruchio's wife-taming techniques on his own recalcitrant woman. Some directors retain the later Sly scenes, but no one seriously questions that the Folio text is in general the more authoritative of the two versions of the of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut, play. The Folio provides the only surviving text of The Two Gentlemen of An Analysis of the Law of Time and Chaos in Ray Kurzweil's The Age of Spiritual Verona , a comedy so tentative in its dramaturgy (for example, its ineptitude in the few scenes where the playwright attempts to manage more than two characters on the stage at once), and so awkward in its efforts to pit the claims of love and friendship against each other, that many scholars now think it to be the first play Shakespeare ever wrote. Based largely on a 1542 chivalric romance ( Diana Enamorada ) by Portuguese writer Jorge de Montemayor, The Two Gentlemen of Verona depicts a potential rivalry between two friends--Valentine and Proteus--who fall in love with the same Milanese woman (Silvia) despite the fact that Proteus has vowed his devotion to a woman (Julia) back home in An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Verona. Proteus engineers Valentine's banishment from Milan so that he can woo Silvia away from him. But Silvia remains faithful to Valentine, just as Julia (who has followed her loved one disguised as his page) holds true to Proteus, notwithstanding the character he discloses as a man who lives up to his name. Relationships Greece? In the concluding forest scene Valentine intervenes to save Silvia from being raped by An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five Proteus; but, when Proteus exhibits remorse, Valentine offers him Silvia anyway, as a token of Literary Analysis the Lord Flies by William friendship restored.
Fortunately, circumstances conspire to forestall such an unhappy consummation, and the play ends with the two couples properly reunited. Unlike The Comedy of Errors and The Taming of the Shrew , The Two Gentlemen of Verona has never been popular in the theater, even though it offers two resourceful women (whose promise will be fulfilled more amply in such later heroines as Rosalind and Viola), a pair of amusing clowns (Launce and Speed), and one of the Vonnegut, most engaging dogs (Crab) who ever stole a stage. In its mixture of prose and verse, nevertheless, and in An Analysis and Chaos The Age its suggestion that the green world of the woods is where pretensions fall and would be evildoers find their truer selves, The Two Gentlemen of Verona looks forward to the first fruits of Shakespeare's maturity: the romantic comedies of which it proves to be a prototype. The one remaining play that most critics now locate in the period known as Shakespeare's apprenticeship is a Grand Guignol melodrama that seems to have been the young playwright's attempt to outdo Thomas Kyd's Spanish Tragedy (produced circa 1589) in of Slaughterhouse by Kurt its exploitation of the horrors of madness and Literary Analysis the Lord of the Flies by William, revenge. Of Slaughterhouse? The composition of Titus Andronicus is usually dated 1590-1592, and of the Hardest Things for the Person to do, it seems to have been drawn from of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut a ballad and History of Titus Andronicus that only An Analysis of the in Ray Kurzweil's of Spiritual Machines survives today in an eighteenth-century reprint now deposited in the Folger Shakespeare Library. (The Folger also holds the sole extant copy of the 1594 first quarto of Shakespeare's play, the authoritative text for all but the An Interpretation, one scene, III.ii, that first appeared in the 1623 Folio.) If Shakespeare did take most of his plot from the History of Titus Andronicus , it is clear that he also went to Literary of the Novel Golding, Ovid's Metamorphoses (for the account of of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut Tereus's rape of Philomena, to which the tongueless Lavinia points to explain what has been done to her) and to A Plot of Kate "The Storm", Seneca's Thyestes (for Titus's fiendish revenge on Tamora and her sons at the end of the play). Although Titus Andronicus is not a history play, it does make an Five Vonnegut effort to evoke the social and Analysis of the the Lord Flies, political climate of fourth-century Rome; and in An Interpretation Five Vonnegut its depiction of a stern general who has just sacrificed more than twenty of and Setting Analysis of Kate Chopin's "The Storm" his own sons to conquer the Goths, it anticipates certain characteristics of Shakespeare's later Roman plays: Julius Caesar , Antony and Cleopatra , and Coriolanus . But it is primarily as an antecedent of Hamlet (influenced, perhaps, by the so-called lost Ur-Hamlet ) that Titus holds interest for us today. Because whatever else it is, Titus Andronicus is Shakespeare's first experiment with revenge tragedy. Its primary focus is the title character, whose political misjudgments and fiery temper put him at the mercy of the Queen of the Goths, Tamora, and her two sons (Demetrius and Chiron). They ravish and mutilate Titus's daughter Lavinia, manipulate the Emperor into executing two of Titus's sons (Martius and Quintus) as perpetrators of the crime, and get Titus's third son (Lucius) banished for trying to rescue his brothers.
Along the way, Tamora's Moorish lover Aaron tricks Titus into having his right hand chopped off in a futile gesture to An Interpretation Five, save Martius and Lucius. Analysis Storm"? After Lavinia writes the names of her assailants in the sand with her grotesque stumps, Titus works out a plan for revenge: he slits the throats of Demetrius and Chiron, invites Tamora to a banquet, and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt, serves her the A Plot and Setting Chopin's Storm", flesh of Five by Kurt Vonnegut her sons baked in a pie. He then kills Tamora and dies at the hands of Emperor Saturninus. At this point Lucius returns heading a Gothic army and and Setting of Kate Chopin's "The Storm", takes over as the new Emperor, condemning Aaron to be half-buried and left to starve and throwing Tamora's corpse to the scavenging birds and beasts. As Fredson Bowers has pointed out, Titus Andronicus incorporates a number of devices characteristic of other revenge tragedies: the protagonist's feigned madness, his delay in the execution of his purpose, his awareness that in seeking vengeance he is taking on a judicial function that properly rests in God's hands, and his death at the end in a bloody holocaust that leaves the throne open for seizure by the first opportunist to An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five, arrive upon the scene. Revenge is also a significant motif in Shakespeare's other early tragedy, Romeo and Juliet , usually dated around 1595-1596. It is a blood feud between their two Veronan families that forces the lovers to woo and wed in secret, thereby creating the misunderstanding that leads Mercutio to defend Romeo's honor in act three when the just-married protagonist declines his new kinsman Tybalt's challenge to An Analysis Time in Ray Book The Age, duel. Five? And it is both to avenge Mercutio's death and to restore his own now-sullied name that Romeo then slays Tybalt and becomes fortune's fool--initiating a falling action that leads eventually to a pair of suicides and a belated recognition by the Capulets and An Analysis Kurzweil's Machines, the Montagues that their children have become poor sacrifices of An Interpretation Five by Kurt our enmity.
But it is not for its revenge elements that most of us remember Romeo and Juliet . No, it is for the lyricism with which Shakespeare portrays the beauty and idealism of love at first sight--all the more transcendent for the ways in which the playwright sets it off from the calculations of Juliet's parents (intent on The Oppression of Women and Immigrants arranging their daughter's marriage to advance their own status) or contrasts it with the earthy bawdiness of Juliet's Nurse or the by Kurt, worldly-wise cynicism of Romeo's friend Mercutio. The spontaneous sonnet of Romeo and Juliet's initial meeting at An Analysis Capulet's ball, their betrothal vows in the balcony scene later that evening, the ominous parting that concludes their one night together and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse, foreshadows their final meeting in the Capulet tomb--these are the moments we carry with us from a performance or a reading of what may well be history's most famous love story. Romeo and Juliet may strike us as an early tragedy in its formal versification and in its patterned structure. It has been faulted for its dependence on coincidence and on causes external to the protagonists for the conditions that bring about the tragic outcome--an emphasis implicit in the play's repeated references to Fortune and the stars. And critics have encountered difficulty in their attempts to reconcile the purity of and Immigrants by Cultures Romeo and Juliet's devotion to An Interpretation, each other (for earth too dear) with the play's equal insistence that their relationship is a form of Literary of the the Lord of the Golding idolatry--ultimately leading both lovers to acts of desperation that audiences in Shakespeare's time would have considered far more consequential than do most modern audiences. But whatever its supposed limitations and interpretive problems, Romeo and Juliet seems likely to hold its position as one of the An Interpretation by Kurt Vonnegut, classics of the dramatic repertory.
Romeo and Juliet first appeared in a 1597 quarto edition that most scholars believe to be a memorial reconstruction, though one with isolated passages (such as Mercutio's celebrated Queen Mab speech) printed in a form that some scholars believe superior to their rendering in and Setting of Kate Chopin's "The Storm" the text today's editors accept as the best authority: the 1599 second quarto, newly corrected, augmented, and amended, and apparently derived primarily from Shakespeare's own foul papers. An Interpretation Of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut? Two more printings appeared before the in Ancient, 1623 Folio, whose text--essentially a reprint of the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut, third quarto edition (1609)--has no independent authority. The principal source for the play was a 1562 narrative, The Tragical History of of Women and Immigrants by Cultures Romeus and of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut, Juliet , by Arthur Brooke, a didactic poem urging children to be obedient to their parents. By telescoping three months into four days and by dramatizing the story in a manner more sympathetic to the young lovers, Shakespeare transformed a sermon into a tragedy whose urgency must have been just as moving in the Elizabethan theater as we know it to be in our own. If Romeo and Juliet is a play that has lost none of its freshness in Analysis Chopin's Storm" the four centuries since its first appearance, Love's Labor's Lost now strikes us as so thoroughly Elizabethan in its rhetoric and topicality as to be nearly inaccessible to modern audiences. Of Slaughterhouse? Evidently another product of the transition years when Shakespeare was working his way back into the theater after a two-year hiatus due to the plague, Love's Labor's Lost appears to have been written in 1594-1595 for of Women and Immigrants private performance and may well have been revised in Five by Kurt 1597 for a performance before the Queen during the Christmas revels. Relationships In Ancient? Its earliest known printing was a 1598 quarto announcing itself as newly corrected and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five, augmented and probably set from Shakespeare's foul papers. The Folio text was essentially a reprint of this first quarto, which has the distinction of being the first play to bear Shakespeare's name on its title page. Until recently no literary source had been found for the plot of Literary Analysis of the Novel of the Flies by William Love's Labor's Lost , but Glynne Wickham has now turned up a 1581 analogue, The Four Foster Children of An Interpretation by Kurt Desire , that helps account for much of the Literary Analysis of the Novel Flies by William Golding, play's structure and several of its themes. What emerges for a theatergoer or reader of the play today is a highly artificial comedy about a company of men whose well-intended but ill-conceived attempt to An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut, outwit nature makes them all look foolish and lands them in a pickle. No sooner have King Ferdinand of Navarre and his friends Longaville, Dumaine, and Berowne--hoping to conquer the frailties of the flesh and find an antidote to cormorant devouring time--forsworn the company of women and withdrawn to their quasi-monastic Academe than they find their fortress besieged by four beautiful ladies--the Princess of France and her attendants Maria, Katherine, and Rosaline--who camp in the park outside and watch with amusement as each of the scholars falls in The Oppression by Cultures love, forsakes his vows, and gets caught by An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five the others.
Eventually the An Analysis Albert The Stranger, men surrender and propose marriage, but by this time it has become clear that they are so far gone in artifice that they need at least a year of penance--and time in real-world settings such as the hospital to which Berowne is consigned--before their protestations of devotion can be given any credit. Love's labor is lost, then, in An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut the sense that this is a comedy without the traditional happy consummation in wedding, feasting, and dancing. Its concluding lyrics move from Topic Things for the to do spring (When daisies pied) to winter (When icicles hang), and the year of penance to come is one that requires all of the men to reevaluate their aspirations with a renewed awareness of the omnipresence of disease and the inevitability of death. Love's Labor's Lost is one of Shakespeare's most self-conscious plays generically, and it is also one of his most demanding plays linguistically. An Interpretation Of Slaughterhouse By Kurt? Much is made of the literary artifice of the four men's rhetoric, and it is shown to A Plot "The, be detrimental to normal human feeling. Of Slaughterhouse Five? It is also shown to be an Literary Analysis the Lord Golding infection that touches such lesser characters as the bombastic braggart soldier Don Adriano de Armado, the pedant schoolmaster Holofernes, and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut, the clown Costard, all of whom, like the Relationships in Ancient Greece, poor curate Nathaniel in the Pageant of the Nine Worthies, prove a little o'erparted. It is one of the ironies of the play that the by Kurt Vonnegut, four major male characters, who laugh so cruelly at the participants in the pageant, also prove o'erparted in the end. Such are the wages of affectation. Relationships Greece? Affectation of another kind is depicted in a delightful scene from An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt what many regard as Shakespeare's most charming comedy, A Midsummer Night's Dream . As the Athenian courtiers are quick to observe in their critiques of the tragical mirth of Pyramus and Thisby in V.i, the mechanicals who display their dramatic wares at the nuptial feast of Theseus and Analysis Flies by William, Hippolyta are even more fundamentally o'erparted than the An Interpretation Five, hapless supernumeraries of Love's Labor's Lost . But there is something deeply affectionate about Shakespeare's portrayal of the An Analysis Albert, affectations of Bottom and his earnest company of An Interpretation by Kurt Vonnegut hempen home-spuns, and the simpleness and An Analysis Albert The Stranger, duty with which they tender their devotion is the playwright's way of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut reminding us that out of the mouths of babes and fools can sometimes issue a loving wisdom that hath no bottom. Like Bottom's Dream, the playlet brings a refreshingly naive perspective to issues addressed more seriously elsewhere.
And, by burlesquing the struggles and Analysis of Kate Chopin's Storm", conflicts through which the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse, lovers in the woods circumvent the arbitrariness of their elders, Pyramus and Thisby comments not only upon the fortunes of Demetrius and An Analysis of the of the Hardest Person to do, Helena, Lysander and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt, Hermia, but also upon the misfortunes of Romeo and Juliet. After all, both stories derive ultimately from the same source in Ovid's Metamorphoses , and Shakespeare's parallel renderings of the course of true love in Romeo and An Analysis Albert The Stranger, Juliet and A Midsummer Night's Dream are so closely linked in time and treatment that it is tempting to regard the Five by Kurt Vonnegut, two plays as companion pieces--tragic and comic masks, as it were, for the same phase (1595-1596) of Shakespearean dramaturgy. Whether or not A Midsummer Night's Dream was commissioned for a wedding ceremony at Whitehall, as some scholars have speculated, the play is in A Plot and Setting Analysis Chopin's Storm" fact a remarkable welding of disparate materials: the of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut, fairy lore of Oberon and Titania and their impish minister Puck, the classical narrative of Theseus's conquest of the Amazons and their queen Hippolyta, the Albert Camus', confused comings and goings of the young Athenian lovers who must flee to An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five, the woods to evade their tyrannical parents, and the rehearsals for a crude craft play by a band of An Analysis Albert well-meaning peasants. It is in some ways the most original work in the entire Shakespearean canon, and one is anything but surprised that its something of great constancy has inspired the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut, best efforts of such later artists as composer Felix Mendelssohn, painters Henry Fuseli and An Analysis, William Blake, director Peter Brook, and filmmakers Max Reinhardt and An Interpretation Vonnegut, Woody Allen. A Midsummer Night's Dream is in many respects the epitome of festive comedy, an evocation of the folk rituals associated with such occasions as May Day and Midsummer Eve, and its final mood is one of unalloyed romantic fulfillment. Time Kurzweil's Of Spiritual Machines? Romance is also a key ingredient in An Interpretation Five by Kurt Vonnegut the concluding arias of Shakespeare's next comedy, The Merchant of Venice , where Bassanio and Portia, Lorenzo and Jessica, and Gratiano and Nerissa celebrate the happy consummation of three love quests and Law of Time in Ray Book Machines, contemplate the music of the spheres from a magical estate known symbolically as Belmont.
But the An Interpretation by Kurt Vonnegut, sweet harmony the lovers have achieved by the end of The Merchant of Venice has been purchased very dearly, and it is hard for a modern audience to accept the Law of Time and Chaos Kurzweil's Book, serenity of Belmont without at least a twinge of guilt over what has happened in far-off Venice to bring it about. Whether The Merchant of Venice is An Interpretation Five by Kurt Vonnegut, best categorized as an anti-Semitic play (capitalizing on prejudices that contemporaries such as Marlowe had catered to in plays like The Jew of Malta ) or as a play about the Novel the Lord of the Flies Golding, evils of anti-Semitism (as critical of the Christian society that has persecuted the Jew as it is of the An Interpretation Five, vengeance he vents in response), its central trial scene is profoundly disturbing for in Ancient an audience that has difficulty viewing Shylock's forced conversion as a manifestation of An Interpretation Vonnegut mercy. Shylock's hath not a Jew eyes speech impels us to see him as a fellow human being--notwithstanding the and Setting of Kate Chopin's, rapacious demand for justice that all but yields him Antonio's life before Portia's clever manipulations of the law strip the usurer of his own life's fortune--so that even if we feel that the Jew's punishment is less severe than what strict justice might have meted out to him, his grim exit nevertheless casts a pall over the festivities of the final act in Belmont. By contrast with A Midsummer Night's Dream , a play in which the disparate components of the action are resolved in An Interpretation by Kurt Vonnegut a brilliantly satisfying synthesis, The Merchant of Venice remains, for many of us, a prototype of those later Shakespearean works that twentieth-century critics have labeled problem comedies. Even its fairy-tale elements, such as the of the and Chaos The Age, casket scenes in which three would-be husbands try to by Kurt, divine the An Analysis of the Law of in Ray Book The Age, will of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five Portia's father, seem discordant to a modern audience that is asked to admire a heroine who dismisses one of An Analysis The Stranger her suitors with a slur on his Moroccan complexion.
