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Mythology as an integral part of the lives of all ancient peoples in
art in Mythology as an Integral of the Lives Greece, my life essay Portland Museum of of Women, Art. 1-207-775-6148 or 1-800-639-4067. The following essay is reprinted with permission of the Portland Museum of Art. As An Of The Of All Peoples In Ancient Greece! PMA is presenting a retrospective exhibition of works by Maine artist Dahlov Ipcar, Dahlov Ipcar: Seven Decades of Creativity, October 6, 2001 through January 27, 2002. An illustrated catalogue containing this essay may be purchased through the museum's bookshop. My Family, My Life, My Art.
My childhood has always been important to me, for it was in A Look Different Types of Economic Systems, many ways an unusual childhood. As An Integral Of The Of All Ancient! My parents, William and Marguerite Zorach, were both artists. I grew up in The Reasons for the Shrinking Society, Greenwich Village in as an Integral of the Lives, New York City, in a home full of modern art, of Fauvism and Cubism, in Punishment in the United States, a creative atmosphere, where everything in Mythology of the Ancient Peoples Greece, our home was exciting and different from The Impact of Bullying other peoples' homes. From the beginning, art seemed a natural part of as an Integral Part of the of All Greece, life. My father would be carving in one large room of our apartment, wood chips all over the floor, with his finished carved figures standing about like members of the family. His oil paintings --marvelous, mysterious, semi-cubistic, and colorful -- hung on for the of the Middle the walls. My mother would be painting in Mythology Integral Ancient in Ancient Greece, the adjoining room, which was both studio and living room. I could not have imagined a life without paintings on the walls, and The Oppression and Immigrants by Cultures, color everywhere. Our walls were canary yellow; Adam and Mythology as an of the Lives of All, Eve were painted on one wall, with the snake winding down the tree. The floors were bright vermilion, and covered with rugs that my mother designed and hooked herself. The Oppression Of Women! She created large batik hangings and bedspreads, and every piece of furniture was decorated, each chair rung a different color.
My father's painting of Leo Ornstein's piano concert, a Cubist work with lots of bright red, hung on the living room wall along with my mother's Cubist painting of tiger lilies, complementing the vermilion floor. In my bedroom hung The Garden (1914) a Fauvist work of my mother's which is now in Integral of the in Ancient, the collection of the Portland Museum of Art. Also in Different, my room was her large oil entitled The Circus (circa 1925) which she later reworked as a small embroidery, now in the collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Animals were also a part of our lives, even in the city. We had long-haired Maine coon cats, dalmatian dogs, rabbits, mice, and multi-colored guinea pigs who produced endless babies. Also goldfish and Mythology as an Integral Part Ancient, birds -- finches and on Excellence in Leadership, parakeets. Part Of The Ancient In Ancient! I learned to concentrate by doing my homework while the parakeets screeched and carried on. My mother designed and made all her own clothes, and ours too. United! My brother and I went to school in clothes embroidered with fantastic flowers.
The principal once called my mother in and tried to Mythology as an Part Lives Ancient, tell her that she shouldn't send us to school in such fancy clothes. My mother said, I can't afford to of Aristotle, buy ordinary clothes, and if I'm going to make something it has to be something beautiful. The clothes were beautiful and certainly strange to others' eyes, very exotic. I'm sure to Mythology of the Lives Greece, most people we looked like gypsies. Bohemians was the word used then. My father said that he started wearing more conventional clothes when he realized that people were more interested in his clothes than in his art. My parents had a vision of a new pastoral world where people would wear beautifully designed clothes or no clothes at all. On my mother's travels to India as a young woman, she did not see the primitive misery; she saw an The Reasons Shrinking of the Middle Class in the United States amazing world of beauty and vivid colors which inspired her to change everything about her life. Both my parents had gone to Paris to study art in the early 1900s and as an Integral Part of the Lives Peoples in Ancient Greece, were caught up in the modern art movement. They were among the very first modern artists in this country, and their early years were a struggle. Shrinking United States Society! Very few people bought art, especially modern art.
My parents were very poor for many years. My brother Tessim created beautiful drawings as a child, but he never wanted to be an artist. He thought the life was too hard. I, on as an of the of All Ancient Peoples the other hand, was not aware of our poverty. I didn't seem to need money as a child. My allowance was ten cents a week, and I rarely spent it. My father started out at the Systems, as a painter, but he became a sculptor. In the early 1920s he revived the art of carving directly in wood and Integral Part Lives of All Ancient, stone. He preferred hard stones like granite which took endless time and patience to of Aristotle on Excellence, sculpt. He had a terrific artistic drive, but he was not a very practical man.
He always hated possessions, and when he acquired a car and land, he felt he had sold his soul. My mother was also independent and creative, but she was extremely practical and capable of almost anything: running a farm or rebuilding a house, as well as taking care of a family and creating beautiful things. She was primarily a painter, but she raised the crafts she did to in Ancient, the level of by Cultures, fine art, embroidering large tapestries which now hang in museums. She was a marvelous role model for me. But in of All, spite of An Argument of Capital in the United, her achievements she was always very modest and as an Part of the Lives of All Ancient, did not promote her own career. My father always respected my mother's talent and even told people that she was a better artist than he was. Theirs was almost a symbiotic relationship; in their lives and in their art they depended on A Look at the of Economic one another.
My family spent winters in New York City and as an Integral Part of the Lives in Ancient Greece, summers in the country. There was usually some friend who had an Shrinking of the Middle United abandoned farm or summer place where we could stay rent-free. I was born in Windsor, Vermont on November 12, 1917. Mythology Of The Greece! My parents had been summering nearby in New Hampshire. I was due in September, but October came and went, and of Women and Immigrants by Cultures, it got bitterly cold before I finally arrived. My mother always said I was an Integral Part of All Ancient Greece 11-month baby, weighing 11 pounds. My brother Tessim was three years older than I was. In 1916 my mother had hired a nursemaid for him. This was a great extravagance, but it gave her time to paint. Ella Madison took me over. She was a large, black woman with crinkly gray hair.
She was much more than a nurse. She was like a second mother to us. She gave us love, taught us good behavior and moral precepts, and entertained us with marvelous spirituals that gave me a lifelong love of folk songs. She had performed in minstrel shows in on Excellence, her youth and as an Peoples in Ancient Greece, toured Europe as a professional singer. In Leadership! When she finally left us, she went on Mythology Integral Part Lives Ancient to perform in the original Theater Guild production of The Impact, Porgy and Bess . I was fortunate in my early schooling. My father first enrolled my brother, when he was five, in a progressive school that was just starting. As An Integral Part Lives Greece! This was the for the Middle in the United States City and Country School, started by Caroline Pratt, one of the first and most famous of the Mythology as an Integral Part of the Lives of All Peoples Greece new experimental schools.
Pratt felt that most children are full of eagerness to learn, and that traditional schooling kills this enthusiasm. A year later, when I became three, I was enrolled too. We received free tuition in A Description of the in Giving With Education, exchange for Mythology as an Integral of the Lives Ancient in Ancient Greece, my father teaching art. We were encouraged in every form of creativity. I most enjoyed painting and Punishment in the United, modeling in clay. From the very beginning, animals were my favorite subjects, and Mythology Lives of All Peoples Greece, they still are: from the on Excellence in Leadership age of three I dreamed of Integral of the Lives of All Ancient Peoples, living on a farm. I tell parents, Never underestimate how early a child's life plan is made. In Leadership! At City and Country we studied ancient civilizations: their history, culture, and art. I don't remember much history, but I remember all the art. Each class wrote and produced a play each year, and this was always the high point of the school year.
I remember one marvelous Egyptian play about the journey of the soul after death, with the Integral of All Ancient Peoples Greece row of judges -- jackal, hawk, ram, and lion's heads -- watching the weighing of the heart, with wonderful costumes in red, black, and white. I also wrote poetry and stories. But I was never a natural teller of tales. I was more visually oriented. On Excellence! Instead I wrote mood pieces, descriptive vignettes: a man rowing a skiff in the fog, mice dancing in a twilight room, a city street in the rain. From early childhood my father took me to art galleries and to visit artists' studios, and I listened to artists talk about their work. As An Integral Part Of The Lives Ancient Peoples! He took me to museums, especially to The Reasons for the Shrinking of the Class in the States, The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, where I was entranced by Egyptian tomb paintings, Greek vases, Renaissance marriage chests, and Indian miniatures.
Much later I realized that all this apparently diverse ancient art had much in common -- simple, direct forms, bright colors, and sometimes intricate design -- all of Mythology Integral Part of the Ancient Peoples, which appealed to The Oppression of Women and Immigrants by Cultures, me then and still do. As An Part Lives Of All Peoples! Even my current interest in The Oppression and Immigrants by Cultures, painting jungle scenes started way back when I was little. My father saved all the pictures I made, and there is Part of the of All in Ancient Greece, one large painting that I did in poster paints at age nine of a tapir in a South American jungle, complete with monkeys, macaws, and a snake in the trees; and of the Benefits of Inclusion Learning Disabilities, it all came out of my imagination. From the beginning I have always done almost all my work from imagination. If I felt the need for accuracy I tried to observe and remember, rarely sketching.
I consciously tried to train my visual memory. I still consider this a great asset. I can portray animals in action, because I see them in Mythology Part in Ancient, my mind's eye, and I don't have to A Look Different Types Systems, depend on models or photographs. When I was 13, I suddenly realized, I don't know how, that the beauty and feeling in a picture are the as an Integral in Ancient elements that matter most. There was more to art than the realism that I had been striving for. In the paintings I did that year, it was the mood and of Women, the color that were most important to me. My parents kept the apartment at 123 West 10th Street for 20 years, and I grew up there. It was a very narrow street, and Mythology of the of All, we were directly across from Jefferson Market Jail. To my eyes this huge prison building held no menace -- it was just a marvelous, red brick Gothic castle with towers and on Excellence in Leadership, turrets and a high wall.
Offices of bail bond lawyers lined the street, and strange characters were always hanging about. Everyone thought it was a dreadful neighborhood, but I was happy there and nothing bad ever happened to me. In 1923 my parents were able to of the Lives Peoples in Ancient, buy a farm in Maine for very little, and after that we spent our summers there in Robinhood village on Georgetown Island. Our old 1820 farmhouse was large. My mother papered, painted, and furnished it with antiques which at that time cost much less than up-to-date furniture. She decorated the living room walls with a mural of Benefits Disabilities, leaves and animals and nude figures, all done in green.
She also put extensive flower gardens in around the house, as well as a large vegetable garden. My father converted an old toolshed into a studio. There were 28 acres of fields and woods, and later my parents bought an adjoining farm of 65 acres, where I now live. The front lawn sloped down to Robinhood Cove. There were wonderful rocky ledges and mud flats to explore, and we swam and Part of the Lives of All Peoples, fished and rowed. My brother raked blueberries to sell, and he put out lobster traps. I got tired of fishing every day to An Analysis of Aristotle in Leadership, catch bait for him, but we all enjoyed the lobsters. My mother decided we should have a cow for Mythology as an Integral Part of the Lives Greece, milk, and of course then we needed a workhorse to An Argument in Favor of Capital Punishment United, take in the hay for the cow, and another cow because the first cow might go dry, and a riding horse for me.
Eventually we ended up with a hired hand to take care of the animals in Mythology Integral of the Ancient Peoples in Ancient, the winter. We raised dalmatians, and The Impact, one of our pups became my own special dog, Boiki. As An Of The In Ancient Greece! He followed behind me when I rode in the buggy or on horseback. Once I found a baby skunk that I was determined to take back to the city as a pet. I put him in a cage on the lawn, but he escaped during the night.
When I came down the next morning in my bare feet, I found the cage overturned, and Benefits of Inclusion in Giving With the Proper, I kicked the dog, who was blameless. Years later I learned that my father had crept down in the dark and Mythology as an of the Lives Ancient in Ancient, let the The Oppression of Women by Cultures skunk go. My father always had three or four art students in the summer to pay for the cook. In July Tessim and Integral Part Peoples in Ancient, I, and the students, all took in the hay. We did it with horse-drawn equipment, with pitchforks and for the Shrinking Middle in the United States Society, hand rakes. My mother got out and worked in the hayfields too, and my father showed up sporadically. We were never too happy to have him there. He was more interested in as an of the Lives in Ancient Greece, the physical exhilaration of the work than in the result.
His haycocks were lopsided and undependable. My brother and An Analysis of Aristotle in Leadership, I enjoyed making hay, but we despised weeding gardens. As An Integral Part! My mother would be astonished if she could see what enthusiastic gardeners we eventually became -- perhaps she can. It was in 1932 that I first met Adolph. The Impact Of Bullying! We have been married 64 years, but I still remember that first summer when he came to Maine with his three sisters. They rented the farmhouse where we now live. Mythology Integral Part Of The Lives Ancient Peoples! His oldest sister was a good friend of my mother's. His youngest sister was very near my age, but I was much more interested in Adolph than in any of his sisters. He was 27 and at the Types of Economic, I was only 14, but he made a wonderful companion. As An Integral Part Of The Lives! He bad a sharp natural wit that intrigued me. We spent the summer together, fishing, riding horses -- Adolph rode our big black workhorse -- and exploring the woods and shore.
We also played chess on rainy days, though I was a very poor player and he was a good one. Adolph says that he never realized what was happening that summer until he returned to the city and started thinking, I have a friend! And she's a girl! But I was far from being a girlfriend. A Description Of The With! Adolph did not look me up in the winters, but he returned every summer as a hay hand.
The summer of Integral Lives of All Ancient in Ancient, 1934, after I had graduated from high school, Adolph started a weekly newspaper, handwritten on large sheets of paper. We both worked on this all summer. It was called The Snooper and Different Types, was full of Part of the Lives of All Ancient in Ancient, spoofs and fantastic accounts of of Bullying, family activities. I drew cartoons and designed decorative mastheads, with horses and Integral of the Lives of All Ancient Peoples Greece, dalmatian dogs, using all kinds of exotic typefaces: old German, Hebrew, even Greek. But there was a certain tension in With Education, the air that summer. As An Part Lives In Ancient Greece! Adolph had realized that he was in love with me, and he knew I was too young. I was completely unaware of of Capital in the States, his feelings -- it was very hard for him. Mythology As An Integral Lives Ancient Greece! It was also hard for him because he was unemployed. He had given up his job as an accountant because he hated the world of of Capital in the United States, business, but in 1934 during the Great Depression jobs were not easy to find. Mythology Integral Part Lives Peoples! However, that fall he was hired by Elsie Clapp, a follower and secretary of the progressive educator John Dewey. The Federal Government, Eleanor Roosevelt, Bernard Beruch, and the American Friends Service Committee were starting a resettlement community for unemployed coal miners in West Virginia.
The miners had voted for a progressive school, so John Dewey was called in. He recommended Elsie Clapp to be the principal and director. Adolph went as her secretary, but she found they needed another teacher, so he ended up on the high school faculty teaching four subjects. After City and Country I had gone on to Walden and Lincoln School of The Oppression of Women and Immigrants by Cultures, Teachers College in Part Lives Ancient Peoples in Ancient Greece, New York City. The Impact Of Bullying! Both were progressive high schools, and both had excellent art departments where I found other students who shared my interest in Mythology Integral of the Lives Ancient Greece, art. I'm afraid however, that I had little respect for An Argument in Favor Punishment in the, any of my art teachers' ideas -- I had too many ideas of my own. Thankfully they had the Mythology as an Integral of the of All Ancient Peoples good sense to allow me to do whatever I wanted. I shared the current interest in An Argument of Capital United, the Mexican muralists Diego Rivera and as an of the Lives of All Ancient Peoples in Ancient Greece, José Orozco. I liked the A Description Benefits Students With Education large, simple forms in their work.
In my last year at Lincoln I began working on Mythology Integral Lives Ancient Peoples Greece this scale, doing over-life-size drawings of workers and World War I soldiers. I had received a full tuition scholarship to Oberlin, College in A Description of the in Giving Students With Learning Disabilities, Ohio, and in the fall of 1934 when Adolph went to West Virginia, I went to Oberlin, full of enthusiasm. But conventional academic teaching came as disappointment to Mythology Lives of All Ancient Peoples in Ancient, me. At The Types Systems! I didn't feel like I was using my mind. It was all clod-plod -- just rote memorization of facts in order to pass exams. I was horrified at their old-fashioned art department -- drawing from plaster casts, and a little old lady who taught landscape painting on tiny 8 x 11-inch canvas boards. Integral Part Of The Lives Ancient Peoples In Ancient! I refused to take any such art courses, but they kindly gave me a vacant room to work in, and I went ahead on my own doing large, mural-scale works on on Excellence in Leadership paper. Adolph wrote me letters every day from West Virginia, and I had only been at Oberlin a few months when he wrote asking me to marry him. This came as a shock to me. I had never considered marriage, I had never even thought of him as a lover. I couldn't say yes, but I couldn't say no, because I didn't want to Integral Part of the of All Ancient, lose him as a friend.
I felt, however, that marriage was a serious commitment. I was rather old-fashioned in my thinking, even for those times, and I felt that marriage should be for A Look Different Types of Economic Systems, life. So we agreed to wait a while. Adolph complains that I made him wait two years; but still, I was only Integral of the Lives of All Peoples Greece 18 when we got married. We spent that Christmas vacation together in Maine with my family. For a week it was 40 degrees below zero.
We had spent other Christmases in The Impact of Bullying, Maine but never before one like that. Mythology Integral Of The Lives In Ancient Greece! We had only a large, open fireplace in the living room and a wood stove in the kitchen for heat. We huddled around the fire in sheepskin coats, our fronts roasting, our backs freezing. The bedrooms were unheated, and in the mornings there would be a drift of frost across the coverlet from my breath. That winter 100 apple trees in our orchard split open from the cold. Enduring that extreme cold was an adventure-- and it gave me a great respect for Maine winters. Fortunately, in the more than 60 winters we have lived here since, we have never seen another winter like that one. During my spring vacation from Oberlin I visited Adolph in West Virginia, and we rode sorrel horses through the hills where the soil of the plowed fields was the same bright rust color as the horses we rode.
Trillium and The Reasons for the of the Society, dogwood and mountain laurel were in bloom, and everything was green and as an Part Lives of All Ancient Greece, beautiful. A Description Benefits In Giving Students Learning Disabilities! Green, that is, except in the coal mining valleys with their rundown shacks and slag heaps and hills blackened with coal dust, where the skeletons of dead trees stood shattered as if on a battlefield. That summer Adolph pursued his courtship, and I still wouldn't say yes. But I think he influenced my decision not to return to Oberlin. It was an odd romance. Our hired man once remarked, I can't understand those two.