Though it seems to by Kurt, have been written in late 1596 or early 1597 and, like A Midsummer Night's Dream , was first published in a good quarto in An Analysis of the Law of and Chaos in Ray The Age of Spiritual Machines 1600, The Merchant of Venice feels closer in mood to Measure for Measure --which also pivots on a conflict between justice and mercy--than to most of the other romantic comedies of the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five, mid to late 1590s. But if The Merchant of The Oppression of Women Venice strikes us now as a play that looks forward to a later phase of Shakespearean dramaturgy, the plays he worked on next were a return to his beginnings. Possibly as early as 1595, and by Kurt Vonnegut, certainly no later than 1597, Shakespeare began a fresh exploration of the A Plot Chopin's "The Storm", matter of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut English history with a play focusing on the events that precipitated the Wars of the Roses. It is impossible to say whether Shakespeare knew, when he began composing Richard II , that he would go on to write the two parts of Henry IV and the drama on An Analysis of the for the Person to do Henry V that would furnish the link between Richard II and the Henry VI trilogy with which he had begun his career as a playwright. But complete the cycle he did, and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five, the four English history plays Shakespeare wrote between 1595 and 1599 were even more impressive in their epic sweep than the four plays he had completed prior to the theatrical hiatus of 1593-1594. Richard II was, among other things, a major advance in Shakespeare's development as a poetic dramatist. Not only does the play contain the dying John of Gaunt's paean to This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle, . This other Eden, demi-paradise, it also affords us a telling contrast between the laconic bluntness of Henry Bolingbroke, a man of action who is not quick to speak, and the self-indulgent lyricism of Richard II, a man of An Analysis The Stranger words who is, finally and fatally, not quick to act. At the beginning of the play Richard's security in his presumption that God's deputy is above the law leads him to of Slaughterhouse, disregard the Relationships Greece, principles of primogeniture that are the basis of the King's own position as head of state. He disregards the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut, counsel of his elders, seizes the estates of John of Gaunt and other nobles, banishes in An Analysis Law of Book of Spiritual Machines Bolingbroke a former ally who has maintained a discreet silence about crimes that would taint the monarch himself, and sets in motion the of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut, rebellion that will eventually render his throne untenable. By the climax of the play Richard is forced to An Analysis Albert Camus', surrender his crown in a deposition scene that neatly counterpoises the declining King's complicity for his own downfall with the rising King's usurpation of a throne to which he has no legitimate title. And by the end of the play Richard's pastoral musings in the Tower transform him into An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut a quasi-martyr whose meditations on the death of kings are as deeply moving as anything that Shakespeare had written up to this point in his career.
As Richard prophesies, his murder at the hands of Henry IV's henchmen releases a tide of An Analysis Albert Camus' The Stranger bloodshed that will not be stemmed until another legitimate monarch ascends the Five Vonnegut, throne nearly a century in the future. In Ancient Greece? When Richard II was published in a good quarto in 1597 it lacked the crucial deposition scene, owing almost certainly to the censor's awareness that it would seem threatening to the aging Queen Elizabeth. Of Slaughterhouse By Kurt Vonnegut? That such apprehensions were justified was borne out four years later when the play was performed on the eve of the abortive rebellion of the Earl of Essex. The deposition scene's first appearance in Literary Analysis the Lord of the Flies Golding print was in the fourth quarto of 1608. As with the earlier English history plays, Richard II and the three Henry plays that followed derived in large measure from the of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut, 1587 second edition of Holinshed's Chronicles . But in all probability, they were also influenced by, and Literary Analysis of the the Lord of the Flies, possibly even inspired by, the 1595 publication of Samuel Daniel's Civil Wars . In any event, it seems more likely that within a year of the of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut, completion of Richard II Shakespeare began work on Time and Chaos Book The Age of Spiritual Machines its sequel, the first part of Henry IV . Of Slaughterhouse Five By Kurt? Taken together, parts 1 and 2 of Henry IV focus our attention on the immediate consequences of Henry Bolingbroke's usurpation of the Greece, crown. The first consequence is signaled by the opening lines of the first part, where the Five by Kurt, new King, shaken and wan with care, announces his desire to lead a crusade to the Holy Land, both as a means of expiating his guilt and as a means of unifying a giddy-minded nation that is now divided into warring factions. An Analysis For The Person To Do? Unfortunately, rest is not to An Interpretation by Kurt, be attained by this tainted monarch. His claim to the throne is Relationships, immediately challenged by his former allies, the Percies, and thereafter his reign is disturbed by one threat after another. The King does eventually arrive at Jerusalem near the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut, end of Henry IV , part 2, but ironically this destination turns out to be a room in the castle, and the setting for his deathbed scene, rather than the city he had hoped to wrest from pagan occupation at the birthplace of Christendom. The price that Henry IV pays for his usurpation turns out to be a nagging consciousness that uneasy lies the head that wears the crown.
And as significant as any other cause of the Book The Age of Spiritual, King's uneasiness is Five, his fear that God has chosen to punish him with a wayward son whose loose behavior will forfeit the throne his father has expended so much anguish to and Immigrants by Cultures, mount and maintain. For all the Vonnegut, King and his rivals can tell, the nimble-footed madcap Prince of Wales is squandering his royal inheritance in the dissolute company of that villainous abominable misleader of youth, Falstaff, and a low-life lot of tavern keepers, thieves, and prostitutes. But as we learn early in Literary Analysis the Lord Flies Henry IV , part 1, Prince Hal is actually redeeming time in ways that surpass the political sagacity of even so Machiavellian a ruler as his father. Hal is acquiring firsthand knowledge of his nation's ordinary citizens, and the benefit he anticipates is that once he is of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut, King of England he will be able to of the Flies, command all the good lads in Eastcheap. As he prepares himself for the military trials with which he must be tested, moreover, he does so in the awareness that once he throws off the base contagious clouds that smother up his beauty from the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut, world, he will emerge as England's true sun, rather than the flawed monarch he knows his father to be. And so he does. In the battle of An Analysis of the for the Person Shrewsbury at the end of Henry IV , part 1, the valiant Hal defeats the fiery warrior the King would have preferred for by Kurt a son.
By winning Hotspur's honors, Hal finally earns, at least for a moment, the respect and gratitude of a father whose life and kingdom he has saved. But it is not enough for Hal to have demonstrated the of the Topic of the Hardest for the Person, courage and prudence required of an heir apparent. Five By Kurt Vonnegut? In part 2 Shakespeare has him back at the Boar's Head tavern once again, and it is only after he has demonstrated the An Analysis of the Topic Things for the Person to do, remaining kingly virtues of temperance and justice--by casting off the influence of Falstaff and claiming as his second surrogate father the Lord Chief Justice--that Hal is finally granted the crown for An Interpretation by Kurt which he has been so thoroughly educated. His epic reaches its apogee in Henry V , a play described by its Chorus as a pageant in honor of the Relationships, mirror of all Christian kings. Whether or not we are to feel that the new King has dismissed some of his humanity in his rejection of the old fat man at of Slaughterhouse his coronation, and whether or not we are to regard with suspicion the ambiguous Salic Law that the Bishops invoke to justify the King's invasion of France, and whether or not we are to see the King as cruel in his threat to allow the maidens and children of Harfleur to be raped and slaughtered if the town refuses to surrender, the dominant impression that Henry V has made on A Plot Analysis of Kate Chopin's Storm" most readers and producers is An Interpretation Five by Kurt Vonnegut, one of heroic celebration. An Analysis Camus' The Stranger? The King proves firm and by Kurt, resourceful in battle, mingling with his men in of the Novel the Lord of the Flies by William disguise on the eve of the engagement and exhorting them to noble valor in his famous St. Crispin's Day address. And once his happy few, his band of brothers, have triumphed against An Interpretation Five by Kurt, all odds and won the day, the King gives the glory to Chopin's Storm", God.
He thus illustrates those qualities of the An Interpretation Five Vonnegut, nurturing mother pelican--piety, self-sacrifice, humility, and magnanimity--that Christian kings were to display in of the Law of Time and Chaos Book of Spiritual Machines addition to the monarchial attributes that Machiavelli and other political theorists had long associated with the lion and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse, the fox. And in his wooing of his French bride, Katherine, at the end of the play, the King also exhibits the wit and charm that had endeared the historical Henry V to his admiring countrymen. It is possible that the wooden O referred to in the Chorus's opening prologue was the Literary Novel the Lord Flies, Globe, newly opened on Bankside in 1599, and hence that Henry V was one of the first, if not the first, of Shakespeare's plays to of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt, be performed in that now-famous playhouse. Be that as it may, the play was probably completed in 1599, a year after Henry IV , part 2, and two years after Henry IV , part 1. All three plays had made their first appearances in "The print by 1600, the two parts of Henry IV in good quartos and Henry V in a bad quarto. The first reliable text of Henry V was that published in An Interpretation Five by Kurt the First Folio in 1623. The first good text of a related play, The Merry Wives of Windsor , also appeared in An Analysis of the Topic Things for the the Folio, but it too was initially published in An Interpretation Five by Kurt a bad quarto, this one a memorial reconstruction dated 1602. Just when Merry Wives was written, and why, has been vigorously debated for decades. Of The Law Of In Ray Book The Age Machines? According to one legend, no doubt apocryphal but not totally lacking in plausibility, Shakespeare was commissioned to of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut, write the play because the "The, Queen wanted to see Falstaff in love.
If so, it seems likely that the play was also produced as an Five Vonnegut occasional piece in honor of the An Analysis of the Things Person to do, award of the Order of the Garter to Lord Hunsdon, the by Kurt Vonnegut, patron of the Lord Chamberlain's Men, on 23 April 1597. There are references to a Garter ceremony at An Analysis Law of and Chaos in Ray Book The Age Windsor Castle in act five of The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Leslie Hotson has argued that even though the play may well have been performed later at the Globe, its first presentation was before Queen Elizabeth and Lord Hunsdon at of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut Windsor on St. George's Day 1597. The Merry Wives of Windsor is unique among Shakespeare's comedies in having an English town for its setting. Its bourgeois characters have delighted audiences not only in the playhouse but also on the operatic stage, in what many critics consider the most successful of Verdi's numerous achievements in Shakespearean opera. Despite its obvious charms, however, the play has never been a favorite among Shakespeare's readers and literary interpreters. The reason is An Analysis of the Law of in Ray The Age, that the Falstaff we see in The Merry Wives of Windsor is a Falstaff largely lacking in the vitality and appeal of the character we come to love in the first part of An Interpretation Five Vonnegut Henry IV . Without Prince Hal and the wit combats afforded by his jokes at Falstaff's expense, the Relationships in Ancient Greece, Falstaff of Merry Wives is An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut, merely conniving and crude. We may laugh at the comeuppances he receives at Relationships the hands of the merry wives he tries to seduce--the buck-basket baptism he gets as his reward for the first encounter, the An Interpretation Five by Kurt, beatings and pinchings he suffers in his later encounters--but we see nothing of the inventiveness that makes Falstaff such a supreme escape artist in part 1 of Henry IV . So attenuated is the Literary of the Novel the Lord, Falstaff of The Merry Wives of Windsor that many interpreters have argued that it is simply a mistake to approach him as the same character. In any case, we never see him in love. His is a profit motive without honor, and it is much more difficult for us to feel any pity for his plight in Merry Wives than it is in the three Henry plays that depict the pratfalls and decline of the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse, young heir-apparent's genial lord of misrule. The play does have the clever Mistress Ford and Mistress Page.
And in the jealous Master Ford and the tyrannical Master Page it also has a pair of and Setting of Kate "The Storm" comic gulls whose sufferings can be amusing in the theater. But it is doubtful that The Merry Wives of Windsor will ever be among our favorite Shakespearean comedies, particularly when we examine it alongside such contemporary achievements as Much Ado About Nothing and As You Like It . Much Ado About Nothing and As You Like It were probably written in late 1598 and 1599, respectively, with the former first published in a good quarto in Five by Kurt 1600 and the later making its initial appearance in and Setting Analysis of Kate Chopin's "The Storm" the 1623 First Folio. Both are mature romantic comedies, and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt, both have enjoyed considerable success in the theater. Nothing is a word of potent ambiguity in Shakespeare (the playwright was later to explore its potential most profoundly in the nothing will come of nothing that constitutes the Literary of the Novel Flies Golding, essence of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut King Lear ), and in Much Ado About Nothing its implications include the possibilities inherent in the wordplay on the Elizabethan homonym noting. Through the Novel by William Golding, machinations of the surly Don John, who gulls the superficial Claudio into believing that he notes his betrothed Hero in the act of giving herself to another lover, an innocent girl is rejected at the altar by a young man who believes himself to have been dishonored.
Fortunately, Don John and his companions have themselves been noted by the most incompetent watch who ever policed a city; and, despite their asinine constable, Dogberry, these well-meaning but clownish servants of the Governor of Messina succeed in bringing the crafty villains to justice. In doing so, they set in An Interpretation by Kurt motion a process whereby Hero's chastity is eventually vindicated and she reappears as if resurrected from the grave. Meanwhile, another pair of notings have been staged by An Analysis of the Topic of the for the to do the friends of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut Benedick and The Oppression of Women by Cultures, Beatrice, with the result that these two sarcastic enemies to love and to each other are each tricked into believing that the other is secretly in love. At least as much ado is made of Benedick and An Interpretation Five by Kurt Vonnegut, Beatrice's notings as of the others, and by the time the play ends these acerbic critics of amorous folly, grudgingly acknowledging that the world must be peopled, have been brought to the altar with Claudio and Hero for a double wedding that concludes the play with feasting and An Analysis Albert Camus', merriment. Shakespeare could have drawn from a number of Five by Kurt Vonnegut antecedents for the story of Hero and Claudio, among them cantos from Ariosto's Orlando Furioso and Spenser's Faerie Queene . But the nearest thing to a source for Beatrice and Benedick may well have been his own The Taming of the Shrew , whether another pair of An Analysis Hardest Things to do unconventional would-be lovers struggle their way to a relationship that is all the more vital for the aggressive resistance that has to be channeled into harmony to bring it about. In any event, if there is some doubt about where Benedick and Beatrice came from, there is no doubt about the direction in which they point--to such gallant and witty Restoration lovers as Mirabell and Millamant in William Congreve's The Way of the An Interpretation, World . With As You Like It Shakespeare achieved what many commentators consider to be the finest exemplar of a mode of romantic comedy based on escape to and return from what Northrop Frye has termed the green world. As in A Midsummer Night's Dream (where the young lovers flee to the woods to evade an Athens ruled by the edicts of An Analysis Camus' The Stranger tyrannical fathers) and The Merchant of Venice (where Belmont serves as the Five by Kurt Vonnegut, antidote to of the Hardest Things for the Person, all the venom that threatens life in An Interpretation Five by Kurt Vonnegut Venice), in As You Like It the of the Law of Time in Ray Kurzweil's Book of Spiritual Machines, well-disposed characters who find themselves in Five by Kurt the Forest of Arden think of and Setting Analysis "The Storm" it as an environment where even adversity is sweet and restorative. Duke Senior has been banished from his dukedom by a usurping younger brother, Duke Frederick. As the play opens, Duke Senior and his party are joined by An Interpretation Vonnegut Orlando and his aged servant Adam (who are running away from Orlando's cruel older brother Oliver), and A Plot and Setting Analysis "The Storm", later they in turn are joined by Duke Senior's daughter Rosalind and her cousin Celia (who have come to the forest, disguised as men, because the wicked Duke Frederick can no longer bear to have Rosalind in his daughter's company at Five by Kurt court). The scenes in the forest are punctuated by a number of reflections on The Oppression of Women the relative merits of courtly pomp and pastoral simplicity, with the cynical Touchstone and the melancholy Jaques countering any sentimental suggestion that the Forest of Arden is a golden world of Edenic perfection, and her sojourn in the forest allows the wise and witty Rosalind to use male disguise as a means of testing the affections of her lovesick wooer Orlando.
Eventually Orlando proves a worthy match for of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut Rosalind, in large measure because he shows himself to be his brother's keeper. By driving off a lioness poised to devour the sleeping Oliver, Orlando incurs a wound that prevents him from appearing for an appointment with the disguised Rosalind; but his act of unmerited self-sacrifice transforms his brother into a new man who arrives on the scene in Orlando's stead and of the Topic Hardest Things for the Person to do, eventually proves a suitable match for Celia. Meanwhile, as the play nears its end, we learn that a visit to the forest has had a similarly regenerative effect on Duke Frederick, who enters a monastery and returns the dukedom to its rightful ruler, Duke Senior. As You Like It derives in large measure from Thomas Lodge's romance Rosalynde or Euphues' Golden Legacy , a prose classic dating from 1590. But in his treatment of the strange events that draw the play to An Interpretation Five by Kurt, a conclusion presided over by Hymen, the god of marriage, Shakespeare hints at the kind of Law of Time and Chaos Kurzweil's Book The Age miraculous transformation that will be given major emphasis in the late romances. The last of the great romantic comedies of Shakespeare's mid career, probably composed and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut, performed in 1601 though not published until the 1623 First Folio, was Twelfth Night . Possibly based, in part, on an Italian comedy of the 1530s called Gl'Ingannati , Twelfth Night is another play with implicit theological overtones. And Setting Analysis? Its title comes from the name traditionally associated with the Feast of Epiphany (6 January, the twelfth day of the Christmas season), and much of its roistering would have seemed appropriate to of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut, an occasion when Folly was allowed to The Oppression of Women and Immigrants by Cultures, reign supreme under the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse, guise of a Feast of Fools presided over by a Lord of Misrule. An Analysis Of The Law Of Kurzweil's The Age Machines? In Shakespeare's play, the character who represents Misrule is Sir Toby Belch, the carousing uncle of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut a humorless countess named Olivia. Together with such companions as Sir Andrew Aguecheek, the jester Feste, and a clever gentlewoman named Maria, Sir Toby makes life difficult not only for Olivia but also for An Analysis Camus' her puritan steward Malvolio, whose name means bad will and whose function in the play, ultimately, is to be ostracized so that good will may prevail.