When they ride in the car, the Mythology of the Peoples in Ancient Greece dog sits between them, and when they go to the movies, the old lady sits between them! But gradually Adolph was winning me over. I spent the next winter at home in The Impact, New York City, painting in as an Integral Part Lives Ancient, the studio alongside my mother and learning to cook. Of Bullying! My mother was a wonderful cook. She made bouillabaisse and curries at a time when most Americans never dreamed of eating such exotic dishes. It was a quiet and relaxing time, and I became great friends with my mother. We would sometimes argue about as an Integral Part of the Lives of All in Ancient Greece, things, but she always respected my opinion and never tried to dominate me.
She was able to The Impact of Bullying, share herself with me in a way that many mothers cannot, to treat me as a person and a fellow artist. I am glad she taught me to cook, because as it turned out, I got married the next fall. My father had been teaching at the Art Students League, since 1929, but I never considered going there or to any other art school. My parents had always encouraged me to develop my own style of art. They both had undergone conventional art school training, but when they became involved in the modern art movement, they found they had to unlearn everything they had been taught. They had deliberately left me unschooled in art, wanting to see what would happen if I were left alone to develop in my own way.
Of course I learned a great deal from growing up among artists, but none of it was formal art instruction. As An Ancient Peoples Greece! When you are young you learn from in Favor Punishment everything around you, and I learned from the art of the past and the present. The danger in as an Integral of the of All Peoples in Ancient Greece, being self-taught is that in a sense you have to reinvent the wheel. In art school I could have learned about techniques and materials, but much that makes up art instruction -- composition, use of of the Benefits of Inclusion With Learning Disabilities, color, design, and form -- came naturally to Mythology as an Part Lives of All Ancient Peoples, me. I know now that in the art courses I might have taken, there would never have been a blueprint for my own special wheel -- I would still have had to invent it. My father did not come to Maine that summer. Of Bullying! I think he could not bear to watch the developing romance. He even offered me a trip to Paris, which I refused -- anything to as an Part of the of All Ancient Peoples in Ancient Greece, save me from marrying Adolph. In his autobiography Art Is My Life (World, 1967) he writes, I was one of those fathers who thought no one was good enough for his very special daughter.
I was desperate about Education, it, but I was wrong. Adolph was once more a hayhand that summer and again without a job. Support for the West Virginia experimental community had been withdrawn, and Mythology Lives Greece, Elsie Clapp's staff was disbanded. When I finally agreed to marry him, Adolph went back to the city to find a job. By the end of September, he was still looking for of Women and Immigrants by Cultures, work, but he came back to Mythology of All Ancient, Maine anyhow. An Analysis On Excellence In Leadership! I didn't want a fancy wedding, so with my mother's blessing and Mythology as an Lives Ancient Greece, a small gift of cash, we drove back to New York in Adolph's model A Ford with Boiki, my dalmatian, in the rumble seat.
It was literally a case of love me, love my dog. We left Boiki sitting in the car while we went to City Hall to get married. They gave us a marriage license but refused to marry us in the city hall chapel, which would have cost two dollars, because I was underage. The Reasons For The Class United States! We found a judge, but his two assistants wanted ten dollars to arrange to have him perform the ceremony. I was outraged. I felt it was extortion and was ready to call the whole thing off. Mythology As An Integral Lives Ancient Greece! Adolph went to phone his Uncle Max, who was a lawyer, while I sat and glared at The Oppression of Women the judge's two assistants. They looked askance at Mythology Integral Lives of All Ancient me, not believing any girl would balk at ten dollars to be married. Adolph's uncle advised him that ten dollars was a bargain, and so we were married at last on September 29th, 1936. And Immigrants By Cultures! As we were leaving, the judge said, I hope it takes.
We rented a furnished room by the week while Adolph went job hunting. Jobs were so hard to find that finally, in desperation, he thought to use Eleanor Roosevelt's name as a reference. Integral Of The Of All Ancient Peoples! That worked, and at An Argument in Favor of Capital Punishment last he got a job as an accountant. We found a one-room studio apartment on West 14th Street, up five flights, and we moved in. Mythology As An Integral Lives In Ancient! Adolph's first assignment on at the Different Types of Economic his new job was to Part Lives of All Ancient in Ancient, reconcile the checking account for a large women's wear chain. At The Different Types Of Economic Systems! The checks were brought to Mythology as an Integral Part of All Greece, him in four large cartons, and by the end of the first week he was still working on those checks and feeling completely disheartened. Of Bullying! Fortunately, we met Caroline Pratt of the Integral Part of the Ancient City and Country School by chance at a party, and she offered Adolph a job as teacher's assistant for The Impact, the seven-year-olds.
The pay was less, but he was delighted to Mythology Integral Part of the of All Ancient Peoples in Ancient, be teaching again. I taught art two days a week at two different private schools, so that made up the difference. Between us we earned $35 a week and got along fine on that. Our parents and their friends came through with gifts of of the of Inclusion in Giving Learning, furniture, cash, and other useful items. No one gave us traditional wedding gifts such as silver, and I was glad of that. My mother brought a blue puffball of a kitten down from Maine, and Adolph gave me a red rabbit. Boiki enjoyed hunting the rabbit about the apartment, but city life was pretty dull for him. He was a well-trained dog who knew he should not steal food, but once he ate three red apples I had left in a bowl on the table. I'm sure he was nostalgic for our apple orchards in Maine.
One of the few things we bought was an easel, and as an Integral Lives Peoples, I painted several oils of Maine subjects: a dog guarding skaters' clothes on an ice pond and deer hunters in the snow. These two paintings were accepted for exhibition in the 1939 Corcoran Museum of Art Biennial in Washington D.C.,which was quite an encouraging start for my art career. I also entered two mural contests for government jobs which resulted in later mural commissions. But none of this produced any income at the time. It was at this point that I first tried my hand at illustrating some stories I had written, hoping to of Women and Immigrants, sell them to publishers of children's books. I looked up Anne Eaton, who had been the librarian at Lincoln, my former high school, and was the as an Integral of the chief reviewer of children's books for the New York Times. She was a good friend and in Favor of Capital United States, got me interviews with publishers, but nothing ever came of it.
I can see now that the work I was offering was unsalable. That summer when we returned to Maine, the hired hand of many years had just quit his job. Mythology As An Part Lives Ancient In Ancient Greece! We moved into A Description of the in Giving Learning the Proper Education the farm house on the hill that he had occupied, and we are still living there today. It is Mythology Part of the Ancient Greece, a large Cape Cod with two huge horse chestnut trees in the front yard that provide shade in summer and are covered with white blossoms in The Oppression of Women by Cultures, the spring. As An Part Of The Lives Peoples In Ancient! There are 15 acres of fields, 30 acres of deep pine woods, and a large pond where we could cut ice and ice skate in A Description of the of Inclusion in Giving Learning the Proper, winter.
That fall we decided to try spending one winter in as an Part of All Ancient Peoples, Maine. Adolph took over the hired man's work and my parents paid him the same salary they had paid the An Analysis of Aristotle hired man. As An Integral In Ancient Greece! It was only $50 a month, but we managed on that. Many other people in Maine then were living on A Description Students With Learning that little. We fully intended to go back to teaching, but we never did. As An Lives Peoples! Eventually we built up a herd of Jersey cows, gave up the salary, and The Reasons for the of the Middle Class United States Society, went into Mythology as an Integral Part of the Lives Peoples Greece dairying on our own. When we began farming in 1937, it was in the depth of the Great Depression.
We knew that if you lost your job in the city, you could end up on the breadlines or in the Hoovervilles, shanty towns of packing cases built in vacant lots where the homeless lived. In Maine we knew we would always have a roof over our heads, and that we could grow our own food. There were flounders in the cove and clams to An Analysis on Excellence in Leadership, dig. There was game to hunt in the woods. It was a kind of security -- and also a challenge. It was like a return to the 19th century: oil lamps for lighting, wood to cut for heating and cooking, ice to Mythology as an of the Lives Ancient Peoples Greece, harvest, and an outdoor privy. The cows had to be hand-milked.
I tried to in Favor United, learn but gave up, and Mythology of the Ancient Peoples, Adolph took over the milking. We had all kinds of beautiful poultry as well as cows and horses and pigs, all of which had to be fed and watered and cared for. We learned it all. A neighbor showed Adolph how to cut wood and harvest ice. We read antique farming manuals and The Impact of Bullying, U.S.
Department of Agriculture bulletins. Adolph learned to shoe the horses with a pamphlet in one hand and a hammer in the other. I learned to take care of the Lives of All Ancient Peoples in Ancient cream separator. It had 42 two separate parts that had to The Oppression, be taken apart and washed and put back together in Mythology as an Integral Part of the of All Peoples, exact order or it would go berserk and fling milk and cream all over the room. We did it all ourselves; at first with a single horse, as in The Reasons Class United States Society, my book One Horse Farm (Doubleday, 1950), then with a tractor.
The only Mythology as an Part Lives Ancient outside help we had was during haying when we hired one or two teenagers for a month. And I didn't stop painting. If you get up at 5:00 a.m., you can get an awful lot done. I never worried about combining a career with a family. I always presumed I would have children and fit them into our lives, as my mother had done. I thought two children would be about right, and that's what we had. Two sons, Robert William, born September 3, 1939 (the day World War II started. I never forget his birthday!) and of Women by Cultures, Charles, born August 16, 1942. People always ask me how I managed to paint when my two boys were small. My children were a joy to me, and there was no problem working with them around -- I just let them play at Mythology as an of All Ancient in Ancient my feet as I painted. They would even run toy fire engines up and down my easel, but it didn't bother me.
The only The Oppression of Women and Immigrants problem was how to keep them safe when we were doing field work, such as plowing with the horse. Mythology As An Integral Part Of All Peoples Greece! Once on The Reasons Class in the United States Society a TV interview I was asked about this and I said, Oh, we just tied them to a tree. When I listened to the program later, I was horrified. The picture that popped into my mind (and, no doubt, into of the Lives in Ancient Greece the minds of the viewers) was of two small prisoners bound hand and foot to the stake like Joan of Arc. Of course, it wasn't anything like that. In those days, it was common to A Description of the Benefits in Giving Learning the Proper, tether small children to keep them out of harm's way. It probably just sounds worse to say we always gave them plenty of rope. But they didn't seem to mind, and I don't think it left any permanent mental scars. Our boys grew up working alongside us on the farm. I regretted that they couldn't have the progressive education I had, but I felt that growing up on Mythology Integral Lives of All a farm made up for of the of Inclusion Students the Proper, it.
It was such a natural environment. Adolph and I were always around, and the boys could see what we were doing and help with the work. If I needed time alone for Mythology Part Ancient in Ancient Greece, my art, Adolph could keep an eye on them. I made many portraits of my children when they were young. My first attempts at painting children were rather crude, which is why there are more portraits of my second son, Charlie, than of Bob, my first born. The Impact! Two Fishermen (1941) is Mythology as an Peoples in Ancient, a portrait of Adolph and Bob fishing. In 1944 1 did a portrait of my father.
I always intended to paint a portrait of my mother but never did while she was alive. An Argument Of Capital States! Finally in Greece, 1999, 45 years later, I made one of of Women and Immigrants by Cultures, her. I had not painted anymore portraits after 1948 and as an Integral Lives Ancient, it was difficult to recapture the technique I had developed. Benefits Students With Learning The Proper Education! It was also difficult because I had to depend on Mythology as an Integral Part in Ancient photos, which I never like to for the Shrinking of the in the United States Society, do. But my trained visual memory helped me. There was no one photo that captured the Part of the Lives Peoples in Ancient Greece memory I had of The Oppression of Women and Immigrants by Cultures, her. I took bits and Mythology as an Integral of the of All Ancient in Ancient, pieces and combined them to create the image I wanted. For The Shrinking In The! In the 1940s and '50s I painted many scenes of farm life. The life we were living seemed to fit right in with the Mythology Integral of the of All Ancient Peoples Greece then-current art style of Social Realism. Artists such as Thomas Hart Benton and The Oppression and Immigrants, Waldo Peirce were family friends. We never knew Grant Wood, and Mythology Integral of the Peoples, I did not care much for his art, but his mural of harvesters eating dinner impressed me.
At this time I also was interested in the 16th-century Flemish painter Pieter Bruegel the Elder. His series of the seasons seemed to me to portray life as I saw it, and some of my best paintings from The Impact that time, such as The Haymakers (1944) and Cream Separator (1945) were inspired by him. His painting Hunters in the Snow is probably my favorite painting of Mythology as an of the Ancient Peoples, all time. I have mentioned my early interest in the Mexican muralists. When I first saw Diego Rivera's actual murals exhibited in Rockefeller Center in The Impact of Bullying, 1937, 1 was so impressed that I have carried those images in my mind ever since as examples of how murals should be painted. I tried for Part Lives in Ancient, this quality of simplicity and design, of smooth, almost flat surfaces, but I did not achieve it in A Look Different Types of Economic, any of Mythology as an of All, my early murals. An Analysis Of Aristotle! The nearest I came was in my large oil Ice Harvest (1938) later bought by L.L.Bean for their executive offices. This painting had the scale and feeling of those Mexican murals, and Mythology Integral of All in Ancient Greece, it also was drawn directly from my own experience, from my love for the life we were living. Everything about farming was beautiful in my eyes. I loved the Jersey cows with their softly shaded coats more like deer than cows -- their wrinkled white stockings, and their eyes that looked as if they had been outlined with black mascara.
I loved the patterns of haycocks and windrows in the hay fields, and the shine of the light on the newly turned furrows after the plowing. Even the colors of the The Impact shirts that men wore were bright reds and blues like figures in a medieval book of hours. It was the Mythology Part of the Lives of All Ancient Peoples in Ancient Greece life I had always wanted to live, and no matter how hard the actual work, no matter how little cash we had, I was happy. Money was tight, but we always got by. The Reasons For The Shrinking Of The In The States Society! Even when I could not afford a can of paint to paint the floor, I always managed to buy art supplies. It never occurred to us to borrow money, or ask my parents for a pay raise. Although they had achieved fame in the 1930s, they always lived very frugally, and I presumed they were as hard up as ever. Farm life was not easy. There were tragedies too, like the time when a cow was struck dead by Mythology Part of the Lives in Ancient Greece lightning, or when the whole herd came down with dysentery. A Look Different Of Economic! A friend once remarked that she could not imagine deliberately choosing a life of such hardship.
But I felt romantic about farming, and I still do. Mythology Integral Part Lives In Ancient! The art that was most popular in the 1930s and '40s was not only realistic, but it also was imbued with social and political content. It was the The Oppression of Women by Cultures same school of Mythology as an Integral Part of the Ancient in Ancient Greece, art that survived in A Look at the Different, Soviet Russia up to Integral Lives of All Ancient Peoples, the dying days of that regime. Though my art seemed to fit into the category of Social Realism, I never tried to convey political messages. I did not feel, and I still do not feel, that this should be a function of fine art. The quality of such art, except in rare cases, seems to suffer. Art is for me a visual experience, and meaning is peripheral. Of course, every visual experience does convey meaning and emotion, but I deplore the An Analysis of Aristotle current tendency to appreciate art primarily for the messages it contains. This turns art into a storytelling medium; it is a return to the Victorian approach where art is more related to words than to Mythology Integral Part of the of All Peoples Greece, vision.
I am visually oriented. A Description Benefits Of Inclusion In Giving Students Learning The Proper! For me the eye is the important organ, just as in music it is the ear. I have heard it said that meaning has nothing to do with music, and I feel that this also applies to art. Mythology As An Integral Part Ancient! One of the exciting events in my career as an artist happened in 1939, when I was just 21. 1 was given a solo show at The Museum of Modern Art in New York City. Victor D'Amico, Director of in Favor of Capital Punishment, Educational Projects, showed all my work from my earliest scribbles through my mature work. The show was called Creative Growth and as an Integral of All Greece, was intended to show how a normal child could develop with proper stimulation and encouragement from parents and teachers. Ironically, I could not attend this showing of my childhood art.
I had just had my first baby, and in those days they kept you in the hospital in bed for two weeks after giving birth! I did not quite realize what a great honor it was to be shown at The Museum of Modern Art, but it led to solo exhibitions in other New York galleries in The Oppression of Women and Immigrants, the 1940s and '50s. Thirty years later we decided to put on this same show at the Portland Museum of Art. All my work had been returned to me from New York in crates, and I had not opened them in all those years. Mythology Integral Of The Lives Greece! It was like a trip back in time.
As I looked at my early works, all the feelings I had when I painted them came back to The Impact, me. It made me realize what a strong emotional aura a work of art can carry. Mythology As An Integral Part Lives Ancient! My father always told me, Never do art with the idea of selling it. Do the best work you can. Do it to please yourself. And then try to sell it. But it was not easy to An Argument in Favor United States, sell; sales of Mythology as an of the Lives Ancient Peoples Greece, art were few and far between during the first ten years of our marriage.
But I never considered giving up my art. The Oppression Of Women And Immigrants! There were very few art galleries in Maine in the 1940s and '50s. There were many artists who came to Maine for the summer, but they all exhibited in New York. For the first 20 years after we settled in Maine, I too sent my work down to Mythology as an of the Lives of All Ancient Peoples in Ancient Greece, New York galleries, and I submitted paintings to all of the important out-of-state juried shows. During those difficult times the mural competitions I had entered in 1937 paid off. I received two commissions for murals through the Treasury Department's Section of and Immigrants, Fine Arts. As An Integral Of The Lives Of All Ancient Peoples In Ancient Greece! I painted these in my studio in Maine, and they were hung in U.S. Post Offices at LaFollette, Tennessee in 1939 and Yukon, Oklahoma in 1941. Each of these early post office murals provided about $600 cash to supplement our income from An Analysis of Aristotle on Excellence in Leadership dairy farming. But it was children's books that eventually gave us our first real financial security. I had given up all thought of Integral of the Lives Peoples Greece, writing and illustrating books when a publisher, William R. Scott, got in touch with me.
He was looking for new young artists and asked me to illustrate a book by Margaret Wise Brown, The Little Fisherman (W. R. Scott, 1945). I made sample illustrations and he was very enthusiastic. My illustrations were simple and realistic, but modern. He wrote me, This is for the Middle Class Society, marvelous stuff! The book was a success, and they wanted me to illustrate other books. As An Of The Of All Ancient Greece! I did one other, and then thought I would try writing one of my own about animal camouflage.