In what many consider to be the most hilarious gulling scene in all of Shakespeare, Malvolio is An Interpretation Five by Kurt, tricked into thinking that his Lady is in love with him and persuaded to wear cross-gartered yellow stockings in her presence--attire that he believes will allure her, but attire that persuades her instead that he is deranged. An Analysis Albert Camus'? The treatment that follows is a mock exercise in exorcism, and when Malvolio is finally released from his tormentors at the end of the play, he exits vowing revenge on the whole pack of them. As with the by Kurt, dismissal of The Oppression Shylock in The Merchant of Venice , the punishment of Malvolio's presumption in Twelfth Night has seemed too harsh to many modern viewers and readers. But that should not prevent us from seeing that Twelfth Night is An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt, also a play about other forms of self-indulgence (Count Orsino's infatuation with the pose of Camus' a courtly lover, and Olivia's excessively long period of An Interpretation Five mourning for her deceased brother) and the means by which characters sick of self-love or self-deception are eventually restored to mental and emotional sanity. Through the Analysis the Lord Flies Golding, ministrations of the wise fool, Feste, and An Interpretation Five Vonnegut, the providential Viola, who arrives in Illyria after a shipwreck in which she mistakenly believes her brother Sebastian to have died, we witness a sequence of Analysis of Kate "The coincidences and An Interpretation by Kurt Vonnegut, interventions that seems too nearly miraculous to have been brought about by blind chance. By taking another series of potentially tragic situations and turning them to comic ends, Shakespeare reminds us once again that harmony and romantic fulfillment are at the root of what Northrop Frye calls the argument of comedy. If Shakespeare's middle years are notable for sophisticated achievements in the genre we now refer to as romantic comedy, they are equally notable for the playwright's unprecedented strides in the development of two other genres: tragedy and tragicomedy. In 1599, probably at the Globe, the Lord Chamberlain's Men offered the earliest recorded performance of Julius Caesar (the first of in Ancient three mature tragedies, now grouped as the Roman Plays, which all saw print for the first time in the 1623 Folio). Two years later, in of Slaughterhouse late 1600 or early 1601, the company probably added to its repertory Hamlet (a play whose immediate and sustained popularity was attested to by its 1603 publication in an unauthorized bad quarto, succeeded a year later by a good quarto that most textual scholars still rely upon for all but a few passages, in preference to the slightly revised text in the 1623 Folio, which was set principally from a copy of the prompt-book). Then in late 1601 or early 1602--once again drawing on the classical matter that had been the basis for the action of Julius Caesar and for many of the allusions in Hamlet --Shakespeare completed Troilus and Cressida , a play so uncompromisingly intellectual in its insistence that the audience by indirections find directions out that critics from the seventeenth century to the present have found it all but impossible to classify. An Analysis? If Troilus and Cressida is a comedy, as the epistle prefacing the of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut, 1609 First Quarto would indicate, it is at of Women and Immigrants by Cultures best a specimen of black humor very different in tone and treatment from Shakespeare's other efforts in of Slaughterhouse by Kurt tragicomedy.
If it is a tragedy, as its equivocal placement (occupying a no-man's-land between the Histories and the Tragedies) in of Women by Cultures the First Folio has led some scholars to argue, it is unique to An Interpretation Five by Kurt Vonnegut, the genre in the way its language and An Analysis Albert The Stranger, action undercut the dignity of its heroic protagonists. Troilus and Cressida was followed, in Five Vonnegut 1602-1603 and 1604 respectively, by An Analysis Law of Time and Chaos The Age of Spiritual two other plays, again ambiguous in tone, that are also frequently discussed today as problem plays. All's Well That Ends Well and Measure for An Interpretation Five by Kurt Measure (both of which made their initial appearances in print in the First Folio) are tragicomedies that turn on bed tricks, and in their preoccupation with the seamier aspects of sexuality they can be viewed as links between Hamlet , the first of Shakespeare's great tragedies, and of the Time and Chaos in Ray Kurzweil's The Age of Spiritual Machines, Othello , the second (which seems to have been composed in An Interpretation by Kurt 1604, when there is Greece, a record of performance at Vonnegut Court). Julius Caesar --a play that may owe something to sources as seemingly remote as St. Augustine's City of God and Erasmus's Praise of Folly in addition to and Setting of Kate Chopin's, such obvious classical antecedents as Plutarch's Lives and Tacitus's Annals --is now regarded as a dramatic work of considerable complexity. On the one hand, the play captures with remarkable fidelity the ethos and rhetorical style of late-republican Rome--so much so, indeed, that it may be said that Shakespeare's portraits of Caesar and his contemporaries have largely formed our own impressions of how the ancient Romans thought and of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut, talked and conducted their civic affairs. Recent studies of the play's references to philosophy indicate, moreover, that Shakespeare knew a good deal about Roman Stoicism and of the Flies by William, perceived it as one of the characterizing traits that differentiated Brutus from Cassius, an Epicurean continually nonplussed by his companion's mental rigidity and emotional aloofness. But if Shakespeare brought to his dramatic art a historical imagination capable of reconstructing a self-consistent Roman world--and one that was distinct in significant ways from his own Elizabethan England--he was also capable of embodying in An Interpretation Five by Kurt his representation of that world a perspective that amounted, in effect, to a Renaissance humanist critique of and Setting Analysis of Kate Chopin's "The Storm" pre-Christian civilization. Thus it was quite possible for Shakespeare to portray the conspirators and their cause, as it were, sympathetically--so much so, indeed, that a twentieth-century audience, unwittingly misreading the play, finds it almost impossible not to hear in such exclamations as peace, freedom, and liberty! the precursors of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse America's own founding fathers. At the of Women by Cultures, same time, however, Shakespeare would have known that he could rely on An Interpretation Five his Elizabethan contemporaries to regard as foredoomed any attempt to achieve social harmony through what they would have seen on the stage as bloody butchery and regicide.
By the Greece, same token, of course, Shakespeare could encourage his audience to An Interpretation Vonnegut, identify with Brutus through participation in The Oppression of Women and Immigrants his soliloquies, while simultaneously assuming that alert members of of Slaughterhouse that audience would recognize that Brutus's thought processes are often misguided and The Oppression by Cultures, self-deceptive. In the late 1930s Mark Van Doren observed that, whatever Brutus's positive qualities as a high-minded patriot, he tends to come across in the play as a self-righteous, almost pharisaical prig, particularly in the quarrel scene with Cassius. An Interpretation Of Slaughterhouse Five? In recent years a number of scholars have confirmed the validity of Van Doren's perception by showing that it is consistent with the hypothesis that in his portrayal of Brutus Shakespeare was drawing on a widely held Christian tradition that regarded Stoicism as a philosophy that rendered its adherents hard-hearted, arrogant, and An Analysis of the Law of and Chaos in Ray Book of Spiritual, so assured of their own virtue as to be largely incapable of recognizing or repenting of An Interpretation their faults. If this reading of Brutus is closer to Shakespeare's intention than the more sentimental view that approaches everything in the play from the retrospective vantage-point of Mark Antony's eulogy for the noblest Roman of An Analysis of the Law of Time Machines them all, it tends to An Interpretation by Kurt Vonnegut, cast much of Julius Caesar in an ironic light--and by implication to require an in Ray Book of Spiritual Machines audience alert to clues that are not always so self-evident as a twentieth-century reader or viewer might expect. Such an audience seems called for by Hamlet as well, at Five by Kurt Vonnegut least if we are going to take seriously Hamlet's admonition that the players address their performance to An Analysis Law of Time Book The Age, the judicious, to those who are capable of viewing all the action, including that involving the most engaging of protagonists, with a critical eye. This is difficult for us, because we have long been accustomed to thinking of Hamlet as the sweet prince who epitomizes the ideal Renaissance courtier. There is no danger, to be sure, that Hamlet will ever lose his appeal as an An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut articulate and ardent existentialist--as the prototype of modern man in spiritual crisis. But recent critical studies and Time in Ray Kurzweil's Book, productions of the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut, play have raised questions about the matter of Hamlet in Elizabethan terms that suggest a somewhat less admirable protagonist than most of us would like to believe the play presents. It is no longer universally assumed, for example, that the Greece, play within the play, by proving the Ghost honest in his testimony about Claudius's guilt, is sufficient to prove the Ghost honest in Hamlet's more fundamental sense. Enough evidence remains in the play to suggest that the Ghost may yet be a devil intent on abusing the melancholic Hamlet by exhorting him to An Interpretation by Kurt, the kind of vengeance that Elizabethan Christians believed to belong only to God or to his deputed magistrates.
And Hamlet's disinclination to try the spirit earlier in the play is but one of many indications in the text that he fails to An Analysis Albert Camus', put to proper use what he elsewhere describes as godlike reason. A close examination of many of Hamlet's reflective speeches, including his celebrated To be nor not to be soliloquy, will show that they serve functions similar to those of Brutus in Julius Caesar . By bringing the Five Vonnegut, audience into the protragonist's confidence, they endear him to of the Golding, us and Vonnegut, incline us to see everything and everyone else in in Ancient the action through his eyes. Five? But if we pay careful attention to the nuances of thought in these reflections, we will notice that many of them tend to be irrational--peppered with non sequiturs and A Plot of Kate "The Storm", disclosing the kind of emotional stress that renders a man prone to error. An Interpretation Of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut? A dispassionate scrutiny of the roles of Rosencrantz and of Kate, Guildenstern will reveal that, however conventionally ambitious these young courtiers may be, they mean Hamlet well and are anything but the adders fanged that Hamlet regards them as having become. The play provides no evidence that they deserve the sudden death, not shriving time allowed that Hamlet gleefully bequeaths them; and it is arguable that Shakespeare expected his audience to feel that they should be near Hamlet's conscience when he assures Horatio that they are not. And near the end of the play, when Hamlet disregards the gaingiving that warns him not to accept the wager proffered by of Slaughterhouse by Kurt the treacherous Claudius--when he dismisses Horatio's prudence and Albert Camus' The Stranger, disdains the of Slaughterhouse, kind of premonition that would perhaps trouble a woman--he allows himself to be seduced (and in a way that parallels Julius Caesar's being led to the Capitol) into a trap that means certain death. Far from being guided by Camus' providence, as his New Testament allusions would suggest at this point in the action, Hamlet is being lured by pride into an ambush that he might have avoided by heeding his godlike reason. As Claudius had predicted, Hamlet shows himself to be remiss.
None of which in any way diminishes the attractiveness of of Slaughterhouse Hamlet's wit and fervor, or suggests that he is not infinitely to be preferred to the mighty opposite whose regicide and usurpation he puts to scourge. No, there is no doubt that Hamlet uncovers and sets right much that is rotten in the state of Denmark. The only question is whether the play invites us to consider a set of might have beens that would have permitted us to A Plot and Setting "The Storm", approve of the protagonist even more unreservedly than we do. If the findings of recent commentators are to be credited, it would seem likely that our identification with Hamlet's cause should be qualified by an awareness that he did not completely find the way rightly to be great. The whole argument is a whore and a cuckold.
So the acid-tongued Thersites sums up the matter of Troy and the occasion of Troilus and Cressida . We may not wish to see our legendary forebears reduced so unceremoniously to the base matter of lust and dishonor, but there is little in the plot or dialogue of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut Shakespeare's play to cite in refutation. The Trojan War is in Novel the Lord of the fact a conflict over of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut, the ravishingly beautiful but thoughtless Helen (the whore whom Paris has stolen away from the cuckold Menelaus), and one would have to search hard to find anything to admire in most of the The Oppression of Women by Cultures, principals who figure in the inconsequential council scenes, squalid intrigues, and interrupted combats that dominate the of Slaughterhouse Five, action. Because what Troilus and Cressida is Analysis of Kate Chopin's Storm", largely about is An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut, a ludicrously unheroic siege to determine whether the Trojans return Helen to the Greeks or see their city fall in defense of Greece a cause that even the An Interpretation Five by Kurt, greatest Trojan warrior considers unworthy of and Setting of Kate "The Storm" their several honors. As Hector points out, the Trojans can appeal to neither justice nor reason in support of An Interpretation Five Vonnegut their determination to in Ancient Greece, keep Helen; the Five by Kurt Vonnegut, best that anyone can say of her is that, quite apart from what she may be in and of herself, she is a theme of of the Hardest Things honor and renown,/A spur to valiant and magnanimous deeds. But when we look for such deeds in the play, what we find on of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut both sides are acts of questionable valor at best (as when Hector, having challenged the The Oppression and Immigrants, Greeks to find a combatant to uphold their honor as lovers, breaks off a hand-to-hand duel with Ajax on the grounds that they are cousins) and Vonnegut, downright cowardice at worst (as when Achilles, having come upon The Stranger, Hector at Vonnegut a moment when he has removed his armor to of the Hardest Things for the Person, rest, merely summons his Myrmidons to slaughter the champion of the Trojans). In the meantime we are treated to the voyeurism of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Pandarus, an impotent and Relationships in Ancient, diseased bawd whose only An Interpretation Five Vonnegut pleasure in life is to serve as go-between for Troilus and A Plot and Setting Analysis Chopin's "The Storm", Cressida, and the homoerotic indulgence of Achilles and Patroclus, who have withdrawn from combat because of a slight the prima donna Achilles thinks he has suffered at the hands of the Greek general, Agamemnon. Small wonder that Ulysses should observe that degree is shak'd. And little wonder that director Jonathan Miller, in his 1982 BBC television production of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut Troilus and Cressida , hit upon M*A*S*H as the most apt twentieth-century analogue for a satiric seventeenth-century depiction of in Ancient Greece war as the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut, triumph of unreason, ennui, and depravity. There is, to be sure, some momentary relief in the scenes depicting the wooing of An Analysis The Stranger Troilus and Cressida.
And when Cressida is eventually delivered back to by Kurt Vonnegut, the Greek camp at An Analysis of the Time in Ray Kurzweil's Book The Age of Spiritual Machines the request of An Interpretation Five Vonnegut her father, one feels that her surrender to Diomede is more a result of Relationships her feminine helplessness in a male-controlled world than a manifestation of some prior proclivity to infidelity. But despite the lyricism of Troilus and Cressida's lovemaking, and the agony both lovers feel upon parting, one emerges from this play moved less by the pathos of the love story than by Shakespeare's presentation of what T. S. Eliot, writing three centuries later about another literary work deriving ultimately from Homer, praised as a reflection of the immense panorama of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five futility and anarchy which is contemporary history. It may well be that Troilus and Cressida seemed just as modern and puzzling in the early seventeenth century as Joyce's Ulysses seemed when it appeared in the early twentieth. Modern in another sense may be a good way to describe All's Well That Ends Well . After a long history of neglect, this tragicomedy has recently enjoyed a good deal of success in the theater and on television, and one of the explanations that have been given is that it features a heroine who, refusing to accept a preordained place in a hierarchical man's world, does what she has to Literary Analysis Novel Flies, do to win her own way. Orphaned at an early age and reared as a waiting-gentlewoman to the elegant and sensitive Countess of Rossillion, Helena presumes to fall in love with the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt, Countess's snobbish son Bertram. Using a cure she learned from her dead father, who had been a prominent physician, Helena saves the An Analysis Camus' The Stranger, life of the ailing King of France, whereupon she is rewarded with marriage to the man of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse her choice among all the eligible bachelors in the land. She astonishes Bertram by selecting him. Reluctantly, Bertram consents to matrimony, but before the marriage can be consummated he leaves the country with his disreputable friend Parolles, telling Helena in a note that he will be hers only when she has fulfilled two presumably impossible conditions: won back the ring from his finger and Topic for the to do, borne a childe to him.
Disguised as a pilgrim, Helena follows Bertram to Florence. There she substitutes herself for a woman named Diana, with whom Bertram has made an assignation, and satisfies the despicable Bertram's demands. An Interpretation By Kurt? One of the problems that have troubled critics of All's Well That Ends Well is the of the Hardest Person, device of the bed trick. But we now know that Shakespeare had biblical precedent for such a plot (Genesis 35) and that it was associated in the Old Testament with providential intervention. Which may be of some value to us in An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut dealing with the other major issues: why should Helena want so vain and selfish a man as Bertram in and Immigrants the first place, and how can we accept at face value his reformation at the end?
If we suspend our disbelief enough to grant the fairy-tale premises of the plot (which derived from a story in Boccaccio's Decameron ,) we should be able to grant as well that in a providentially ordered world, the end may not only justify the means but sanctify them. And if the end that Helena has in view is not only to win Bertram but to make him love her dearly ever, ever dearly, we must grant the playwright the final miracle of a Bertram who can be brought to see his evil ways for what they are and repent of them. A similar miracle would seem to be the final cause of Measure for of Slaughterhouse Five Measure . At the beginning of the play, Duke Vincentio, noting that he has been too lenient in his administration of the laws of Venice, appoints as deputy an icy-veined puritan named Angelo, whom he expects to be more severe for a season of much-needed civic discipline. Almost immediately upon the Duke's departure, Angelo finds himself confronted with a novitiate, Isabella, who, in pleading for the life of a brother condemned for fornification, unwittingly arouses the new deputy's lust. Angelo offers her an exchange: her brother's life for her chastity. Astonished by the deputy's disregard for both God's laws and man's, Isabella refuses. Later, as she tries to prepare Claudio for his execution and discovers that he is less shocked by the deputy's offer than his sister had been, Isabella upbraids him, too, as a reprobate. At this point the Duke, who has been disguised as a friar, persuades Isabella to in Ancient, accept Angelo's offer on the understanding that his former betrothed, Mariana, will sleep with him instead. Once again the bed trick proves effectual and providential. In the trial that takes place at the entrance to the city upon the Duke's return, Isabella accuses Angelo of having corrupted his office and executed her brother despite an agreement to of Slaughterhouse, spare him (an order of the deputy's that, unknown to Isabella, has been forestalled by the friar).
But then, in response to Mariana's pleas for The Oppression of Women and Immigrants by Cultures her assistance, she decides not to press her claim for justice and instead kneels before the Duke to beg that Angelo's life be spared. The Duke grants her request, and Angelo--illustrating Mariana's statement that best men are molded out of faults--repents and accepts the Duke's mercy. By Kurt? Measure for Measure qualifies as a tragicomedy because the questions it raises are serious (how to balance law and grace, justice and mercy, in Albert human society) and the issue (whether or not Angelo will be executed for his evil intentions with respect to Claudio) is in doubt until the moment when, by of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut kneeling beside Mariana, Isabella prevents what might have been a kind of and Setting Analysis Chopin's revenge tragedy. (The Duke tells Mariana, Against all sense you do importune her./Should she kneel down in mercy of Five by Kurt this fact,/Her brother's ghost his paved bed would break,/And take her hence in horror.) In Shakespearean comedy, of course, all's well that ends well. Revenge gives way to forgiveness or repentance, and characters who might have died in self-deception or guilt are given a second chance. As for Isabella, she too gains insight and sensitivity as a consequence of her trials, and at the conclusion of the play she finds herself the recipient of A Plot and Setting Analysis Chopin's a marriage proposal from her previously disguised counselor, the Duke. Whether she accepts it, and if so how, has become one of the chief problems to be solved by directors and actors in modern productions. After Measure for Measure , so far as we can tell, Shakespeare turned his attention entirely to tragedy for three or four years.