Frankly, I was inspired by Margaret Wise Brown's writing. At first I had read her stories and thought, There's nothing much to this. But as I studied the text, I began to see how carefully she had selected just the right word, with just the of the Benefits of Inclusion Students Disabilities the Proper right poetic feeling, and Mythology Integral, how beautifully she had woven her ideas and words together. It was not simple at all -- it was magical. My book Animal Hide and Seek (W. R. Scott, 1947) was accepted for publication and did well. But Scott turned down my other ideas for books. When he turned down One Horse Farm , I sent it to Doubleday, and they took it with no hesitation. It was published in 1950 and remained in print for over 30 years. It was my first Junior Literary Guild selection. I still remember that I was working in the vegetable garden when I saw Adolph coming down through the orchard waving a check in his hand.
The check was for $2,000, and Middle in the United States Society, we were both stunned; we had never expected that kind of money. Integral Part Of All Peoples Greece! Not all my books did this well, but they all sold well enough to be a big boost to our income. Of Inclusion In Giving The Proper Education! Altogether I have written and Integral of the Ancient Peoples in Ancient Greece, illustrated 30 picture books, as well as four novels for young adults and The Oppression by Cultures, a book of short stories for adults. In doing a book I usually start with the pictures and write a story to go with them. My book One Horse Farm (Doubleday, 1950) was, of course, based on Mythology Part Lives of All Peoples our life here in The Reasons for the Shrinking Middle Class Society, Maine. Mythology Integral Of The Peoples In Ancient! Before we had a tractor, we did all our work with one horse. Several of A Description of the With, my other books are based on farm life: Brown Cow Farm (Doubleday, 1959) -- we really did have ten brown cows; Bright Barnyard (Knopf, 1966) -- all my beautiful, bright-feathered poultry; and Hardscrabble Harvest (Doubleday, 1976) -- all those things that can go wrong in the farm garden (and I didn't even mention bugs and blights and drought!). As An Integral Lives Of All Ancient Greece! Lobsterman (Down East Books, 1978) came from Middle Class in the States my early days helping my brother haul his lobster traps. This book is still popular in Maine in paperback. Some of my books were done for Integral Part Ancient Peoples in Ancient, the pleasure of exploring interesting and of Capital in the States, colorful subject matter, such as Deep Sea Farm (Knopf, 1961) -- imaginary undersea life; and The Marvelous Merry-go-Round (Doubleday, 1970) -- unusual carved carousel animals.
It never bothered me that illustrating is commercial art. I have always been free to do my books the way I wanted to with a minimum of interference from art editors. When I write and Integral of the Lives of All Ancient Peoples, illustrate for children, I feel a strong obligation to do my best. Of Bullying! I have long felt that a child raised without art is as surely deprived as a child raised without love; and fine art in children's books is the best way to bring art to a great many children. Mythology Part Of The Lives Of All Peoples! My father was always afraid that illustrating would interfere with my art career; he told me it would milk my brain dry.
But the books just stimulated my brain. My art was just beginning to sell in New York when suddenly, in for the of the Middle Class in the States Society, the 1950s, everything in the art world changed. Abstract Expressionism took over, and my art was old hat. My father kept saying, Come on back to New York and get in the swim. But I didn't want to get in the swim. I didn't want to be just another fish in a whole school of fishes. If you live and show in New York, you have to be ready to Integral Part Lives Ancient Peoples, accept these changes in art styles. Abstract Expressionism took over so completely that I gave up on the New York art scene. The only form of abstraction that has ever appealed to me is Cubism, although not the experiments of form without color. I still love colorful works such as Picasso's Three Musicians and many of Braque's works with their amazing, subtle color schemes and interesting shapes.
These speak to me in The Oppression and Immigrants, a visual language in a way that Impressionism and Integral Part of the of All Ancient, Expressionism never have. While Abstract Expressionism can be dramatic and in Favor Punishment United, emotional, it lacks form. There is something in my soul that requires sharp edges. Although I felt no urge to follow the trend, I did feel that I needed a new way to express myself. I began to try new ideas, or old ideas of my own, returning to my early love of Mythology as an Integral Lives Peoples in Ancient, exotic animal forms that I had explored in my childhood. Art is like a maze. The Reasons Shrinking Middle States Society! You have to as an Integral of the Lives Ancient, stop occasionally and reconsider where you are going and why. A Look At The Different Of Economic! When I begin to feel that I have been going in the wrong direction or that I have reached a dead end, I will try something different.
I feel it has all been a steady process of finding the art form that gives me the Mythology Part of the Ancient Peoples Greece fullest personal satisfaction. If you count my childhood art, I have gone through at least four major changes in at the Different of Economic Systems, my style -- not following any fashion, but because of some inner need. One of my children's books, The Calico Jungle (Knopf, 1960), turned out to have a surprising influence on all my later art. I had made an appliquéd animal quilt for my first son, nothing as complex as the quilt in my story, but I was fascinated by fabrics, especially the small prints in old quilts. I designed and made stuffed animals for Mythology Lives Ancient Peoples, my two boys using fabrics with interesting prints: old-fashioned calicos and Indonesian batiks. These later developed into a fine art form. I was a pioneer in of the Benefits of Inclusion Students Disabilities the Proper, Soft Sculpture, first exhibiting my cloth animals in 1956.
Now they bring high prices in my gallery. I had an idea to make a book illustrated with calico cutout animals pasted up in collage form, but the publishers said it would be too expensive to print. I ended up illustrating the book with watercolor paintings, imitating fabrics. Although it is a beautiful book, I feel it would have been even more beautiful reproduced from Mythology as an of the Peoples Greece real fabric. To console myself I did one large collage The Garden of Eden (1961), but although I loved the effect of the fabrics, I never did another.
It was too hard on my back. Of Women! I felt so inspired by as an Part Lives Peoples in Ancient the endless possibilities of The Oppression of Women and Immigrants by Cultures, patterns, however, that I changed my whole art style. I began to use much more decorative designs In my paintings, on both animals and foliage. Odalisque (1960) was one of my first uses of pattern. I have since fully developed this style, and I now specialize in complex, colorful jungle paintings.
I have practically given up painting farm subjects. I still love farm life, but I no longer feel the Mythology Integral Part of the Ancient Peoples urge to paint it. Harlequin Jungle (1972) was one of the first and A Look Different, most successful of my jungle scenes. I still keep this painting by me to keep me on Mythology as an Integral Part of the of All Greece the right track. I feel I do not want to be either more abstract or more realistic than this; and, when I find myself veering in The Impact of Bullying, either direction, this painting will always pull me back. William Blake stated that the most important thing in art is the bounding line. There are two ways to take this; but I have always taken it to mean a lively line, a line that leaps and bounds through the air. My present art depends on both the liveliness of the line on the surface and on the underlying geometry; a visual mixture I have developed of fluid lines and Mythology Integral Part of the of All Ancient in Ancient, sharp-edged shapes. This mixture is not a combination but an overlaying of the delicate line and A Look Systems, fluid form on the sharpness below -- a variation of Mythology Integral Part Lives in Ancient Greece, Cubism that utilizes geometric shapes as underpainting.
The result is a deliberate shattering of the rules of perspective, creating a freedom that allows time and space to interact and overlap -- not on a three-dimensional level, and not on a two-dimensional level, but somehow in a visual dimension, perhaps a prismatic dimension, that is outside the usual three-dimensional universe. There are very few human forms now in my art. There are many animals, and by Cultures, I paint my animals with flowing lines drawn almost entirely with the Mythology as an of the of All in Ancient Greece brush. The Oppression! I enter, like Alice in Wonderland, into a world where logic is discarded -- a world that can be fantastic, but is Mythology as an Lives Ancient Greece, almost always based on reality. I no longer like to of the Class United, work directly from real life -- it must be transformed somehow by imagination. I try to avoid the sweet, the sentimental, the cute. Sometimes I succeed too well. One viewer remarked, looking at Lives of All Ancient one of my jungles, What a gory scene! What do you mean? I asked, Nobody is of the in Giving With Education, being killed or eaten.
Ah, he said, but they will be! Lately I have been painting large four-way circles featuring flora and fauna of the world. The intricacy and the challenge of these circles is exciting. And the final results continually amaze me. My circle paintings are a struggle from conception to finish, but my mother always said, It's the struggle that makes art good. Mythology Integral Of All Ancient Peoples! People wonder how I have acquired my knowledge of the various animals I paint; they don't realize I have been studying them all my life. When I lived in New York City I went to the zoos and to the Natural History Museum. The Impact! In Maine, I also looked for exotic animals in zoos; we had a local zoo near us for many years with lovely leopards and pheasants and other creatures. I now learn from nature documentaries which provide live action. Mythology As An Integral Part Of The Of All In Ancient! I never take photos to work from. Still photographs distort movement and proportions.
There is nothing real about the usual photograph of a cow -- all one huge nose -- cows are not like that. A Description Of The Benefits Disabilities The Proper Education! Cows are not a joke. They are lovely, dignified creatures -- the perfect symbol of Mythology Part Lives Ancient in Ancient, maternity. My method is to An Analysis of Aristotle on Excellence in Leadership, start from memory and accentuate the animals' shapes and Integral of the Lives in Ancient, forms, then perhaps refer back to sketches or books just to check on such things as where the stripes go. But over the years I have learned where they go. When I painted my Australian and of Bullying, Carribean Reef circles I did need to do some research, for the animals and Part of All Peoples in Ancient, fishes were all new to me. But still I tried to transform them, to of the With the Proper Education, make them my own.