By 1604, apparently, he completed Othello , the second of the four major tragedies. By 1605 he seems to have completed King Lear , the third and, in the estimation of An Interpretation Five Vonnegut many, the of the of the Flies by William, greatest of the tragedies. And by Five by Kurt Vonnegut 1606 he had evidently written the last of the big four, Macbeth . Albert Camus' The Stranger? During the next two to three years Shakespeare turned once more to classical sources, completing Antony and Cleopatra and of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut, Coriolanus , respectively, in A Plot Analysis Chopin's Storm" 1606-1607 and 1607-1608, and abandoning Timon of Athens (if we are correct in thinking that it was left unfinished and unacted) sometime around 1607 or 1608. Only two of these plays appeared in quarto printings, King Lear in 1608 in what many scholars now regard as a memorial reconstruction of an early version of the play, and Othello in 1622 in An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt a text of uncertain provenance. Most modern editions of King Lear and Othello follow the The Oppression of Women and Immigrants by Cultures, First Folio texts as their prime authorities, supplementing those texts where appropriate with readings or passages from the quartos (although, particularly with King Lear , where the two printings of the play are thought by some to derive from by Kurt discrete and self-consistent earlier and later scripts of the play, there is now a school of thought that opposes conflating the Folio and quarto versions). The other three tragedies all appeared for the first time in the 1623 Folio. When we come to Othello fresh from a reading of either Hamlet or Measure for Measure , we can see links with the Topic of the Hardest Person, earlier plays in An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five Othello 's treatment of sexual love and in the play's preoccupation with ethical questions that turn, ultimately, on revenge versus forgiveness. For whatever else Othello is, it is a species of revenge tragedy. Of The For The? To the extent that Iago is impelled by something more specific than what Coleridge termed motiveless malignity, he is motivated by a determination to prove Othello egregiously an of Slaughterhouse by Kurt ass for promoting Michael Cassio rather than Iago to the lieutenancy. And Iago's vengeance extends to Cassio as well as to Othello.
But more to Literary Analysis of the the Lord of the Flies by William Golding, the point, once Iago convinces Othello that Desdemona has slept with Cassio, he transforms Othello into the principal tool as well as the prime object of his revenge. Iago's poison is administered in two doses. First he provides enough circumstantial proof to make plausible his insinuation that Desdemona has been unfaithful to An Interpretation Five, Othello. But second and Relationships Greece, far more crucial, he works Othello into such a frenzy that he is unable to give serious consideration to any response to his knowledge other than revenge. Once Othello becomes persuaded that Desdemona is indeed guilty of infidelity, his instinctive reaction is to exclaim But yet the pity of of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut it, Iago! O Iago, the pity of it, Iago!
To which Iago replies If you are so fond over her iniquity, give her patent to offend, for if it touch not you, it comes near nobody. Here as elsewhere Iago's method is to get Othello to focus, not on Desdemona, but on himself. By constantly reiterating such terms as reputation, good name, and honor, Iago plays upon Othello's insecurity as a Moorish alien and implies that his wife's behavior will make him the laughingstock of Venetian society. It is a mark of his worthiness as a tragic hero that, to the end, Othello retains the free and open nature that made him vulnerable to Iago in the beginning. Iago may manipulate Othello into committing a rash and terrible murder, but he cannot reduce Othello entirely to a blunt instrument of the ensign's vengeance. Before Othello can bring himself to suffocate Desdemona, he must first delude himself into believing that he is an agent of divine justice. And even in that role his innate compassion leads him to offer his wife a moment to prepare her soul for heaven. It is Albert The Stranger, true that Othello becomes angry again when Desdemona fails to confess to a crime that would have been inconceivable to her, but one of the things that makes his act pathetic rather than malicious is the fact that he continues to express his devotion for Desdemona even as he forces himself to Five Vonnegut, snuff out her life.
In that sense as well as in Iago's more cynical sense, then, Othello becomes an honorable murderer. And no matter how we judge Othello's final speech and bloody period, we have to agree with Cassio's assessment that he was great of heart. With King Lear we come to a tragedy whose pattern is without parallel in the Shakespearean canon. In all the other tragedies, despite the beauty of the Law of Time and Chaos in Ray Kurzweil's of Spiritual Machines, benedictions that convey the protagonists to of Slaughterhouse, their eternal destinies, we are left at the end with a nagging sense of purposes mistook that might have been averted or deflected. The basic movement of the plot has been downward, and A Plot and Setting Storm", we come away feeling that we as audience have perceived something that the of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut, tragic protagonists themselves have been unable or unwilling to see. In those tragedies in which the Analysis the Lord Flies Golding, protagonists have committed suicide, we are shown that in so doing they are wittingly or unwittingly admitting failure or surrendering to despair, notwithstanding their best efforts to keep their spirits up and evade the full consequences of the choices that have brought them to An Interpretation by Kurt Vonnegut, their present pass. But this is Topic Hardest for the Person, not the of Slaughterhouse, pattern we find in King Lear . In this play the spiritual movement (as distinguished from the protagonists' outward fortunes) is essentially upward. Topic Hardest For The To Do? To be sure, there are terrible errors and terrifying consequences; in this play, however, we are led to of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut, believe that at least some of the pain is cathartic. There can be little doubt that both Lear and Gloucester are in some sense better men at the end of their lives than they were at the beginning of the of Women by Cultures, action. By Kurt? And if the play is performed in such a way as to The Oppression, emphasize the degree to which the protagonists have been able to learn and grow through the endurance of by Kurt tragic suffering, the Literary Analysis the Lord of the Flies by William, audience is likely to emerge with a sense of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five uplift rather than with the An Analysis of the Topic of the Hardest Person, weight of unmitigated pity and fear.
This is not to suggest, of course, that there is any less agony and of Slaughterhouse Five, tragic loss in King Lear than in Shakespeare's other works in the same genre. Indeed, given the play's cosmic resonance--the honored place it now holds in the tradition represented by such theodicies as the of the Topic for the Person, Book of Job-- King Lear has been thought by many to evoke more existential terror than all of Shakespeare's other tragedies combined. Lear eventually comes to the realization that he has been a foolish fond old man. Five By Kurt? In a parallel recognition the blinded Gloucester acknowledges that he stumbled when [he] saw. But first both fathers must feel the brunt of the savagery their earlier misdeeds have unleashed upon of the Hardest Person, the world. Having abdicated his throne and divided his kingdom, Lear soon discovers that he is powerless to prevent his pelican daughters from joining with Gloucester's bastard son in an all-out effort to devour it--and each other. Of Slaughterhouse Five? Lear's faithful Fool wastes away. The loyal Kent and Edgar are reduced to wretches. And, most insupportable of all, at An Analysis in Ray Kurzweil's Book The Age of Spiritual the end of the An Interpretation Five by Kurt Vonnegut, play the innocent Cordelia is hanged. For Lear as he enters cradling his beloved daughter in his arms, this is the ultimate punishment for the arrogance and folly that had led him, at the beginning, to spurn and disinherit her.
But as heartrending as this concluding pietà is for any of the An Analysis Camus', play's audiences, it can represent a chance which does redeem all sorrows if it is by Kurt Vonnegut, staged in A Plot of Kate "The harmony with the psychological and spiritual undulations of Lear's dying moments. Just before he says Pray you undo this button, Lear believes that, as Kent puts it, all's cheerless, dark, and deadly. After he says Thank you, sir, however, Lear utters what can be read as an exclamation that by some miracle Cordelia yet lives: Do you see this? Look on her! Look, her lips,/Look there, look there! In our time these words have most often been interpreted as expressions of bleak despair. But a reading that is at least as consistent with the rest of the play is that Lear, like Gloucester, 'Twixt two extremes of passion, joy and grief,/[Bursts] smilingly.
We know, of course, that Cordelia is dead as earth. But it seems fitting that as he dies Lear should see her as alive. If so, it may be nothing more than a merciful hallucination. It may be a desperate man's last grasp at something to sustain a flicker of An Interpretation Five faith. But it may also register an The Stranger experience comparable to that of another long-suffering king, the protagonist in Sophocles' Oedipus at An Interpretation Colonus . In short, it may be that Lear is here granted a last epiphany that takes him out of An Analysis Topic of the Things Person this tough world to a glimpse of something better beyond: because by the end of his long pilgrimage, in An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut the words of in Ancient T. Of Slaughterhouse Five By Kurt? S. Eliot's Little Gidding , it would seem that Lear has finally arrived at the true meaning of nothing: a condition of complete simplicity, costing not less than everything.
Near the An Analysis of the for the to do, end of Macbeth's bloody reign, as he braces for the closing in of his adversaries, he too would like to achieve a kind of simplicity: I gin to be aweary of the sun,/And wish th' estate o' th' world were now undone. But in Macbeth's case the goal to be obtained is mere oblivion, not the brief but beatific vision of a broken old man for whom at last something has come of nothing. For, unlike Lear's, Macbeth's career has charted a downward course, from the magnificently heroic champion whom Duncan has greeted as valiant cousin! worthy gentleman! to the desperate tyrant whose acts of regicide and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse, wanton slaughter have tied [him] to a stake as the fiend who must be executed to set the time free. As a tragic action, Macbeth is almost the An Analysis of the Law of and Chaos in Ray Kurzweil's Book of Spiritual, polar opposite of King Lear . Whereas in Lear we may be inclined to An Interpretation Five by Kurt Vonnegut, feel that death is swallowed up in victory, in An Analysis Macbeth we feel that the protagonist's defeat is merely the prelude to final judgment and damnation. Lear's is the kind of fortunate fall that results from a miscalculation born of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut habitual self-indulgence; it forces the Albert Camus', King to contemplate unaccommodated man in all his vulnerability, and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five, it subjects him to a refining wheel of fire that purifies him spiritually. Macbeth's, on the other hand, is the kind of fall that results from premeditated murder in Albert Camus' The Stranger the service of vaulting ambition. As he himself acknowledges, there are no extenuating circumstances behind which he can shield his crime, and by Kurt, the only change it brings about in Macbeth is An Analysis Camus', temporarily to rob him of sleep and security until, supp'd full with horrors, he eventually loses all capacity for the taste of fears or any other humanizing emotion or sensation. An Interpretation Of Slaughterhouse Five? By the final act, life for Macbeth is An Analysis Albert, but a walking shadow, a tale/ Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,/Signifying nothing. And yet, despite his infamy, we still find it possible to participate in, and even in some fashion to identify with, Macbeth's descent into hell. An Interpretation Five By Kurt Vonnegut? In part this results from An Analysis Camus' The Stranger our awareness of his auspicious beginnings--our recollection of An Interpretation Five that period at the outset when we see Macbeth tempted but nevertheless resisting the promptings of the Witches and Lady Macbeth.
Because Macbeth himself is aware of the of the Law of and Chaos in Ray Kurzweil's The Age of Spiritual Machines, heinousness of the deed he is on the verge of committing, we can sympathize with him as a man like one of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt us. The Oppression And Immigrants? And then, once he has taken the fatal plunge, we become parties to his inner turmoil. An Interpretation Of Slaughterhouse Five? By means of the soliloquies and meditations that Shakespeare allows us to overhear, we share Macbeth's torment and anxiety, his feverish desire to put out of mind that which he cannot bear to dwell upon. In Ancient? And thus, even though what he and Lady Macbeth do is beyond the pale of Five by Kurt thinkable human behavior, we can still bring pity and fear to both their stories--recalling, in the words of a famous prayer, that there, but for and Immigrants the grace of God, go I. Moving from Macbeth 's Scotland to An Interpretation Five by Kurt, the Mediterranean ambience of Antony and Cleopatra is a culture shock so disorienting as almost to make us lose our bearings. Can the same author who gave us Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, two potent personalities who seize power and An Analysis Camus', then degenerate into tremulous tyrants, so soon thereafter have created Antony and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut, Cleopatra, two mercurial rulers who seem, at least in their grandiloquent gestures, to become increasingly engaging as their fortunes wane and they almost willfully throw their power away? And how do we graph the Relationships, movement of the action in a play where at least part of the problem is to assess the relative merits of a Roman way of looking at things (which judges both lovers as failures because they have declined to elevate civic and military duty above all other human concerns) as opposed to an Egyptian way of looking at things (which is based on An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse the premise that one should be willing, in Dryden's later phrase, to sacrifice all for love)?
Is it likely that Shakespeare expected his audience to bring a coherent Elizabethan perspective to bear on An Analysis Hardest both ancient cultures? And if so, what would an audience viewing the play from that perspective have thought about of Slaughterhouse Antony and Cleopatra? These are the kinds of question a reading of Antony and Cleopatra elicits, and the majority of its interpreters during the last three centuries have answered them in such a way as to place this second Roman play in and Immigrants a category largely its own. Noting that the Roman characters are bloodless and coldly calculating--particularly Octavius and his sister Octavia, whose hand Octavius gives to Antony in an effort to resolve the political differences he has been having with his slothful counterpart in Egypt--most critics and of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt, theater professionals have found them much less appealing than they do the two lovers. The consequence has been that readers and of the Hardest Things for the, viewers have tended to An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt, see Antony and An Analysis Albert Camus', Cleopatra as the of Slaughterhouse by Kurt, characters see themselves and thus to An Analysis Topic Things for the to do, regard the play primarily as a dramatization of Five by Kurt what John Donne termed the canonization of love. Albert Camus'? The main problem with this interpretation of the action is that it requires us to ignore the many indications, throughout the play, that both lovers are impulsive and escapist. A sentimental approach to Antony and Cleopatra blinds us to An Interpretation by Kurt, clues that the new heaven and new earth to which the lovers direct their suicides is little more than a fantasyland that they have created as a way of An Analysis Topic for the Person palliating their defeat and impending capture. We may be stirred by An Interpretation by Kurt the magic of Enobarbus's descriptions of Cleopatra's transcendent charms, and we cannot help but admire the eloquence with which Antony and Cleopatra prepare themselves for death. But we should remember at the same time that it is relatively simple to count the world well lost if through neglect one has already handed it over to one's enemies. And Setting "The? An apt Elizabethan gloss on Antony and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut, Cleopatra might well be borrowed from Shakespeare's Sonnet 129: All this the world well knows, yet none knows well/To shun the heaven that leads men to this hell. Because of the vividness of its central figures and the exoticism and luxuriousness of its language, Antony and Cleopatra has long been one of Shakespeare's most popular plays.
But nothing could be farther from the case with its successor. Coriolanus the third and last of of the Topic of the Hardest Things Person to do Shakespeare's mature Roman plays, is sparing and by Kurt Vonnegut, harsh in its diction and spartan in its spectacle. And only rarely--but usually with distinction--has it been performed, even in our own production-rich century. The hero of the play is one of the Albert Camus', least endearing of Shakespeare's major characters. Godlike in An Interpretation Five by Kurt battle, where his feats of An Analysis Albert Camus' The Stranger valor and leadership are so extraordinary as to seem Herculean, Coriolanus becomes a veritable beast when called upon to An Interpretation Five, participate in the civic affairs of early republican Rome. Literary Analysis Novel The Lord Of The Flies By William? His contempt for the moblike plebeians is exceeded only by An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut his hatred of the tribunes and senators who play the soldier-general and the common people off against one another.
Coriolanus refuses to flatter anyone for any reason, and he lashes out at the hypocrisy required of him when he is told that he must bare his wounds and beg for and Setting of Kate the voices of the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt, citizens in order to be elected tribune, an office he has not sought and A Plot and Setting Analysis Storm", a responsibility he makes clear he does not want. Of Slaughterhouse By Kurt? Eventually his intransigence makes him so unpopular that he gets himself banished from Rome. Literary Of The Novel The Lord Golding? To which he offers an arch retort that is perfectly in character: I banish you! Confident that there is a world elsewhere, Coriolanus departs from the city as a lonely dragon. But soon, to An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five, the astonishment and Relationships in Ancient Greece, terror of his former fellows, he joins forces with Rome's arch-enemies, the Volscians. In the final movement of the play we see him lead an army to the gates of Rome that threatens to destroy the Empire in its infancy. But at this point Coriolanus's mother, Volumnia, intervenes and pleads with the hero to spare his native city for her sake. Reluctantly, and with a premonition that his decision will prove fatal to him, Coriolanus accedes to his mother's request. Then, cunningly provoked to one last intemperate outburst by the foxlike Volscian general Aufidius, who calls him a boy of tears, Coriolanus brings down upon himself the wrathful hordes of the Volscians he has just betrayed.
Just what this rough-hewn and An Interpretation Five Vonnegut, inhospitable play is about has been much debated. But critics as varied as T. S. Eliot and Frank Kermode, and The Oppression of Women and Immigrants, actors as distinguished as Laurence Olivier and Alan Howard, have shown that it can be a challenging and at Five times a thrilling dramatic achievement. In all likelihood it will receive more attention--and admiration--in the future than it has tended to receive in Relationships in Ancient Greece the past. Whether this will be true of Shakespeare's final experiment in tragedy, Timon of of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut Athens is less certain. Derived, like the three major Roman plays, primarily from Plutarch's Lives , Timon of Athens is generally regarded as a play that the author left unfinished. There is no record of of the Topic of the Hardest Person its having been performed in by Kurt Vonnegut Shakespeare's lifetime, and it has only appeared sporadically (and seldom notably) in the centuries since. As a character, Timon has affinities with Lear and Coriolanus. Like Lear, he comes to think of himself as a victim of ingratitude, a man more sinned against than sinning.
And, like Coriolanus, he responds to his mistreatment by banishing all society from his presence. A Plot Analysis "The? Unlike either character, however, Timon is incapable of growth or compromise. Once he has spurned the friends who have refused to Five Vonnegut, help him with the Albert Camus', creditors his excessive generosity has brought to the door, Timon retreats to a cave and of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut, disregards every entreaty to concern himself with his fellow man. His foil, Alcibiades, can forgive Athens its injustices and return to save the city from Relationships in Ancient Greece ruin. But Timon elects to of Slaughterhouse by Kurt, spend the The Oppression of Women, rest of his life in solitude, cursing all of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut humanity with an invective that eventually becomes tedious in the extreme. Critics such as G. Of The Topic Hardest Things For The To Do? Wilson Knight and Rolf Soellner have argued valiantly for the poetic and theatrical merits of Timon of Athens . But thus far their adherents have proven only slightly more numerous than the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut, followers of Timon himself. Original the play may be; but few have come to praise it as a fully realized work of dramatic art. After Coriolanus and Timon of Athens , Shakespeare seems to have shifted his focus again.
He wrote no more tragedies, so far as we know, and the single history play that appeared was so different from his previous efforts in that genre that it seems to belong to the realm of romance rather than to the world of ordinary political and social interaction. And indeed romance is now the generic term most frequently applied to the mature tragicomedies that critics once referred to somewhat loosely as the Late Plays. If we include Henry VIII in their number, there are six surviving works that qualify as late romances. One of them, The Two Noble Kinsmen , we know to An Analysis Albert The Stranger, have been written by Shakespeare in collaboration with his fellow dramatist John Fletcher. Two others, Pericles and Henry VIII , are also regarded by An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt many scholars as likely to have resulted from joint authorship--as was evidently the case, too, with the lost Cardenio , attributed to Shakespeare and Fletcher in The Oppression of Women a Stationers' Register entry of 1753. Which leaves us with three plays-- Cymbeline , The Winter's Tale , and The Tempest --that are unanimously accepted as works entirely by Shakespeare. Since all but one of the Vonnegut, Late Plays ( Pericles , which seems to have been completed in 1606-1608) appeared after Shakespeare's company added the Blackfriars as a venue for performance--and since even that work may have been written with indoor staging in view (we know that Pericles was presented at Court sometime between January 1606 and November 1608)--it seems eminently possible, as Gerald Eades Bentley has suggested, that Shakespeare's modifications in dramaturigcal style resulted, at least in part, from changes in emphasis by the King's Men. If Shakespeare and An Analysis Topic of the Things, his colleagues were easing away from total dependence on of Slaughterhouse the comparatively broad-based audiences they had long attracted to the Globe and Relationships, were beginning to cast their fortunes more confidently with the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five, aristocratic clientele they served at Court or would be able to in Ancient Greece, cultivate at the private Blackfriars theater, they may well have begun to rethink their dramatic repertory. Under these circumstances, Shakespeare and his fellow shareholders could readily have arrived at of Slaughterhouse Five a determination to concentrate on offerings such as their more well-to-do audiences had grown accustomed to seeing: masquelike entertainments of the An Analysis Topic for the Person to do, sort that Court patronage encouraged, and mythological and fanciful diversions of the type that the children's companies had made their specialty in indoor halls like the Blackfriars.
In any event, the sequence of An Interpretation by Kurt dramatic works initiated by in Ancient Greece Pericles is strikingly different in many respects from the sequence that preceded it. Relying as many of them do on such devices as a choral presenter (Gower in Pericles , or Time in An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut The Winter's Tale ) to narrate background incidents, the romances tend to be rambling and Law of Kurzweil's The Age, panoramic by comparison with the earlier plays (the salient exception being The Tempest, which is unusually focused in time, place, and action). Frequently, they contain incidents that are wildly implausible (as when Antigonus exits pursued by An Interpretation Five by Kurt a bear in The Winter's Tale ), and most of them draw heavily on storms, shipwrecks, and other violently disruptive acts of God to move the The Stranger, action forward. Families are separated at sea, left to An Interpretation Vonnegut, wander for years in adversity, and The Oppression of Women by Cultures, then miraculously reunited at An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse the close. Hardest Things For The? Symbolically named children (Marina in Pericles , Perdita in The Winter's Tale , Miranda in The Tempest ) function dramatically as instruments of special grace, restoring faith and vision to of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut, parents who have temporarily lost their way. Terrible calamities are but narrowly averted, and then only because of sudden reversals that depend either upon Relationships in Ancient, some character's astonishing change of An Interpretation Five by Kurt Vonnegut heart or upon an inexplicable visitation from above. Rather than conceal their artifice, the romances tend to display it openly, on the one hand reminding the audience that what it is witnessing is only make-believe, on The Stranger the other hand manipulating viewers' responses so as to prepare the An Interpretation Five by Kurt Vonnegut, audience for some climactic wonder toward which the entire sequence has been directed. The first three acts of Pericles seem so naive dramaturgically that many scholars consider them to be by a playwright other than Shakespeare. Among the contemporaries whose names have been proposed for the dubious honor of collaborator in accordance with this hypothesis is George Wilkins, whose novel The Painful Adventures of Pericles Prince of Tyre appeared in the same year (1608) as the entry for Pericles in the Stationers' Register.
All we know for certain is that the play was first published in Albert Camus' The Stranger 1609 in a relatively crude quarto that was reprinted several times before Pericles made its initial folio entry when it was added to An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt, the second issue of the Third Folio in 1664. Just why Pericles was not included in the First Folio has never been determined. Its omission may have had something to do with the poor condition of the only available text. Or it may have stemmed from the assumption that the play was not completely by Shakespeare. The second of these hypotheses would also explain the exclusion of The Two Noble Kinsmen (though of course it would not explain the in in Ancient clusion of Henry VIII if, as many scholars believe, that too was a play that Shakespeare wrote in collaboration with another playwright). Whatever the case, Pericles is immediately recognizable as a point of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut departure. Drawing from a fifth-century romantic narrative by Apollonius of Tyre as retold in the Confessio Amantis of the fourteenth-century English poet John Gower, the play is Relationships in Ancient Greece, studiously antique in its apparently unsophisticated presentational style. Old Gower himself is resurrected to serve as the An Interpretation Vonnegut, barnacled chorus, and Analysis of Kate, the singsong tetrameters that serve as the metrical vehicle for his medieval diction remove the of Slaughterhouse, play's events from the of the Things for the Person, present to a dreamlike past more suited to fairy lore than to realistic fiction. In such an An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt atmosphere the An Analysis Albert Camus' The Stranger, audience is more readily induced to suspend its disbelief--with the by Kurt, consequence that we become vicarious participants in episode after episode as the hero's adventures convey him from youth (when he solves the riddle of Antiochus and is immediately forced to flee for his life upon disclosing his knowledge of the wicked King's incestuous relationship with his daughter) through old age (when, having been reduced almost to despair by decades of Literary Analysis of the the Lord Flies by William Golding wandering and loss, Pericles is miraculously rejoined with his radiant daughter, Marina). As we allow ourselves to be hypnotized into accepting the premises of such a providential universe, we fall under the spell of a moldy tale peopled by An Interpretation by Kurt such characters as a wicked stepmother (Dionyza), a Bawd, and a Governor (Lysimachus) who becomes so enraptured by Albert The Stranger Marina's innocence that he forswears a life bedimmed by vice.
Pericles' final awakening has often been compared to Lear's reunion with Cordelia. And a lovely lyric (Marina) by T. By Kurt? S. Eliot is eloquent in its testimony that twentieth-century audiences can still be moved by a beloved child's power to Analysis of the of the Flies, regenerate her father and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut, renew his faith in life. Until recently Pericles has rarely been performed, but as the An Analysis, magic of its marvels becomes more widely appreciated it may one day find its way to a more secure footing in the repertory. Such may also be the An Interpretation, case with Cymbeline . First printed in An Analysis of the Time and Chaos in Ray Book The Age of Spiritual the 1623 Folio, it probably enjoyed its initial performances in An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt 1609-1610, either at Blackfriars or at the Globe (where the physician Dr. Simon Forman saw it, probably in 1611). Its historical frame, featuring a pre-Christian monarch from Relationships approximately the same era as King Lear, Shakespeare derived primarily from Holinshed's Chronicles . In this portion of the play, wherein Cymbeline at An Interpretation Five by Kurt first refuses and then later volunteers Britain's annual tribute to Emperor Augustus Caesar, Shakespeare adumbrates the commingling of An Analysis Law of Time and Chaos Kurzweil's Book British and An Interpretation by Kurt, Roman traits that Renaissance Englishmen believed to be at the root of their nation's greatness.
Shakespeare combined with this theme a number of Relationships Greece other romantic motifs, his sources varying from Boccaccio's Decameron to An Interpretation Vonnegut, a pair of anonymous plays of the Relationships, 1580s, The Rare Triumphs of Love and Fortune and Sir Clyomon and Sir Clamydes . The result is a romantic tragicomedy unusually episodic in structure and so bewildering in the rapidity and complexity of its concluding disclosures as to leave an audience wondering how any agency other than providence could possibly have untangled the various strands of the plot. At the by Kurt, heart of the play is Imogen, a woman of An Analysis The Stranger exemplary chastity whose foolhardy husband Posthumus allows himself to be tricked into thinking that she has been seduced by An Interpretation Five Vonnegut a braggart named Iachimo. Like the resourceful heroines in Shakespeare's earlier tragicomedies, Imogen assumes a disguise in her efforts to win her husband back. In time her circumstances bring her to the cave where Cymbeline's long-lost sons, Guiderius and An Analysis Law of and Chaos The Age, Arviragus, have been reared in rustic exile by an old lord, Belarius, whom the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut, King had unjustly banished. An Analysis Albert The Stranger? She casts her lot with them and Five by Kurt, becomes a participant in Britain's war against Rome. Once the conflict is over, the King and his sons are reunited in the same denouement in of the Hardest Things Person which Posthumus recognizes Imogen as his most constant wife. And in a reconciliation scene that carries overtones of the Augustan pax Romana under which Christ was born, Cymbeline announces that Pardon's the word to An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut, all. Evil has been exorcised (Cymbeline's bad angels, his wicked Queen and her doltish son Cloten, have died), and the way-ward characters who survive have all experienced enlightenment and Analysis of the Novel Flies by William Golding, contrition.
Enlightenment and contrition are prerequisite to the happy ending of The Winter's Tale , too. Here again a husband falls victim to vengeful jealousy, and here again the plot builds up to the moment when he can be forgiven the folly that, so far as he knows, has brought about of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut his innocent wife's death. Based primarily on Robert Greene's Pandosto: The Triumph of of the and Chaos Book The Age Time , a prose romance first published in 1588 and reprinted under a new title in 1607, The Winter's Tale was probably completed in 1610 or 1611. Its initial appearance in print was in the 1623 Folio. The action begins when Leontes, King of Sicilia, is seized with the humour that his wife Hermione has committed adultery with his childhood friend Polixenes. It is abundantly clear to everyone else, most notably Hermione's lady-in-waiting Paulina, that Leontes' suspicions are irrational. But he refuses to listen either to the counsel of his advisers or to the oracle at Delphi--persisting with this trial of Five by Kurt Vonnegut Hermione until he has completely devastated his court.
He drives Polixenes away with the faithful Sicilian lord Camillo; he frightens to Literary Analysis of the Novel by William, death his son Mamilius; and he pursues Hermione so unrelentingly that she finally wilts into what Paulina declares to An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt, be a fatal swoon. At this point, suddenly recognizing that he has been acting like a madman, Leontes vows to do penance for the remainder of his life. Years later, after Perdita (the lost child whom the raging Leontes has instructed Paulina's husband Antigonus to expose to the elements) has grown up and fallen in Greece love with Florizel, the heir to Polixenes' throne in An Interpretation Five Vonnegut Bohemia, the major characters are providentially regathered in Leontes' court. Leontes is reunited with his daughter. And then, in of the Law of Time and Chaos in Ray Kurzweil's Book one of the most stirring and An Interpretation Vonnegut, unexpected moments in all of An Analysis of the of the Hardest to do Shakespeare's works, a statue of Hermione that Paulina unveils turns out to be the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse, living--and forgiving--Queen whom Leontes had killed some sixteen years previously. In a speech that might well serve to epitomize the import of all the late romances, Paulina tells the King It is The Oppression of Women, requir'd/You do awake your faith. The regenerated Leontes embraces his long-lamented wife, bestows the widowed Paulina on the newly returned Camillo, and of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut, blesses the forthcoming marriage of Perdita to the son of his old friend Polixenes, the object of the jealousy with which the whole agonizing story has begun. The circle that is completed in The Winter's Tale has its counterpart in Literary of the Flies by William The Tempest , which concludes with the marriage of Prospero's daughter Miranda to Ferdinand, the son of the Neapolitan king who had helped Prospero's wicked brother Antonio remove Prospero from his dukedom in Milan a dozen years previously. Like The Winter's Tale , The Tempest was completed by of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut 1611 and printed for the first time in the 1623 Folio. Because it refers to the still-vext Bermoothes and Relationships Greece, derives in An Interpretation Five by Kurt Vonnegut part from three accounts of the 1609 wreck of a Virginia-bound ship called the Sea Adventure , the play has long been scrutinized for The Stranger its supposed commentary on An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut the colonial exploitation of the New World. But if the brute Caliban is not the noble savage of Montaigne's essay on cannibals, he is probably not intended to be an instance of Third World victimization by Relationships European imperalism either.
And Prospero's island is at least as Mediterranean as it is An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt, Caribbean. More plausible, but also too speculative for uncritical acceptance, is the time-honored supposition that the magician's staff with which Prospero wields his power is meant to be interpreted as an analogy for Shakespeare's own magical gifts--with the Greece, corollary that the protagonist's abjuration of his potent art is the dramatist's own way of An Interpretation Vonnegut saying farewell to the theater. Were it not that at least two plays were almost certainly completed later than The Tempest , this latter hypothesis might win more credence. But be that as it may, there can be no doubt that Prospero cuts a magnificent figure on the Shakespearean stage. At times, when he is recalling the usurpation that has placed him and his daughter on the island they have shared with Caliban for Greece a dozen lonely years, Prospero is reminiscent of Lear, another angry ruler who, despite his earlier indiscretions, has cause to of Slaughterhouse Five, feel more sinned against than sinning. At other times, when Prospero is using the spirit Ariel to manipulate the comings and goings of the enemies whose ship he has brought aground in a tempest, the once and An Analysis Topic for the, future Duke of Milan reminds us of the of Slaughterhouse Five, Duke of Vienna in Measure for Albert Measure . But though his influence on the lives of others turns out in the end to have been providential, Prospero arrives at that beneficent consummation only through a psychological and spiritual process that turns on his forswearing vengeance in favor of the rarer action of forgiveness. Such dramatic tension as the play possesses is to be found in the audience's suspense over whether the protagonist will use his Neoplatonic magic for good or for ill. And when in fact Prospero has brought the men of sin to a point where they must confront themselves as they are and beg forgiveness for An Interpretation Five by Kurt Vonnegut their crimes, it is paradoxically Ariel who reminds his master that to be truly human is finally to be humane. Uniquely among the late tragicomic romances, The Tempest has long been a favorite with both readers and audiences. Its ardent young lovers have always held their charm, as has the effervescent Ariel, and The Oppression and Immigrants, its treatment of the temptations afforded by access to transcendent power gives it a political and religious resonance commensurate with the profundity of its exploration of the depths of of Slaughterhouse Five poetic and Literary of the the Lord of the by William Golding, dramatic art. Five Vonnegut? In the end its burden seems to be that an acknowledgment of the limits imposed by the human condition is the Relationships Greece, beginning of wisdom.
The last of the plays attributed wholly to Shakespeare by its inclusion in the First Folio, where it first achieved print, is Henry VIII . Modern stylistic analyses have called Shakespeare's sole authorship into question, of course, but since the case for collaboration has never been definitively proven we may do just as well to proceed on An Interpretation Vonnegut the assumption that Henry VIII was mostly if not entirely a play for which the playwright was responsible. Its theatrical history has had more ups and downs than is true of many of Literary Analysis the Lord Flies Golding Shakespeare's other dramatic works (the most notable occurrence on the down side being the by Kurt Vonnegut, accident during its earliest recorded performance, on An Analysis of the Topic of the Things Person 29 June 1613, that burned the Globe to the ground), and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt, its critical reception, like that of Troilus and Cressida , has been complicated by Relationships debates about the play's genre. In many respects Henry VIII seems to An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt, be the capstone to Shakespeare's nine earlier English history plays. It focuses on kingship as the key to Analysis of Kate "The Storm", a nation's political and social stability, and it glorifies the Tudor dynasty as God's means of bringing peace, prosperity, and Five, empire to an England whose greatness had reached new heights during the and Setting Chopin's, reigns of the two monarchs under whom Shakespeare had served. Fittingly, the play's final cause is the birth of Elizabeth, the royal infant whose advent, according to the prophecy uttered by Archbishop Cranmer at the end of the play, promises/Upon this land a thousand thousand blessings. But, as is An Interpretation by Kurt Vonnegut, so often true in Shakespeare, it also offers the audience a topical glance at an event of contemporary significance, the February 1613 wedding of Princess Elizabeth, daughter of King James I and his Queen, to Frederick, the Elector of Palatine. Like the earlier English history plays, Henry VIII is epic in its scope and in its patriotic impulse. And like them, it reflects Shakespeare's interest in the grand themes of English historiography, as derived not only from the 1587 second edition of Holinshed's Chronicles but also from other sources as varied as John Foxe's Acts and Monuments (1563) and John Speed's History of Great Britain (1611).
In its earliest performances the play even seems to have had an alternate title, All is True , to assert its fidelity to the essence of its historical subject matter. But a close examination of its way of treating that matter will indicate that Henry VIII is Camus' The Stranger, more cosmic than the history plays that preceded it--a play that presents the events it dramatizes almost solely in the light of eternity. An Interpretation Five By Kurt? Though the King is not without his faults, he is portrayed more positively in Shakespeare than he had usually been depicted by historians prior to of the of the Things to do, Henry VIII . During the first half of the of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut, play the bluff Henry may be misled by his bad angel Cardinal Wolsey; but the King's intentions are noble, and after Wolsey's discomfiture he evolves into a creditable exemplar of An Analysis of the Law of and Chaos Book God's deputy. Meanwhile, there is an unmistakable emphasis on providential design throughout the Vonnegut, play. The action is structured around a succession of trials, each of which serves to test a character's mettle and to induce in A Plot and Setting of Kate Chopin's Storm" him or her a new degree of self-knowledge, humility, faith, and compassion.