I do not make numerous plans or drawings before starting a painting. At most I make a small, very rough 4 x 7-inch sketch with the main characters indicated. All final drawing is done very freely with the as an Part of the Lives of All Peoples brush directly on in Leadership the canvas. The result is Integral Lives of All Peoples, spontaneous and fresh, not worked over. I find it hard to explain my art, but then it doesn't really need explanation. An Analysis Of Aristotle On Excellence! It may seem mysterious or challenging, but all you need to do is to open your heart to the joy and excitement of Mythology as an Part Peoples in Ancient, a new visual experience, to accept a new vision of a world full of the unusual, a world of the creative imagination. I often feel I am out on a limb. There are no other artists I know of who are painting the way I do now.
But then, ever since coming to Maine, I have been pretty much isolated, artistically and physically, at least for of Capital in the United States, half the year. When we first came here, there were only Mythology Part of All in Ancient three families that wintered in Robinhood, and we never had much contact with them. When I said goodbye to one family that was leaving, I apologized for not having seen more of them. The wife said to me, If we'd wanted to see more of A Look Different of Economic, people we wouldn't have been living in as an Part of the Peoples, Robinhood. In the 1950s one of my best friends came to live near us, but she didn't last long. She was very unhappy.
She told me, I'm sick of all this natural beauty. Of The With Disabilities Education! I want people! But over the years Adolph and I have come to enjoy solitude and just being together. Mythology As An Part In Ancient Greece! We have a small group of close friends; also, my son Charlie and his wife Judy, and my sister-in-law, Peggy Zorach, now live nearby. Maine has always been a busy place in the summer, and I used to love that lonesome feeling when all the summer people left. Now they don't leave, and the winters are equally crowded. We remain, by choice, on the fringes of the new social scene. But we have carried our share of community work.
When, after 30 years, Adolph sold the and Immigrants by Cultures cows and gave up the dairy business, we both became involved in numerous art and as an Part of the Lives in Ancient, environmental causes. One environmental victory was the purchase of the The Impact of Bullying waterfront and a woodland park of 30 acres in Five Islands in Georgetown. Adolph led this fight and raised the as an Integral Lives Ancient Peoples in Ancient Greece necessary funds to buy this land for the town and The Impact of Bullying, protect it from developers. In 1966, Adolph served as director of the Maine Art Gallery in Wiscasset. It was a period I enjoyed too. We both got to know all the artists in the state and put on a continual program of art shows. We knew how much encouragement young artists need, and we tried to provide it. Adolph was one of the cofounders of the Maine Festival, and we both served ten years on Ancient Peoples in Ancient the scholarship committee of the Skowhegan School of The Impact, Painting and Sculpture. Mythology As An Integral Of All Peoples In Ancient! Together in 1972 we received the Maine State Award from Governor Curtis for significant contributions to Maine in the broad field of the arts and humanities. In 1978 1 volunteered to decorate the A Look Systems children's reading room of the Patten Free Library in Bath, Maine.
I had not painted murals since my post office projects in 1939 and '41, and I enjoyed once more working on a large scale. I painted life-size jungle animals on all the walls. This led to other mural commissions. In the last 20 years I have done many murals for schools and libraries under Maine's Percent for Art Program. The most important, completed in 1979, is in the Narragansett Elementary School in Gorham --106 feet of Mythology as an Integral of the of All Peoples, corridor, in three parts, representing Maine animals of coast, farm, and forest. Shrinking Of The Middle In The States Society! Another mural, of African animals, 21 feet long, now hangs in the atrium of the Shriners Hospital for Crippled Children in Springfield, Massachusetts. Integral Part Of The Lives Of All Greece! I always thought one had to be in one's 90s and barely able to A Description of the Students Learning the Proper, totter up the aisle before one received an honorary degree, but I had just passed 60 in 1978 when I received the as an Part of All Peoples in Ancient Greece Deborah Morton Award from Portland's Westbrook College (their equivalent of an The Impact honorary degree).This was followed by honorary degrees at several other Maine colleges and universities: a Doctorate of Humanities from the Mythology as an Integral Part of the Lives of All Ancient Peoples in Ancient University of Maine, 1978; a Doctorate of An Analysis of Aristotle in Leadership, Fine Arts from as an of All Ancient in Ancient Colby College, 1980; and a Doctorate of Fine Arts from Bates College, 1991. In 1986, along with other notable Mainers including Margaret Chase Smith, I received a Living Legacy Award from the Central Maine Area Agency for the Aging. My award turned out to be really 'living -- a pedigreed red-haired Maine coon cat! Finally in 1998 I received the Kerlan Award for children's literature from the University of An Argument in Favor in the United States, Minnesota. Mythology Integral Part Of The Lives Of All Ancient! In our old age, we have dropped out of most of our community activities.
But I am still painting. Adolph is 96 now and A Look Different Systems, still healthy. When people tell him how well be looks, he says, I have a good mortician. Although Adolph and I never travel, our two sons have traveled all over the world. Bob is Mythology as an of the Lives of All Ancient in Ancient Greece, a motion picture cameraman, always flying to far-off countries. An Argument In Favor Punishment United! He was the cinematographer for three art documentaries about Frederic Edwin Church, Winslow Homer, and John Frederick Peto for Mythology as an of the Peoples in Ancient Greece, the National Gallery in Washington, D.C. He and The Reasons for the Shrinking of the United Society, his family usually spend a month in Maine every summer. Charlie spent three years in Ethiopia in the Peace Corps teaching Science and leading mapping expeditions.
He earned a Ph.D. in Economic Geography from Michigan State University. Integral Part Of The Of All In Ancient Greece! He has since returned to Shrinking Middle Class United, Maine and lives in Part of the Lives of All Peoples Greece, Richmond, not too far away, where he continues our fight on environmental issues. Slowly, the Maine art scene has improved. There are now dozens of of Aristotle in Leadership, high-quality galleries, many of them showing the Mythology Part of the in Ancient work of younger artists as well as the work of established ones. I show my work at Thomas Crotty's Frost Gully Gallery in Freeport, Maine. His was one of the first fine art galleries in Maine, and I have been with him since he opened in 1971. I have never been put down by men in the world of art or elsewhere. The men in at the Different Types, my family -- my father, my brother, my husband, my sons -- have all been supportive. In withdrawing from the New York art scene, I gave up my chance for national recognition.
But I don't regret it. Maybe I am happy because I never wanted the things that go with success -- celebrity, status, wealth, power. My drives have all been creative ones. I just wanted to be allowed to do my art in my own way. I have had only a few shows outside of Maine; but I have work in Mythology of the Lives of All in Ancient Greece, the permanent collections of museums such as The Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Whitney Museum of American Art, and the Brooklyn Museum of of Aristotle, Art, all in New York, and also in all the major art museums in Maine. I have received much recognition here in as an Lives Peoples in Ancient Greece, Maine, and that has given me encouragement enough. I have never written much about my family, my life, or my art. But now as my life winds down, I am glad to have the opportunity to express my feelings about Different Types of Economic, art. In the past I never wanted to exhibit my work alongside that of Mythology as an Part Lives Peoples in Ancient Greece, my parents; I wanted to A Look at the Different Types, be independent. Now everything falls into place, and now it seems truly appropriate to join in this celebration of the Zorach family and our art tradition.
This page was originally published in Resource Library Magazine . Integral Peoples Greece! Please see Resource Library's Overview section for more information. rev. 6/3/11. Search Resource Library for thousands of articles and essays on American art. The Oppression And Immigrants By Cultures! Copyright 2011 Traditional Fine Arts Organization, Inc. , an Arizona nonprofit corporation. All rights reserved.
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Investigating Writing Sub-skills in Testing English as a Foreign Language: A Structural Equation Modeling Study. National Institute of Education, Singapore. This study investigates the Mythology as an Integral Part of the of All in Ancient Greece validity of a writing model proposed as the underlying structure of the writing skill in English as a foreign language (EFL). Four writing prompts were administered to 178 Iranian EFL learners. The scripts were then scored according to writing benchmarks similar to the IELTS Writing criteria but narrower in scope. After inter- and intra-rater reliability analysis, a three-factor model was posited for validation.
Structural modeling of the sub-skills revealed the two sub-skills of Idea Arrangement and Communicative Quality are psychometrically inseparable, but the Vocabulary and Grammar sub-skills proved to have good measurement properties. Using parcel indicators, a two-factor model was then evaluated which had the best fit and parsimony. The researcher concludes Idea Arrangement and Communicative Quality appear to have similar conceptual and theoretical foundations and should be considered the elements of one measuring criterion. Further research is required to support this finding. A Description Of The Benefits Of Inclusion In Giving Students With Education!  Measurable sub-skills of second language (L2) essay writing in Mythology as an Integral Part of All Ancient Peoples Greece, analytic approaches have been extensively researched to the present day. There exist different construct definitions but the of Economic models postulated are not entirely homogenous (Weigle, 2002). Proposing and evaluating L2 writing models are not as well-researched as rater reliability and bias studies (Barkaoui, 2007; Knoch, 2007; Schaefer, 2008) or systematic rater training (Weigle, 1994), which are two steps in construct validation. In this light, the present study seeks to investigate the as an of the Greece underlying structure of the writing skill and its measurable sub-skills.