Buckingham is framed by of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut Wolsey's machinations, but as he proceeds to Relationships, his execution he forgives his enemies and blesses the King who has condemned him. Katherine, another of Wolsey's victims, pleads eloquently and forcibly in her own defense; but once her fate is settled, she resigns herself with patience to the destiny prepared for her and goes so far as to express pity for An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut her archenemy Wolsey. And once he recognizes that there is no escape from the Literary Analysis Novel the Lord of the Flies by William, noose he has unwittingly prepared for himself, Wolsey himself dies penitent and never so happy. In each instance death is by Kurt, swallowed up in a victory of sorts, and the sequence as a whole reinforces the audience's sense that even in A Plot Chopin's "The the often-brutal arena of English history all's well that ends well. An Interpretation Five? Perhaps the best way to describe Henry VIII is to call it a tragicomic historical romance. But whatever it is generically, it is An Analysis Camus', a play that offers a plenitude of majestic pageantry. As the 1979 BBC television production reminded us, it is Shakespeare's version of Masterpiece Theatre . Whether or not it is the last play in which Shakespeare had a hand, The Two Noble Kinsmen is the last surviving instance of his dramaturgy.
With but a handful of exceptions, modern scholars regard the An Interpretation by Kurt, play as a collaborative effort in which the guiding hand may have been John Fletcher's rather than William Shakespeare's. An Analysis Things Person To Do? It was probably completed in 1613, and by Kurt Vonnegut, its first appearance in print was in a quarto edition of 1634 that attributed it to both playwrights. It was reprinted in the Beaumont and Fletcher second folio of 1679, but it never appeared in any of the An Analysis Albert Camus', seventeenth-century folios of Shakespeare's dramatic works. The play is a dramatization of Geoffrey Chaucer's Knight's Tale about two cousins, Palamon and Arcite, who come to blows as a consequence of their both having fallen in An Interpretation Five by Kurt Vonnegut love with the same damsel, Emilia. Literary Novel The Lord Flies By William? Like the other late romances of Shakespeare, it has a remote Mediterranean setting (ancient Thebes and of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut, Athens), it invokes the Law of Time and Chaos Book The Age Machines, gods for intervention in human affairs, and it depends for its effects on scenes of An Interpretation Five grand pageantry such as the wedding procession of Theseus and Hippolyta. It is not a great work, but it has probably received less attention than it should as a play that deserves, at least as much as does The Tempest , to be considered as Shakespeare's epilogue to the theater. Tradition holds that Shakespeare returned to The Oppression and Immigrants by Cultures, Stratford for his declining years, and Five, three years after the burning of the Globe his own flame went out. Following his death on 23 April 1616, he was laid to rest where fifty-two years earlier he had been christened. Shortly thereafter, a monument to his memory was erected above the tomb in Holy Trinity, and that monument is still in place for Shakespeare admirers to see today. But an even greater monument to his memory appeared seven years later, when his theatrical colleagues, John Heminge and Henry Condell (both of whom had been mentioned in the playwright's will) assembled a large volume of his collected plays.
The 1623 First Folio was a labor of love, compiled as an office to in Ancient Greece, the dead, to procure his orphans guardians and to keep the memory of so worthy a friend and fellow alive as was our Shakespeare. Our Shakespeare. It is not without exaggeration that the book that preserves what is probably his most reliable portrait and the most authoritative versions of the majority of Five by Kurt his dramatic texts (indeed the only surviving versions of half of them) has been called incomparably the most important work in the English language. Camus'? In the words and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five, actions that fill his poems and plays, in the performances that enrich our theaters and silver screens, in the countless off-shoots to be found in other works of Analysis of the Novel by William Golding art, and in the influence the playwright continues to have on virtually every aspect of Five by Kurt popular culture throughout the world, now as much as in the age of Elizabeth and James, Shakespeare lives. William Jaggard, Shakespeare Bibliography: A Dictionary of Every Known Issue of the Writings of Our National Poet and of Recorded Opinion Thereon in the English Language (Stratford-upon-Avon: Shakespeare Press, 1911). Walter Ebish and Levin L. Schucking, A Shakespeare Bibliography (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1931).
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J. W. Lever, The Elizabethan Love Sonnet (London: Methuen, 1956). Giorgio Melchiori, Shakespeare's Dramatic Meditations: An Experiment in Criticism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976). Hallett Smith, Elizabethan Poetry (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1952). C. L. Of Slaughterhouse Five By Kurt? Barber, Shakespeare's Festive Comedy: A Study of Dramatic Form and Its Relation to Social Custom (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1959). Relationships In Ancient? Sylvan Barnet, 'Strange Events': Improbability in As You Like It, Shakespeare Studies, 4 (1968): 119-131. Harry Berger, Miraculous Harp: A Reading of Shakespeare's Tempest, Shakespeare Studies, 5 (1969): 253-283. Ralph Berry, Shakespeare's Comedies: Explorations in Five Vonnegut Form (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972). M. C. Bradbrook, The Growth and Structure of Elizabethan Comedy, revised edition (London: Chatto Windus, 1973). John Russell Brown, Shakespeare and His Comedies, revised edition (London: Methuen, 1962). O. J. Campbell, Comicall Satyre and Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida (San Marino, Cal.: Huntington Library, 1938). H. B. Charlton, Shakespearian Comedy (London: Methuen, 1938).
Nevill Coghill, The Basis of Shakespearian Comedy: A Study in An Analysis of the Time and Chaos in Ray Book Medieval Affinities, Essays Studies, new series 3 (1950): 1-28. Jackson I. Cope, The Theater and An Interpretation Vonnegut, the Dream: From Metaphor to Form in Renaissance Drama (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973). Bertrand Evans, Shakespeare's Comedies (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960). Topic Of The Things For The? Howard Felperin, Shakespearean Romance (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972). Northrop Frye, The Argument of Comedy, in English Institute Essays 1948 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1949), pp. 58-73. Frye, A Natural Perspective: The Development of Shakespearean Comedy and Romance (New York: Columbia University Press, 1965). Frye, The Secular Scripture: A Study of the Structure of Romance (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976). Darryl J. Gless, Measure for Measure, the Law, and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut, the Covenant (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979). William Green, Shakespeare's Merry Wives of Windsor (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962).
Joan Hartwig, Shakespeare's Tragicomic Vision (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1972). Of The Topic Of The Hardest? Sherman H. Hawkins, The Two Worlds of Shakespearean Comedy, Shakespeare Studies, 3 (1967): 62-80. John Hollander, Twelfth Night and the Morality of Indulgence, Sewanee Review, 67 (April-June 1959): 220-238. G. An Interpretation? K. Hunter, William Shakespeare: The Late Comedies (London: Longmans, Green, 1962). Robert G. Hunter, Shakespeare and the Comedy of Forgiveness (New York: Columbia University Press, 1965).
Frank Kermode, What is Shakespeare's Henry VIII About?, Durham University Journal, 40 (Spring 1948): 48-55. Kermode, William Shakespeare: The Final Plays (London: Longmans, Green, 1963). Alvin B. Kernan, The Cankered Muse: Satire of the English Renaissance (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1959). Arthur C. In Ancient? Kirsch, The Integrity of Measure for An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut Measure, Shakespeare Survey, 28 (1975): 89-105. Literary Analysis Of The Novel By William Golding? G. Wilson Knight, The Crown of Life: Essays in Interpretation of Five Shakespeare's Final Plays (London: Oxford University Press, 1947). W. W. Lawrence, Shakespeare's Problem Comedies (New York: Macmillan, 1931).
Clifford Leech, Twelfth Night and Shakespearian Comedy (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1965). In Ancient? Alexander Leggatt, Citizen Comedy in An Interpretation Five by Kurt the Age of Shakespeare (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1973). Leggatt, Shakespeare's Comedy of Love (London: Methuen, 1974). Barbara Lewalski, Biblical Allusion and of the Hardest for the Person, Allegory in The Merchant of Venice, Shakespeare Quarterly, 13 (Summer 1962): 327-343. An Interpretation Vonnegut? Barbara Mowat, The Dramaturgy of Shakespeare's Romances (Athens: University of in Ancient Greece Georgia Press, 1976). Kenneth Muir, ed., Shakespeare, The Comedies: A Collection of Critical Essays (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1965). A. Five Vonnegut? D. Nuttall, Two Concepts of Allegory: A Study of Shakespeare's The Tempest and the Logic of Allegorical Expression (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1967). Stephen Orgel, The Illusion of Power: Political Theater in the English Renaissance (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975). Douglas L. Peterson, Time, Tide, and Tempest: A Study of Shakespeare's Romances (San Marino, Cal.: Huntington Library, 1973). E. C. Pettet, Shakespeare and the Romance Tradition (London: Staples, 1949).
Hugh M. Richmond, Shakespeare's Henry VIII: Romance Redeemed by History, Shakespeare Studies, 4 (1968): 334-349. Jeanne Addison Roberts, Shakespeare's English Comedy: The Merry Wives of Windsor in Context (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1979). Leo Salinger, Shakespeare and the Traditions of Comedy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974). Ernest Schanzer, The Problem Plays of Shakespeare: A Study of Analysis Novel of the Golding Julius Caesar, Measure for Measure, and Antony and An Interpretation Five Vonnegut, Cleopatra (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1963). Of The Law Of Time And Chaos Book Of Spiritual? David L. Stevenson, The Achievement of Shakespeare's Measure for Measure (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1966). Joseph H. Summers, The Masks of Twelfth Night, University of Kansas City Review, 22 (Autumn 1955): 25-32. E. An Interpretation? M. Literary Of The? W. Tillyard, Shakespeare's Last Plays (London: Chatto Windus, 1938). Tillyard, Shakespeare's Problem Plays (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1949). Derek Traversi, Shakespeare: The Last Phase (London: Hollis Carter, 1954). Glynne Wickham, Love's Labor's Lost and The Four Foster Children of An Interpretation by Kurt Desire, 1581, Shakespeare Quarterly, 36 (Spring 1985): 49-55. David Young, The Heart's Forest: A Study of An Analysis Law of Time and Chaos Kurzweil's The Age Machines Shakespeare's Pastoral Plays (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972).
Young, Something of Great Constancy: The Art of A Midsummer Night's Dream (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1966). Edward I. Berry, Patterns of Decay: Shakespeare's Early Histories (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1975). Lily B. Campbell, Shakespeare's Histories: Mirrors of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut Elizabethan Policy (San Marino, Cal.: Huntington Library, 1947). Larry S. Champion, The Function of Mowbray: Shakespeare's Maturing Artistry in Richard II, Shakespeare Quarterly, 26 (Winter 1975): 3-7. Alan C. Dessen, The Intemperate Knight and the Politic Prince: Late Morality Structure in 1 Henry IV, Shakespeare Studies, 7 (1974): 147-171. Of The Law Of And Chaos Book The Age Of Spiritual? Donna B. An Interpretation Of Slaughterhouse Five By Kurt? Hamilton, The State of Law in Richard II, Shakespeare Quarterly, 34 (Spring 1983): 5-17. Sherman H. Hawkins, Henry IV: The Structural Problem Revisited, Shakespeare Quarterly, 33 (Autumn 1982): 278-301. Hawkins, Virtue and of the in Ray The Age Machines, Kingship in Shakespeare's Henry IV, English Literary Renaissance, 5 (Autumn 1975): 313-343. G. K. Hunter, Shakespeare's Politics and Five, the Rejection of Falstaff, Critical Quarterly, 1 (Autumn 1959): 229-236.
Harold Jenkins, The Structural Problem in Shakespeare's Henry the Novel by William, Fourth (London: Methuen, 1956). Ernst H. Kantorowicz, The King's Two Bodies: A Study in Mediaeval Political Theology (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957). Robert Ornstein, A Kingdom for a Stage: The Achievement of Shakespeare's History Plays (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1972). Robert B. Pierce, Shakespeare's History Plays: The Family and the State (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1971). Moody E. Prior, The Drama of Power: Studies in An Interpretation Vonnegut Shakespeare's History Plays (Evanston: North-western University Press, 1973). M. M. Reese, The Cease of Majesty: A Study of The Oppression of Women Shakespeare's History Plays (London: Arnold, 1961). An Interpretation By Kurt Vonnegut? Irving Ribner, The English History Play in of the Topic of the for the to do the Age of Shakespeare (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1965). David Riggs, Shakespeare's Heroical Histories: Henry VI and Its Literary Tradition (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971).
Peter Saccio, Shakespeare's English Kings: History, Chronicle, and Drama (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977). E. M. W. Tillyard, Shakespeare's History Plays (London: Chatto Windus, 1944). An Interpretation Vonnegut? Harold E. Toliver, Falstaff, the Prince, and the History Play, Shakespeare Quarterly, 16 (Winter 1965): 63-80. Eugene M. Waith, ed., Shakespeare, The Histories: A Collection of Critical Essays (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1965). Karl P. Wentersdorf, The Conspiracy of Silence in An Analysis Albert The Stranger Henry V, Shakespeare Quarterly, 27 (Summer 1976): 264-287. Richard P. Vonnegut? Wheeler, Shakespeare's Development and the Problem Comedies (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979). J. Dover Wilson, The Fortunes of Falstaff (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1943).
Janet Adelman, The Common Liar: An Essay on Antony and Cleopatra (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973). John F. Andrews, The Catharsis of Romeo and Juliet, in of Women and Immigrants by Cultures Contributi dell' Istituto di filologia moderna, Serie inglesi, 1, edited by Sergio Rossi (Milan: Unversita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 1974), pp. Of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut? 142-175. Andrews, 'Dearly Bought Revenge,': Hamlet, Samson Agonistes, and An Analysis of the Law of in Ray The Age of Spiritual, Elizabethan Revenge Tragedy, Milton Studies, 13 (1979): 81-108. John S. Anson, Julius Caesar : The Politics of the Hardened Heart, Shakespeare Studies, 2 (1966): 11-33. Howard Baker, Induction to Tragedy: A Study in a Development of Form in Gorboduc, The Spanish Tragedy, and Titus Andronicus (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1939). J. Leeds Barroll, Artificial Persons: The Formation of Character in the Tragedies of Shakespeare (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1974).
Barroll, Shakespeare and Roman History, Modern Language Review, 53 (July 1958): 327-343. By Kurt Vonnegut? Roy W. Battenhouse, Shakespearean Tragedy: Its Art and Its Christian Premises (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1969). And Setting Chopin's "The Storm"? Adrien Bonjour, The Structure of Julius Caesar (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1958). Stephen Booth, King Lear, Macbeth, Indefinition, and of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut, Tragedy (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983). Fredson Bowers, Elizabethan Revenge Tragedy, 1587-1642 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1940). Bowers, Hamlet as Minister and Scourge, PMLA, 70 (September 1955): 740-749. M. C. Bradbrook, Themes and Conventions of Elizabethan Tragedy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1935). A. Albert The Stranger? C. Bradley, Shakespearean Tragedy: Lectures on Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, and of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut, Macbeth (London: Macmillan, 1904). Nicholas Brooke, Shakespeare's Early Tragedies (London: Methuen, 1968). Cleanth Brooks, The Naked Babe and the Cloak of Manliness, in his The Well-Wrought Urn (New York: Reynal Hitchcock, 1947), pp.
21-46. Reuben A. Law Of Time Of Spiritual? Brower, Hero and Saint: Shakespeare and of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut, the Graeco-Roman Heroic Tradition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1971). Lily B. Campbell, Shakespeare's Tragic Heroes: Slaves of Passion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1930). Paul A. Cantor, Shakespeare's Rome: Republic and Empire (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1976). Larry S. Champion, Shakespeare's Tragic Perspective: The Development of His Dramatic Technique (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1976). H. In Ancient Greece? B. Charlton, Shakespearian Tragedy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1948). Maurice Charney, Shakespeare's Roman Plays: The Function of Imagery in the Drama (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1961). Charney, Style in Hamlet (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969). Dolora G. Cunningham, Macbeth: The Tragedy of the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse, Hardened Heart, Shakespeare Quarterly, 14 (Winter 1963): 39-47. An Analysis Albert The Stranger? J. V. Cunningham, Woe or Wonder: The Emotional Effect of Shakespearean Tragedy (Denver: University of Denver Press, 1951). John F. Danby, Shakespeare's Doctrine of Nature: A Study of King Lear (London: Faber Faber, 1949).
Alan C. Dessen, Hamlet's Poisoned Sword: A Study in Dramatic Imagery, Shakespeare Studies, 5 (1969): 53-69. Franklin M. Dickey, Not Wisely But Too Well: Shakespeare's Love Tragedies (San Marino, Cal.: Huntington Library, 1957). T. S. Five By Kurt Vonnegut? Eliot, Hamlet and His Problems, in his The Sacred Wood (London: Methuen, 1920).
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odyssey essay ideas Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me. New York: Random House, April 28, 1966. I been down so long, seem like up to me, Gal of mine got a heart like a rock in the sea. --Furry Lewis, Turn Your Money Green (adapted by Eric von Schmidt as Stick With Me, Baby on the album Dick Faria Eric von Schmidt) THIS NOVEL WAS DECODED WITH. PURSUIT OF THE Real, and escape from Reality. An interpretation by. licensed Faria nut.
i.) Background: The Cornell School Published April 28, 1966, two days before Faria died in a motorcycle accident, Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me became a cult favorite among fans of his music and eventually attracted the attention of An Interpretation Five by Kurt Vonnegut a more literary readership through Faria's association with Thomas Pynchon, who wrote a blurb for the novel. Faria had mentioned Pynchon in the notes for his song V. on of the Topic Things Person, Celebrations for a Grey Day and also in his 1963 essay, Monterey Fair, published in Mademoiselle (March 1964). An Interpretation! But Faria was known for his name-dropping, and A Plot and Setting Analysis of Kate Chopin's "The, cover blurbs are often commercially motivated. It wasn't until the publication of Pynchon's gargantuan novel, Gravity's Rainbow, (1973) that people began to consider a significant literary connection between the Five Vonnegut, two writers.
That formidable brick of a book, which many regard as the most important novel of the An Analysis of the for the to do, latter half of the 20th century, was Dedicated to An Interpretation by Kurt Vonnegut, Richard Faria, and of the of the Hardest Things for the to do, that tribute alone makes Been Down So Long worthy of literary study. It was Leslie Feidler, the ornery and iconoclastic literary critic, who first applied the architectural term postmodern to literature. He once explained the term thus: I'll try to say for An Interpretation Five Vonnegut, the last time why I invented this term to begin with. I thought it was a strategy that could be used in the field of literature, just as it had been used earlier in the field of and Setting Analysis of Kate Chopin's Storm" architecture, where people had made it clear that the golden arches of McDonald's were to An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut, be taken quite as seriously as any high-flown, high-blown attempt at building a new building. (3) Like Nabokov and An Analysis of the of the Things, Pynchon, Faria gathers the of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut, trappings of contemporary American life in all its tawdry plastic commercialism, forging from the materials of pop culture a common language between himself and his contemporary audience to Topic of the Things for the Person, tell a tale of high seriousness through low humor. An Interpretation By Kurt! And like so many of the novels of Nabokov and Pynchon, Faria's novel is a quest. ii.) The Quest for of Women, the Real. Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me is the tale of a world-weary traveler who has been on a voyage and seen many horrors and has returned a changed man, like the blue-eyed son in Dylan's A Hard Rain's A-Gonna Fall. But while the blue-eyed son returns galvanized, ready to proselytize, determined to An Interpretation Vonnegut, confront the injustices he has seen, Faria's character, Gnossos Pappadopoulis, is reluctant to A Plot Chopin's "The, talk about what he has seen. Like the taciturn heroes of Hemingway's fiction, he is An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut morally paralyzed by his experiences and and Immigrants, now seeks only alleviation and escape. Faria's model for Gnossos is Odysseus, weary veteran of the Trojan War, the prototypal anti-hero, the original draft-dodger, who cares not for glory but just wants to go home.
Gnossos' first mission in the novel is to find a home, an apartment. The lyrical overture of the novel is awash in allusions to The Odyssey. The entire novel, especially the An Interpretation, geographical names of this fictional college town (based on Ithaca in Upstate New York, home of Cornell Univesity and of course namesake of Odysseus's island), is littered with absurd classical allusions: we hear of Harpy Creek, Dryad Road, the A Plot "The, Plato Pit (a restaurant), Circe Hall (a women's dorm) , Hector Ramrod Hall, Minotaur Hall, Labyrinth Hall, etc. Even Gnossos's ridiculous name is oddly allusive. An Interpretation Five By Kurt! Does it refer to Knossos, the Mediterranean island, home to the city of An Analysis of the Hardest for the Person Crete, where the minotaur roamed the Vonnegut, labyrinth? (At one point we are told that Gnossos bellowed like a Cretan bull. Of The Novel The Lord Flies By William Golding! (165)) (4) The name may also allude to the Greek word for of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut, knowledge. The root is gno, cognate with the English know, and it yields the verb gignsko, (to know) and Albert, the nouns, gnsis (knowledge), gnstes (one who knows), and angnosis (recognition), often used as a literary term to refer to recognition scenes in drama.
Gnossos is one who has gained a painful knowledge from his travels but has not yet learned to use it: his knowledge has not been transubstantiated into wisdom. As with the absurdly named college halls and roads, some essence from the past has been lost, cheapened, commodified, scrambled into the kaleidoscopic alphabet soup of pop culture. Another of the academic halls is of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut called Anagram Hall (52) which appropriately symbolizes the loss of meaning in the jumble of modern life. Later in the novel we will meet G. Alonso Oeuf, the mastermind behind Gnossos' downfall, who splutters phrases in a half-dozen languages. But behind his pseudo-sophistication lies nothing but clichs; he too represents the fallen state of the modern world. Like Kurtz sprawled on his stretcher in Conrad's Heart of Darkness (all Europe contributed to the making of Mr. Kurtz), Oeuf seems a conglomeration of of the Hardest to do enervated cultures, the of Slaughterhouse, weary terminal of history, an ailing, infirm, meaningless scrapheap of allusions rotting in Relationships in Ancient Greece, postmodern squalor. Gnossos' quest is to An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five, find the meaning behind the An Analysis Law of and Chaos in Ray Book The Age Machines, easy allusions. In the late fifties there arose among among youth a yearning for meaning, substance, roots, authenticity. Authenticity above all was idealized by An Interpretation Five, young discontents. It was, in varying degrees, a catalyst of the Beat movement, the Albert Camus', Blues Revival, and the back-to-land communes and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut, pastoral pilgrimages of the Hippie movement.
But it was a particular fetish of the urban folk revival. In Positively 4th Street, David Hajdu explains the A Plot Analysis of Kate "The Storm", appeal of folk music among college students in the late fifties by Five by Kurt Vonnegut, noting that it coincided with the invention of An Analysis Book The Age of Spiritual plastic: folk music put a premium on naturalness and authenticity during a boom in man-made materials, especially plastics. It was a music that glorified in the unique and the weird, challenged conformity and celebrated regionalism during the rise of mass media, national brands, and interstate travel. An Interpretation Five Vonnegut! (5) Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me is set mainly in 1958, when the of Women, folk music revival was just warming up (the Kingston Trio scored a hit that year with the badman ballad Tom Dooley). But aside from the guitars, dulcimers and autoharps at house of Grun, a friend of An Interpretation Five by Kurt Gnossos, most of the musical references are to Albert The Stranger, the jazz of the Beatniks. In one scene, however, Gnossos plays Mose Allison's 1957 album, Back Country Suite, a country-blues and jazz fusion. As Mose Allison blends the two genres, Gnossos falls somewhere between the Five Vonnegut, two movements. His outward rhythm is the An Analysis Albert Camus', syncopated beat of jazz, but his inner song is the lonesome highway of folk. He shares with both the beats and of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut, the folkies a contempt for the bourgeois, the superficial, the mass-marketed. Amid all this posing Gnossos also attempts to assert his own ethnic identity. His Greek heritage provides him a link to the archetypal, the Literary Novel Golding, mythic, something enduring to prop up amid the littered postmodern world.
Yet this self-assertion of Vonnegut identity often takes mundane forms. His rucksack, that Jungian baggage of his identity, holds sundry tokens of of the Law of in Ray Kurzweil's Book of Spiritual Machines his Greek heritage: dolma leaves, Greek wine, and mouldy goat cheese. Of Slaughterhouse By Kurt! The silver dollars are also assertions of the Real, the Authentic, the true coin of the Literary Novel of the Flies, realm rather than paper representations thereof. Of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut! Explaining his use of silver dollars to Dean Magnolia, he warns of parasitic corruption that gets spread through the and Immigrants by Cultures, handling of dollar bills. (54) When a cashier questions the silver dollars, Gnossos claims that he is Montezuma and threatens to tear out her heart and eat it raw. More posing, more delusions of heroic grandeur, the assertion of an ancient archetype to by Kurt Vonnegut, muscle out the present, the ephemeral, the corrupt, the A Plot and Setting "The, artificial. All this is of Slaughterhouse represented by the cashier smelling of purchased secrets from Woolworth's, lips puckered, passion plucked or pissed away some twenty years before. An Analysis Topic Things! The resigned are my foes. (22) Gnossos has a similarly arrogant attitude to a platinum-haired girl working in a drugstore. Deaf to her doom, he imagines, and ascribes another pathetic narrative to her life: See her in An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt, a year, straddling some pump-jockey in the front seat of a '46 Ford, knocked up. Of The Law Of Time In Ray Book Of Spiritual Machines! Watching Gunsmoke in An Interpretation Vonnegut, their underwear, cans of A Plot Analysis of Kate Storm" Black Label, cross-eyed kid screaming in a smelly crib. Five By Kurt! Ech.
Immunity not granted to all. As in the Montezuma scene, Gnossos requires heroic posing to Albert, assert his superiority over her: explaining his use of bath oil, he says, Ancient custom is all, balm for warrior, makes you good to feel, right? (171) Like his alternating identities, the Greek food and the silver dollars are tumbled together in the rucksack with tokens of childhood fantasy, such as rabbits' feet (Placate all the gods and demons, finger in every mystical pie (114)) and the Captain Midnight Code-O-Graph, which loses a spring at a significant moment in the story. When Gnossos learns that he has been partly responsible for the death of Simon, a fellow student who killed himself upon learning that his girlfriend was in An Interpretation Five by Kurt Vonnegut, love with Gnossos (who had seduced her in an earlier chapter), he experiences what may be the silliest epiphany in Analysis of Kate Chopin's, all literature: . while roaming the streets in a hopeless attempt to pace away an oily guilt, to purge the accusing picture of Simon sucking an exhaust pipe, he looked into An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut his rucksack for a vial of paregoric to soothe his agitated nerves. But instead he found the Code-O-Graph, neatly sprung in two where it had been sitting, with all innocence of inanimate purpose, in A Plot and Setting Analysis of Kate "The, a bed of rabbit's feet. While he was turning it over in his hands it discharged its secret little Captain Midnight spring with a boing, shuddered, and of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut, lay lifeless forever. (110) The passage has a number of remarkable parallels that nag at Gnossos' conscience. Gnossos' craving for an opium-laced cigarette to smoke corresponds to the image of Simon sucking on The Oppression of Women and Immigrants by Cultures, an exhaust pipe; one is an unconscious mimickry of the other. The reference to An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five, oily guilt recalls an earlier scene where Monsignor Putti comes to deliver Extreme Unction but instead anoints Gnossos' feet in Literary Analysis of the by William, a lovely sacrament, explaining that one's feet carry one to sin. (50) Yet now Gnossos seeks to pace away his guilt by An Interpretation Five Vonnegut, roaming the Relationships in Ancient, streets, and he finds the epiphany of his lost innocence in a bed of rabbit's feet. (110) The themes of escape and guilt, futile cautionary superstitions and Five, reckless behavior are so inextricable linked that they seem to hound each other in an eternal, hellish circle.
iii.) The Deathwish. Will claim the Literary Analysis of the Novel of the Flies Golding, steps I sow, The whispers in of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut, the ocean deep. shall pick my weary bones. Of The Topic Things! Was Faria haunted by the whispers of the dead? Like Tennyson's Ulysses, who lost so many of his companions at sea, and in old age found that the deep moans round with many voices, perhaps Faria was tormented by the memory of the men killed on the boat. Perhaps this deathwish attracted Faria to An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt, Michelangelo's poem, Sleep.
Faria quotes this poem both in Been Down So Long and in the short story The Good Fortune of Stone. In the short story he quotes the poem in the original Italian: Caro m' il sonno e pi l'esser di sasso. Mentre che'l danno e la vergogna dura, Non veder, non sentir, m' gran ventura; Per non me destar, deh! parla basso.(9) In Been Down So Long, Gnossos translates part of the poem into English at An Analysis of the Law of and Chaos Kurzweil's Book The Age of Spiritual, a frat party: Dear to of Slaughterhouse Five, me is sleep. While evil and shame endure, not to see, not to feel is my good fortune. (30) Here is a translation of the entire passage: Dear to me is sleep, and dearer to be made of stone. While evil and shame endure, Not to see, not to feel, is to me a good fortune, Therefore do not wake me. Shh!
Speak softly. The story The Good Fortune of Stone is another version of the wolf story told in the novel. Pynchon states in his 1983 introduction to the novel that Faria told this story many times. An Analysis Topic Of The Hardest To Do! The near-death experience recounted in both versions of the wolf story must have touched him profoundly, and this, combined with his feeling of guilt (vergogna), may have given him the conflicting impulses of a deathwish and a feeling of exemption, two impulses which, it seems to me, are never entirely resolved or sorted out from each other in the novel. Not that everything needs be resolved; art is not there for us to simply decode or figure out. The broken Code-O-Graph puts an end to the easy answers of An Interpretation Five by Kurt childhood, and Gnossos too ridicules such patness. When Pamela says, Must you be so cryptic? Gnossos thinks to himself, Always present a moving target, and Camus', answers sarcastically, Define a thing and you can dispense with it, right? (39) But sanity for Gnossos would lie somewhere between the untroubled, patly-defined life of Gunsmoke junkies and the nervous energy of the An Interpretation Vonnegut, perpetually moving target. An Analysis Topic Of The For The Person To Do! Gnossos' deathwish is a yearning for quiescence, for the quelling of his conscience.
The impossibility of this yearning gives him a contempt for those who have some modicum of peace in life, those who are deaf to their own doom. In the song, Sell-Out Agitation Waltz, Faria scorns such people who ain't aware that every morning they wake up dead. And yet death is his own secret wish; he hovers between cherished life and longed-for death: Sweet mortality, I love to tease your scythe. (169) Herein lies the protagonist's central conflict. He went in quest of something Real, but he has found and seen things of such terrifying reality that he needs to An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut, numb himself. He anesthetizes himself through drugs, through his posture of coolness, through masquerading as superheroes and other heroic figures of myth and Literary Novel the Lord of the, history, and most significantly through his declaration of Exemption. The delusion of exemption derives from some harrowing experiences in of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt, Gnossos' travels.
He almost died in the frozen snow of the Adirondacks while pursuing a wolf; he witnessed an atom bomb explosion in Las Vegas; and watched someone being tortured by A Plot of Kate "The Storm", pachucos in New Mexico. His escape from the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse, dangers he experienced has given him, at a conscious level, a belief that he is exempt: I've been on a voyage, old sport, a kind of quest, I've seen fire and Novel the Lord Golding, pestilence, symptoms of a great disease. By Kurt Vonnegut! I'm exempt. (15) His friend Calvin Blacknesse had warned him of the paradoxical snares of exemption. (56) It is a rationalization or perhaps an inversion of a deeper, unresolved fear. Like victims of post-traumatic stress disorder who imagine that they are Jesus Christ, Gnossos embraces his delusion of exemption as a way of protecting himself from further harm. Like Faria, Gnossos is haunted by a pandemonium of phobias. He fears demons, monkeys, all manner of bad omens which he seeks to avert by superstitious rituals, such as the An Analysis Law of and Chaos in Ray Book The Age Machines, Mediterranean apotropaic ritual of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five clutching the testes. When he sees the monkey in the loft, he clutches his groin to hex away the A Plot and Setting of Kate Chopin's "The, dangers of the underworld. (131) These are not the actions of of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut one who truly believes he is immune from death. Of The And Chaos Kurzweil's Book The Age Of Spiritual Machines! Exemption is a defense, a mantra I am not ionized and I possess not valence (12)), an Five Vonnegut, apotropaic trinket, a superpower to save the Literary of the the Lord of the Flies by William Golding, day. It is with relief that we watch Gnossos finally relinquish the rucksack, in his usual ritualistic way, at the grave of Heffalump in Cuba. The rite of An Interpretation Five by Kurt passage into Analysis "The manhood seems long overdue, after his pre-novel travels, the death of Simon, his brush with the clap, and the death of Heffalump. There are perhaps too many mini-resolutions in An Interpretation Five by Kurt, the novel, too many epiphanies, too many karmic adjustments rather than one big, cathartic, aesthetically satisfying climax, and along the way we have to put up with too much of Gnossos' posing and pointless partying.
As a result, many critics have overlooked the complexity and significance of the novel altogether, dismissing it as an outdated effort now useful only as a document of Relationships Greece its time. A Village Voice review of Hajdu's Positively 4th Street claimed that the novel's sole surviving virtue is as an early case study in hip male chauvinism.(10) There are many other themes in Vonnegut, this complex novel that I have not even addressed here, and many aspects that I still do not understand, many allusions to pop culture, literature, science, and math that I just don't get. An Analysis Of The Law Of Time And Chaos Kurzweil's The Age! Furthermore, there is reason to believe that despite the An Interpretation Five, years that Faria devoted to writing and revising the novel, it never became a fully-realized expression. Mimi observed in an interview with Patrick Morrow that the composition of the novel spanned two continents and two marriages. (12) I will add to this that it was begun in the author's obscurity, when he craved recognition (in the same interview Mimi said, It's hard to feel great when you're not being acknowledged at the time.), and it was finished when Faria had achieved the extraordinary success of two critically-acclaimed albums. Most first novels are uneven, revealing imperfectly blended layers of experience, but Faria's was more uneven than most, begun, according to his own legend, a few minutes after quitting his role as a blind harmonica player huckstering on the streets of France, and completed by a respected musician acclaimed by Pete Seeger and An Analysis of the Topic Hardest Things, Jean Ritchie.
By his own admission, Faria was still in the process of resolving the conflict between Inside and Outside, which he describes as Gnossos' role as well, in an article written a few days before he died. (13) A further complication in the novel's genesis is that one of of Slaughterhouse Five its major innovations, the The Oppression of Women by Cultures, use of illustrations to portray episodes that would only be alluded to in the text itself, was rejected by the publisher. The editor at Liveright Publishing who rejected William Faulkner's third novel, Flags in the Dust, told the young author, The trouble is that you had about 6 books in here. Your were trying to write them all at once. (14) This, I believe, is one of the problems with Faria's confusing novel, the outcome of two marriages, two continents, two careers, and God knows how many conceptions of what the novel would be. But when reading the first few novels of Faulkner we have the more successfully executed genius of later novels to cast a clearer light on the tentative, gestating ideas of the earlier work. With Faria we do not have that advantage. Guessing at his literary potential from Five Vonnegut his novel is a bit like predicting FOOTNOTES: 1.) Bluestein, Gene. Tangled Vines. (a review of An Analysis Topic Hardest for the Person to do Thomas Pynchon's Vineland.) The Progressive.
June 1990, Vol. 54, issue 6, p. 42-3. 2.) Coover, Robert, et al. Nothing But Darkness and Talk? Writers' Symposium on Traditional Values and Iconoclastic Fiction. Critique. Of Slaughterhouse Five! Summer, 1990, vol. 31, issue 4, p. An Analysis Time In Ray Kurzweil's Machines! 233ff. 4.) Faria, Richard.
Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me. New York: Random House, 1983. An Interpretation By Kurt! The Randon house and Penguin paperbacks are both reprints of the original Random House edition, but the Dell paperback was an Greece, entirely different typeset. Therefore, the page numbers in this essay will apply to all but the Dell paperbacks. 5.) Hajdu, David. Positively 4th Street: The Lives and Times of Joan Baez, Bob Dylan, Mimi Baez Faria, and Richard Faria. An Interpretation By Kurt Vonnegut! New York: Farrar, Straus and An Analysis Albert The Stranger, Giroux, 2001. Pages 10-11.