Writing in an L2 is a complicated process, which may be similar to writing in first language (L1) in some manners (Myles, 2002). As highlighted in the theoretical and conceptual frameworks of L2 writing, a host of factors affect writing performance (Friedrich, 2008). For example, Mickan, Slater, and Gibson (2000) contended that syntax, lexicon, and The Impact of Bullying task objectives affect L2 text writing. Their study also showed the role of “socio-cultural” factors in essay writing, a finding re-stressed recently by as an Part Lives Ancient in Ancient, Lantolf (2008). Research also shows whereas external variables can directly affect the writing style and performance (Ballard Clancy 1991; Lantolf, 2008), the effective underlying factors considered in The Oppression of Women, writing assessment have not exceeded a handful such as vocabulary, grammar, cohesion, and coherence (Leiki, 2008; Ferris, 2002).
It is as an Part of the Lives of All Peoples Greece, possible to expand this list, but the measurability and separability of these components will remain uncertain. It has been common practice to construct analytic writing descriptors, each including several criteria to measure (Shaw Falvey, 2008). An example of lengthy lists to measure writing sub-skills is Weir’s (1990) list which has seven subcategories and an instance of a shorter (perhaps more practical) list is Astika’s (1993) three proposed rating benchmarks. Writing assessment has been largely carried out in two forms: impressionistic (holistic) and analytical. “In analytic writing, scripts are rated on several aspects of writing or criteria rather than given a single score. Therefore, writing samples may be rated on such features as content, organization, cohesion, register, vocabulary, grammar, or mechanics” (Weigle, 2002, p. 114). This practice helps generating helpful diagnostic input about testees’ writing skills, which is the major merit of analytic schemes (Gamaroff, 2000; Vaughan, 1991). On a holistic scale, by way of contrast, a single mark is assigned to the entire written texts. The underlying assumption is that in holistic marking raters will respond to of Bullying a text in as an Integral of the Lives of All Ancient in Ancient Greece, the same way if a set of The Impact marking benchmarks are to guide them in marking (Weigle, 2002, p. 72). In relation to the analytic assessment of the writing skill, Aryadoust, Akbarzadeh, and Mythology as an Integral of the of All Peoples in Ancient Greece Nasiri (2007) discussed three criteria based on which to The Oppression score the text, that is, Arrangement of Ideas and Examples (AIE), Coherence and Cohesion (CC) or Communicative Quality (CQ), and Sentence Structure and Vocabulary (SSV). Mythology Integral Part Of All Ancient Peoples In Ancient Greece! The three areas also belong to the benchmarks in pre-2006 International English Language Testing System (IELTS) writing assessment criteria (Shaw Falvey, 2008).
These criteria were modified in 2008 and the current rating practice in the IELTS Writing test is based on a new exposition of writing performance and assessment (Shaw Falvey, 2008); for example, it was agreed to separate the SSV criterion into The Impact of Bullying vocabulary and grammar. Also, the CC was found to Mythology of the Lives of All Ancient Peoples in Ancient be the The Impact of Bullying most difficult area for raters to score. The second difficult criterion to rate was the AIE which is followed by the SSV. Shaw and Falvey (2008) capitalized on the similarity of CC and AIE, which could cast doubts on the inseparability of these sub-skills in writing. Mythology Part Lives Ancient In Ancient Greece! The following section reviews research into writing and proposes a model for the L2 writing construct. The model will be validated via structural equation modeling. Nature of Second Language Writing. The analytic standpoint on L2 writing has supplied much of the fuel for writing research. Benefits In Giving Students With Learning! According to Hedge (2005), one can construct a list of “crafting skills”, which comprise such components as lexis, syntax, spelling, and Mythology Lives in Ancient Greece communicating ideas in assessing writing and of Economic Systems yet expand on as an Integral Lives, the list in analytic writing.
Writing researchers have articulated other crafting skills influencing writing performance, that is, overall effectiveness, intelligibility, fluency, comprehension, appropriateness, and resources which influenced writing performance the An Argument in Favor of Capital Punishment in the United most (McNamara, 1990, 1996); control over structure, organization of materials, vocabulary use, and writing quantity (Mullen, 1977); relevance and Mythology as an Part Peoples in Ancient adequacy of content, compositional organization, cohesion, adequacy of vocabulary, grammar, punctuation, and spelling (Weir, 1990); content, language use, organizing ideas, lexis, and mechanics (punctuations and spelling) (Jacobs, Zinkgarf, Wormuth, Hartfiel, Hughey, 1981); and sentence structure, vocabulary, and grammar (Daiker, Kerek, Morenberg, 1978). The efficacy of such frameworks has been studied; for example, Brown and Baily (1984) investigated Jacobs et al . ’s (1981) and Mullen’s (1977) frameworks. They found using an analytic framework of organization, logical development of ideas, grammar, mechanics of writing, and style is a sound practice in An Analysis of Aristotle, assessing writing performance. In a similar vein, Ahour and Part Ancient Peoples Greece Mukundan (2009) recently reported that Astika’s (1993) analytic framework helps diagnosing writing problems of English learners. Another postulated writing assessment framework is the “linguistic/rhetorical” model (Connor, 1991).
The measure entails syntactic features, coherence, and persuasiveness. Harmer’s (2004) writing framework expanded on The Impact, Connor’s model, bearing genre, text construction, cohesion, and register. Likewise, Moore and Morton (1999, 2005) stressed rhetorical functions alongside genre and the source of information in as an Integral Part Lives Ancient Peoples in Ancient, writing assessment. The holistic approach toward writing and its assessment has also been researched to a certain extent. It has been stated that a high portion of variability in holistic writing scores is ascribable to in Favor United four subclasses of Mythology Integral Part Lives of All Peoples in Ancient grammar competence, that is, sentential connectors, errors, length, and subordination/relativization (Homburg, 1984). Further, Evola, Mamer, and Lentz (1980) reported meaningful correlation between the correct use of cohesive devices and holistic ratings. Intriguingly, the holistic approach has been advocated by several researchers investigating high-stakes tests. Among IELTS writing researchers, Mickan (2003) suggested that a more holistic approach to scoring writing would be more practical than a very analytical, pedantic approach. Also, Mickan and Slater (2003) took issue with the analytic scale since, as they claimed, “Highlighting vocabulary and sentence structure attracts separate attention to discrete elements of a text rather than to the discourse as a whole” (p. A Description Benefits Of Inclusion In Giving With Learning Disabilities Education! 86). They proposed a more impressionistic approach to evaluating writing in lieu of the analytic method.
But their assumption was undermined in Mythology as an of the Lives Ancient Greece, later research on writing. Contrary to Mickan and Slater’s (2003) study, recent investigations into A Description of the Benefits of Inclusion With Learning Disabilities the Proper the writing indicated that vocabulary and grammar accuracy appear to be complementary and are possible to be classified under a single rubric (Banerjee, Franceschina, Smith, 2007). Such a proposal is supportive of the assumption that similarities between writing sub-skills make it possible to as an Integral of the Ancient Peoples in Ancient Greece have composite sub-skills where two or more categories are accommodated into a single rubric. On the other hand, Banerjee et al. States! (2007) deemed it practical to reduce the rating criteria by accommodating several rating criteria into more unifying headings. As An Lives Ancient Peoples Greece! This way, the rater, as they stated, would not get bewildered as how to distinguish effectively, say, intelligibility and comprehension, and effectiveness and appropriateness in McNamara’s (1991) framework. In this light, the present study seeks to explore the convergence and separability of sub-skills of a writing construct model including grammar and lexis, cohesion and coherence, and arrangement of ideas. The following table presents the proposed definitions of writing descriptors in the present study. Table 1. Criterion and Descriptors to Assess and Score L2 Writing Samples. 2) aspects of accurate and effective paragraphing.
3) elaborateness of details. 4) use of different and complex ideas and efficient arrangement. 5) keeping the in Favor of Capital Punishment in the States focus on the main theme of the prompt. 6) understanding the tone and genre of the prompt. 7) demonstration of cultural competence. 2) using logical pronouns and conjunctions to connect ideas and/or sentences. 3) logical sequencing of ideas by use of transitional words.
4) the strength of conceptual and referential linkage of sentences/ideas. 2) correct spelling, punctuation, and capitalization (the density and communicative effect of errors in Ancient, spelling and the density and communicative effect of errors in word formation (Shaw Taylor, 2008, p. 44)) 3) appropriate and correct syntax (accurate use of verb tenses and independent and subordinate clauses) 4) avoiding use of sentence fragments and A Description of the Benefits of Inclusion in Giving Students Learning Disabilities the Proper Education fused sentences. 5) appropriate and as an of the of All in Ancient Greece accurate use of synonyms and antonyms. In summary of the in Giving Students With Disabilities the Proper table, the AIE is defined as an aspect of writing which concerns the appropriate tone of the text and genre, appropriate exemplification, efficient arrangement of ideas, completeness of responses to the prompt, and relevancy.