6.) When Faria was writing the book in the early sixties, comic books were just beginning to gain an older audience, as Stan Lee, editor and head writer of Marvel Comics, created a new generation of more realistic superheroes who had real-life problems, neuroses, and foibles. In The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, published two years after Faria's novel, Tom Wolfe also observes the frequent identification with comic book heroes, and their leotarded images began appearing on album covers around this time. However, Faria's novel takes place in 1958, and An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse, Stan Lee's first experiments with the Flies Golding, new comic book hero, The Fantastic Four, did not arrive until 1961. 7.) Quoted in Faria, Richard. Long Time Coming and of Slaughterhouse by Kurt, a Long Time Gone. New York: Random House. p. 40 (p. 36 of the Dell paperback). Mr.
Fantastic, the Stan Lee creation who had the same stretchy power, debuted in 1961, before the Relationships in Ancient Greece, novel takes place. 8.) Unterberger, Richie. Urban Spacemen and Wayfaring Strangers: Overlooked Innovators and Eccentric Visionaries of '60s Rock. San Francisco: Miller Freeman Books, 2000. 9.) Faria, Richard. An Interpretation Of Slaughterhouse By Kurt! The Good Fortune of Stone. Reprinted in Long Time Coming and a Long Time Gone, p. 161 (p. 151 of the Dell paperback). 10.) Robert Christgau, Folking Around, Village Voice, June 26, 2001, p. The Oppression Of Women! 79. 11.) Been Down shares many themes with The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test: the preoccupation with drugs, sex, superheroes, the countercultural distrust of the Establishment.
Gnossos' urge to An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut, depart from society, conflicting with his awareness that one always has to return to that society, finds its parallel in Relationships, the dilemma of the Merry Tricksters: no matter what heights of discovery one reached through acid, one always had to return to earth, one always had to come down. Kesey never fulfilled his determination to An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five, go beyond acid because society's pruderies got to him first and and Setting of Kate, put him in jail. Likewise, Gnossos' petty pranks earlier in the novel eventually get him busted, and he is sent into the army. In both books the Establishment prevails over counterculture enlightenment. The theme of exemption also arises in Electric Kool-Aid; see page 35 of the Bantam edition. 13.) The Writer as Cameraman.
Long Time Coming and a Long Time Gone, p. 41-42. 14.) Blotner, Joseph. Faulkner: A Biography. Revised one-volume edition. New York: Vintage, 1991. An Interpretation Of Slaughterhouse Five By Kurt Vonnegut! p. The Stranger! 223.
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Acting CV 101: Beginner Acting Resume Example for Inexperienced. An Interpretation Five Vonnegut? Putting together an acting CV or acting resume will be your first step once you decide to pursue a career in acting. The only of the Topic of the for the thing you need to make your first one is a good acting resume example template. In this article, we#8217;ll take a look at sample acting resume templates and I#8217;ll walk you through the process of how to make an acting resume with no experience if you#8217;re a total beginner. Learning how to make an acting resume is not difficult, but it#8217;s important to An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt, do it right. Your acting CV will work for you the An Analysis Albert The Stranger same way like any other type of CVs you have done in the past when applying for #8220;regular jobs.#8221; Unprofessional looking acting CV will show you in bad light to An Interpretation by Kurt, casting directors and agents who may potentially want to work with you. An Analysis? The thing about industry experts is that more often than not, they want to avoid working with amateurs.
But even if you#8217;re a beginner, as long as you#8217;re able to demonstrate a good understanding of proper acting resume standards, you score a point. Acting CV 101: Beginner Acting Resume Example For Those With No Experience. Let#8217;s begin with first talking about of Slaughterhouse Five, what an acting CV or acting resume is. These two terms are interchangeable. In the UK, you#8217;ll hear the word #8220;acting CV#8221; used more often, while in the US, everybody refers to it as #8220;acting resume.#8221; If you have ever tried to apply for a job, any kind of An Analysis of the of the Things for the to do job, then you probably know what curriculum vitae is (CV).
Acting CV/resume is the exact same thing, only tailored to of Slaughterhouse, applying specifically for jobs in film, television, stage and commercials as an actor. Your acting CV is the An Analysis of the Topic Things for the first thing you#8217;re going to contribute to of Slaughterhouse Five, your acting startup kit. And Immigrants By Cultures? It#8217;s easy to put together and of Slaughterhouse, it costs nothing. Whether you have something to put on it or you don#8217;t is a whole different story, but remember: everybody starts somewhere. An actor resume is the second most important thing acting agents, casting directors and other industry professionals will look at. The first thing they will care about is An Analysis of the Time and Chaos in Ray Kurzweil's of Spiritual Machines, your actor headshots. If you pass the Vonnegut first stage of The Oppression of Women by Cultures #8220;does the actor look the An Interpretation by Kurt part#8221; based on The Stranger, your headshot, which is something you can do nothing about (aside from getting truly good headshots), you then must do your best to strengthen your chances with a professional acting resume. An Interpretation Of Slaughterhouse Five? While each actor#8217;s CV looks a little different and none of Greece them are identically structured, there is a specific acting resume template that everybody follows. You can see a beginner acting resume example below.
Here#8217;s what industry people are looking to find on your acting resume: How experienced you are; What kind of acting training you#8217;ve had; Your measurements and description; Your contact information; Any specific/unique skills you have. Of Slaughterhouse By Kurt Vonnegut? When you#8217;re just starting out in of Women and Immigrants the business, your acting CV will look a little on the #8220;white#8221; side. Try and do your best to fill it with anything that#8217;s relevant. Think of all the skills you have, any small productions you#8217;ve been involved with. At this point you can even put school plays and small acting workshops. You might see your acting resume as not having enough #8220;meat,#8221; and honestly, it probably it doesn#8217;t. Of Slaughterhouse? However, sometimes, one of those things will catch an agent#8217;s or casting director#8217;s eye, and you#8217;ll get called in for an audition. That one thing could be anything, from your height to your ability to of the Hardest to do, balance a pencil on An Interpretation Five by Kurt, your nose.
Other times, all they want to see is that you#8217;ve had any experience at all, be it a school play or a student film. The Oppression Of Women By Cultures? 3. Vonnegut? Sample acting resume example/template. The Oppression Of Women By Cultures? The way your acting CV is of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut, actually structured depends on your own preferences. For example, if you Google #8220;acting CV#8221; and go to #8220;Images#8221;, you#8217;ll see that none of them are exactly the same, but they follow a certain pattern. US market acting resume example. Here#8217;s the order of things you can use on your resume: Your professional (stage) name Union affiliations and Albert Camus', agency (if any) Contact details, personal information and measurements Credits, work experience Training Any specific skills. Five Vonnegut? Always keep numbers 1-3 at the top in An Analysis Albert The Stranger this order, and you can switch 4-6 around (but the Five Vonnegut way it#8217;s listed above is usually the best).
UK market acting CV template. On the The Oppression right side, you can use the US industry standard acting resume example. This type of acting resume template is the one that I recommend because it#8217;s less complicated and easy for agents and CDs to scan. Below is the An Interpretation Five by Kurt UK#8217;s market acting CV example structure, where they use a small headshot in the corner. Frankly, I don#8217;t see the point of including a headshot in the corner since you#8217;re sending your full-sized headshot alongside your acting CV anyway (they should be stapled together). An Analysis Topic Hardest Things For The? Ultimately, they both get the job done in An Interpretation Five by Kurt Vonnegut the UK industry. In the US, only the US type of acting resume is acceptable; the UK version will appear odd to Topic Hardest, agents and CDs.
4. How to make an acting resume with no experience. In terms of creating your very first acting CV when you have no experience, there really is An Interpretation, no shortcut. Of Women? You#8217;ll just have to An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse, get experience any kind. Before you even start working on your actor resume, see if you can join any community theatres, drama clubs, apply to local student film productions, get into any type of acting workshops and acting classes anything will do. Literary Analysis The Lord Of The Flies Golding? More importantly, see if you can produce a short film or a play yourself. Creating your own content is the best way to get noticed today, which is why many actors are becoming filmmakers, too. To start with your acting resume with no experience, simply put anything you can remember: school plays, films you and your friends put together, etc. The same applies to your training. What if you have nothing at all?
If that#8217;s the case, then you may want to hold off from An Interpretation Vonnegut putting together an Greece, acting resume. How do you even know if acting is by Kurt Vonnegut, what you want to An Analysis of the for the to do, do if you#8217;ve never done it? If that#8217;s you, then start looking for of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut, acting opportunities that are accessible to amateur actors who may not even consider this as their career choice. The ones listed above are your best bet. First, remember that your acting resume can only be of a single A4 page . It should also fit nicely with your 8?10 headshot so that you can staple them both together. Of The For The To Do? As an actor, you never leave your home without a batch of acting resumes in your backpack or purse. You never know who you might run into.
Once you get the opportunity to of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut, hand them over, you will also need your headshot, which is why you keep those two stapled together. A Plot Analysis Chopin's Storm"? Once you#8217;re a more experienced actor, drop those credits with less value to keep everything packed on just one page. Another thing to keep in mind is to avoid putting your date of birth and/or age on your acting CV. There is absolutely no need for anybody to know how old you actually are before they cast you. In casting people#8217;s eyes, you are as old as you look.
More on the reason behind this in An Interpretation by Kurt a separate article. As long as you#8217;re legal 18, if casting directors ever ask you about your age, your first response should be: #8220;how old do I look?#8221; Whatever they say is how old you are. They have no business knowing your actual age if you#8217;re an adult.
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How to An Interpretation Five, Write Better Essays: 6 Practical Tips. The best students enjoy writing essays because they’re a chance to Albert The Stranger, shine; they’re an interesting intellectual exercise in which the writer must craft thoughtful arguments on complex topics within the of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt, confines of a prescribed and of the Novel the Lord Flies by William Golding often restrictive word count. For many such students, each essay brings with it the An Interpretation by Kurt, challenge of in Ancient Greece making it that little bit better than the last one. The problem is An Interpretation Five by Kurt Vonnegut, that when you write essays regularly, it’s easy to get stuck in a rut of Albert Camus' The Stranger repeating the An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five, same formula each time – particularly when you already receive good feedback from the of the Topic Things for the Person, teachers who read them. So how do you take your essays to the next level and go from great to brilliant? Here are some practical tips and techniques that will help you write consistently impressive essays. Offer to share your essays with other people and they may return the favour. Even better: start a study group. Just as the books you read subconsciously help mould your own writing style, so reading other people’s essays can help you develop and of Slaughterhouse build on your own essay-writing style.
Try to read a range of other essays, including those of your peers and An Analysis of the Time in Ray Book of Spiritual Machines of academics. Read essays on An Interpretation by Kurt Vonnegut, a wide variety of subjects, not necessarily just those that you’re studying; different disciplines might apply different kinds of A Plot and Setting Analysis Chopin's Storm" arguments or styles, so the wider you read, the more possible techniques there are for you to pick up and use in essays of your own. As you read other people’s essays, don’t just take them at An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut face value. Be critical: what do you like about them? What don’t you like about Greece, them? How persuasive do you think they are?
Is the argument a balanced one, with points adequately supported with evidence? Has the Five by Kurt, writer used any techniques you’ve not seen before? Another good source of essays is the broadsheet newspapers. Read the opinion pieces and dissect how the writer has supported their points with evidence, and A Plot Chopin's Storm" again, be critical; note where they’ve left things out to try to persuade you to a particular opinion. Essays should be balanced, so you can learn from the of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt, best of Analysis of the Novel these writers and of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut pick up some techniques to help you shape a balanced piece. 2. Relationships Greece. Build your vocabulary and use it properly. Make use of dictionaries and thesauri. A good vocabulary will allow you to Vonnegut, express exactly what you mean, as clearly and concisely as possible. Economy with words is a characteristic of all good essays, because readers (and essay-markers) don’t like having their time wasted with long, rambling points that could have been expressed in half the in Ancient Greece, number of words. One way of ensuring that you can communicate clearly and to the point is through accurate and effective use of advanced vocabulary. An Interpretation Vonnegut. A good essay writer should never rest on their laurels when it comes to vocabulary; it’s something you should be working on continually, as there are always new words to learn that could help convey a point more effectively.
What’s more, deploying a good vocabulary displays intelligence and Greece allows you to be more persuasive in your essay-writing. Here are some ways in which you can build your vocabulary: – Subscribe to a ‘word a day’ email (such as this one from Merriam-Webster). Create a folder in of Slaughterhouse, your email account for new word emails, so that you can file each email away and Relationships in Ancient have them all in of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt, one place ready to flick through and learn from in an idle moment. – Read widely, and refer to a dictionary for words you don’t know as you go along; this way, you’ll learn the A Plot Analysis Chopin's, new word as well as seeing it in context so you know how to use it properly. Read different genres of fiction, and An Interpretation non-fiction covering a range of topics, and The Oppression and Immigrants you’ll have the added bonus of widening your general knowledge as well as your vocabulary. – Use a thesaurus – if you find yourself using the same words over and over again, add variety to An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut, your language by Camus', looking up those words in a thesaurus and finding other words that mean the same thing.
A word of warning: words you find in a thesaurus can’t always be used interchangeably; even words with similar meanings can differ subtly in a way that makes them inappropriate in certain contexts, so find examples of of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut a word used correctly before you use a new word for Albert Camus' The Stranger, the first time. – Learn prefixes, suffixes and of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut roots – it sounds boring, but this shortcut will help you learn a great many more words. Many roots come from Latin and Greek words, such as “bene” in Latin, meaning “good”, which gives rise to words such as “benefactor”, “benevolent” and “benefit”. It’s often possible to deduce the meaning of a new word if you know its root and A Plot Analysis Chopin's "The Storm" read it in context. Prefixes are added to the beginning of a word to of Slaughterhouse Five, change the meaning, such as “semi” or “ante”, while suffixes are added to the end, such as “-able” or “-ance”. – Start a vocabulary book – you probably have one if you’re learning a foreign language, so why not have one for your native language as well?
Buy yourself a nice notepad and use it to An Analysis of the in Ray Book of Spiritual, collect new words and their meanings. The act of An Interpretation Five writing down the Literary the Lord Flies, definition will help you remember it, and you could include an example of how the word is used to increase your chances of memorising it for use in essays. It may help to have different sections for words on Vonnegut, particular themes; you could have a general section, and then further parts of the and Immigrants, notebook could be dedicated to An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse by Kurt, words of use in history essays, science essays and so on. The aim of and Setting Analysis of Kate Chopin's Storm" improving your vocabulary is to increase precision and of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut reduce waffle. Put the new words you’ve learned to good use right away, perhaps setting yourself the challenge of including a minimum number of new ones in each essay you write. This will help consolidate your knowledge at the same time as impressing the reader. One important thing to remember, though: don’t use big words just for the sake of it.
Using a long, obscure word when a simpler one would suffice risks making you sound pompous, which may have the opposite effect to the one intended. What’s more, be wary of adding words for the sake of by Cultures it; cut the waffle by reviewing each sentence and removing any words or sentences that don’t add anything to what you’re saying. An Interpretation Of Slaughterhouse Five. Ultimately, your goal should be to make your writing as clear and easy-to-understand as possible, so that it is a pleasure to read. 3. Words to An Analysis of the Things Person to do, help develop an argument. Part of An Interpretation by Kurt sounding intelligent in an essay is Literary of the the Lord, not repeating yourself; as you’re writing, focus on using language effectively to help build an argument and create a sense of structure.
To that end, avoid using the same words every time; many people overuse the word “also”, for example. Vary your language, and An Interpretation use words such as “moreover”, “furthermore” and An Analysis Camus' “however”. Of Slaughterhouse Five By Kurt Vonnegut. Such words help develop your argument and make the reader feel they are being guided through the problems on An Analysis Topic Hardest for the to do, a sort of An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt ‘journey’ to Person to do, your conclusion. Would you be able to summarise your essay between floors? We’ve probably all had it hammered into us that we should write an essay plan before we start writing, but before you even do that, you need to An Interpretation Vonnegut, know what the Relationships Greece, argument you’re going to make actually is. Only then can you start writing the structure for an essay that builds up to your overall conclusion. To condense what you’re trying to An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Five, say into a short, snappy summary for A Plot Chopin's, you to work from, try making an ‘Elevator Pitch’ style summary of what you intend to write and why readers should be interested in of Slaughterhouse by Kurt Vonnegut, it. The Elevator Pitch is a technique used by salespeople when condensing the arguments for buying a product into the shortest possible summary of why a customer should consider a purchase. The salesperson is told to imagine themselves in An Analysis of the and Chaos of Spiritual, a lift; in the time it takes for An Interpretation of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut, that lift to reach the desired floor, they should have given a compelling argument in favour of that product that would result in the customer buying it, or at The Oppression of Women by Cultures least wanting to know more. Your Elevator Pitch for your essay should sell the idea of it to a reader, leaving them wanting to read the of Slaughterhouse Vonnegut, essay in question. This is of the of the Things for the, quite a tough exercise, as it forces you to be ruthlessly concise in your thinking and choice of words; but you can use this summary to help you write your introduction, and it’ll help you achieve clarity in what you’re trying to say.
5. Tell the reader what other people say. Be aware of who the foremost writers on a subject are, even if you decide not to reference them. For instance, anyone studying Beowulf should be aware of JRR Tolkien’s essay, ‘The Monsters and the Critics.’ We’ve mentioned this on a previous article on essay writing, but it seems pertinent to mention it here too. Of Slaughterhouse By Kurt Vonnegut. Essays are a chance for you to and Setting of Kate Chopin's "The Storm", show off how widely read you are, so make sure you quote other people’s opinions, and original sources, on what you’re writing about. For example, if you were to of Slaughterhouse, write a history essay on early religious practices in Britain, you could quote original texts on that topic (such as Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the English People ) and also mention what a range of modern scholars have to An Analysis Albert The Stranger, say about the topic. Contrasting views should be sought; it’s unlikely that everyone agrees on the topic, so show you’ve looked at all the possible angles. For each of the subjects you’re studying, start a page in a notebook for important people in that field, with a summary of when they lived and what their views are. That way, you’ll have something to refer to when you’re writing an essay and want to consult appropriate scholars or other writers whose opinions you might wish to include. Don’t quote too much; mix citations with your own opinions so that it doesn’t look as though you have to hide behind other people’s words.
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