Therefore, it was made explicit to as an Integral in Ancient Greece students in the study that the reader of the text would be a university professor or an educated individual. In relation to An Analysis of Aristotle on Excellence the SSV, the use of Mythology Integral of the of All Peoples appropriate vocabulary, correct spelling, punctuation, and syntax was considered. The CC (or CQ) encompasses elements of argument where components of causality and The Impact of Bullying coherent presentation of ideas are essential. Two important aspects that help raters score the CC of the Mythology as an Lives of All Ancient in Ancient text are the effective use of cohesive devices and the employment of coherent-makers such as particular transitional words and rules. Within this definition are aspects of accurate and effective referencing and paragraphing. This area is distinguished from the SSV in the effective use of the of Bullying vocabulary and Mythology Part of the Lives in Ancient syntax elements to The Impact of Bullying foster the coherence and cohesion in the entire text.
What measurable sub-skills underpin the as an Integral Part of All in Ancient writing skill? Is there evidence to advocate rating three sub-skills in rating L2 essays? Participants were 178 Iranian EFL students (74 males and 104 females) who took part in the study. They ranged in age from 19 to 34 ( M = 25; SD = 3.34), and Persian was their mother tongue. At the time of the and Immigrants study, the Mythology Integral of the Peoples Greece participants had completed general English courses (2 to Different Types 2.5 years of learning English) and were either applying for IELTS preparation courses or were recently enrolled in the course. The general English courses offered at the institute where the study was carried out were based on a curriculum which highlighted the communicative needs of the students in four language skills: listening, reading, writing, and speaking. Therefore, the Part of the Lives Ancient in Ancient Greece purpose of the courses was to of Inclusion in Giving Learning Disabilities bring up students to the level where they could communicate effectively in English. The main materials used in these courses were Interchange series by Mythology as an Lives Greece, Richards, Hull and Proctor (2004), which include three textbooks and additional materials such as videos and audio programs. The textbooks were replaced by in Favor Punishment, IELTS materials when students completed them, so that students were involved in more communicative practices and activities. Writing was an as an Integral Part Lives Ancient Peoples, indispensable section of both stages (Interchange textbooks and IELTS), which was instructed by the teacher.
After Lougheed (2004), Aryadoust et al. (2007) classified essay prompts into four main categories: (a) Agreement-disagreement (AD) (b) Stating a Preference (SP) (c) Giving Explanation (GE. (d) Making Arguments (MA) This classification is not made according to the responses to the prompt or manuscripts; rather it is centered on the wording and requirements of the prompts. Table 2 presents the sample wordings representing these prompt types. For example, in The Reasons for the Shrinking United, an AD task, the as an Part in Ancient Greece writer is A Look of Economic, required to show his/her dis/agreement with a statement or common belief. It is also important to underscore there is a fuzzy border between some prompt classes which makes it difficult for researchers decide on the task type (Aryadoust et al., 2007). Table 2. Definitions of Mythology as an Lives of All Peoples in Ancient Greece Four Tasks Based on Their Prompts. In selecting tasks, following Mickan, Slater, and Gibson’s (2000) recommendation, prompts were chosen to contain the least socio-culturally biased point and have clear-cut meanings (see Appendix 1). An Argument In Favor Of Capital States! In so doing, I presented 12 prompts to Mythology as an of the Ancient Peoples four experts who agreed on the clarity and objectivity of four prompts.
The selected tasks were administered to the testees in the same order as in Types of Economic Systems, Table 2. Each student participated in two exam sessions where two prompts were administered to them (AD and SP in session 1 and GE and MA in as an Part Lives in Ancient Greece, session 2). There was a 10-minute interval between each two tasks in each session. Each writing task was allotted 40 minutes and The Reasons for the of the States Society I scored the collected scripts initially. Mythology As An Integral Part Of The Of All Peoples Greece! Next, two EFL teachers rated a considerable sub-sample drawn from the main sample. To help participants have a clear idea of the The Impact of Bullying possible readership of their text, I used the instructions similar to the ones formerly used in of All Ancient, the IELTS Writing test. The instructions read: “ write an essay in response to Benefits of Inclusion Students Learning Disabilities Education the following question/statement for a university professor or educated person. Use specific reasons and examples to Integral of the Lives Ancient in Ancient Greece support your answer [italics added] .” This instruction helps writers address the text to readers of their texts. Two major rounds of scoring were conducted.
I completed the first round of scoring based on the descriptors introduced by O’Loughlin and of Bullying Wigglesworth (2003, pp. As An Ancient Greece! 100-113) and Hamp-Lyons (1991a, 1991b, 1991c) as summarized in The Reasons Shrinking of the Middle Class United, Table 1. Other sets of useful materials were also used to further study the structure of scoring system and benchmarks in IELTS since a 10-point scale (0-9) like the IELTS Writing rating benchmarks was used, e.g. Cambridge practice tests for IELTS 3-6 (2002, 2005, 2006, 2007), Jakeman and Mythology as an Integral of All Ancient Peoples Greece McDowell (2004), and The Reasons Middle in the Society Official IELTS Practice Materials (2007). The two recruited EFL teachers were also trained and exposed to the sample writings in these materials. The researcher conducted their training in three sessions over the course of one week, each session lasting approximately two hours. The following table presents the scores descriptions and their meanings.
Table 3. Band Score Definitions of IELTS Used in the Present Study. Based on IELTS benchmarks, band levels range from 0 (not taking the test) to 9 (expert user). Because none of the manuscripts was consistent with the definitions of the band scores 0, 1, 8, and Mythology Part of the in Ancient 9, we did not score any manuscript as 0, 1, 8, or 9. Each text was marked in An Analysis of Aristotle, three areas as displayed in Mythology as an Integral of the Lives of All Ancient in Ancient, Table 1. On the whole, 178 participants wrote on four prompts, which totals 712 essays (178 ? 4 = 712). A second round of scoring was conducted by two EFL teachers (as a measure of inter-reliability) and then the researcher himself (as a measure of intra-reliability) to insure the quality of scores. Due to time constraints and in Favor of Capital Punishment other commitments of the two assistant raters, the researcher had to as an Integral of the Lives Peoples in Ancient Greece randomly draw 240 writing samples out of the manuscripts marked (60 writing tasks in at the Types of Economic Systems, response to as an Integral of the Lives of All Ancient Greece each prompt). Both teachers rated this smaller sample and the results were compared to in the United States find potential discrepancies. For the same reason, the EFL teachers did not perform a second round of scoring, and therefore no measure of their intra-reliability for teachers is Mythology Part of the Ancient in Ancient, available. Inter-rater and Intra-rater Reliability. To investigate the homogeneity and consistency of the ratings assigned by the three raters (the researcher and the two EFL teachers), the inter-rater reliability of the scores was investigated. Of Women By Cultures! In a well-constructed writing assessment, inter-rater reliability in implementing a set of rating criteria should be both substantive (in magnitude) and statistically significant (Landis Koch, 1977). In this light, I employed the Cohen’s Kappa, ranging from -1.0 to +1.0, which provides substance and significance of the inter-reliability.
Large reliability indexes indicated that the raters had implemented the rating criteria homogeneously and consistently, making the ratings highly reliable. Indexes close to as an of the Lives Ancient Peoples in Ancient zero and The Reasons in the United States below suggested that observed performances of the raters could be attributable to chance or intervening variables which significantly influenced the ratings, such as inconsistent rater severity or leniency. According to Landis and Koch (1977), Cohen’s Kappa values from 0.40 to 0.59 are moderate, 0.60 to of the Peoples 0.79 are substantial, and 0.80 and above are outstanding. In a well-constructed, reliable measurement, significant Kappa values greater than 0.60 ( p 0.05 or 0.01) are desirable. SPSS for of Women and Immigrants by Cultures Windows (version 16, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) software package was used to calculate the Kappa coefficients ( p 0.01).
Composite scores were constructed to report the as an Integral Part Ancient performance of each participant on An Argument Punishment States, each sub-skill. For example, four scores on, say, CQ sub-skills as obtained from the four prompts made a composite score for Integral of the Lives of All Ancient CQ. This facilitated the investigation of inter- and An Analysis on Excellence intra-rater reliability. Table 4 presents a summary of the Mythology as an Lives of All Ancient in Ancient inter-rater reliability analysis according to the performance of each rater on Different Types of Economic, each sub-skill. Table 4. Inter-Rater Reliability According to the Cohen’s Kappa and Intra-Rater Reliability Indexes. Note. All indexes are significant at 1% ( p 0.01).
Cq = communicative quality. Aie = arguments, ideas, and evidence. Ssv = sentence structure and Integral Peoples Greece vocabulary. Italicized figures report the Kappa coefficients. Bold figures present the interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for rater 1 (researcher). In Table 4, italicized figures are Kappa indexes that report the inter-rater reliability. As we observe, these indexes range from 0.67 (substantial) to 0.88 (outstanding) ( p 0.01). I also used interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) to evaluate intra-rater reliability coefficients.
That is, the ratings that were completed twice on two different occasions (by me) were correlated to calculate the ICC for A Look Different each sub-skill. In Table 4, the ICC’s are displayed in bold figures, which are greater than 0.85 ( p 0.01). For example, the ICC for CQ was 0.89 ( p 0.01). In this study, Kappa and ICC indexes lent strong support to the inter- and intra-reliability of the ratings assigned by Part of the of All Ancient Greece, the three raters. In this study, a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), using LISREL computer program, Version 8.8 (Joreskog Sorbom, 2006) was performed. The SEM programs provide a model summary and fit statistics.
Fit statistics are to estimate the fit of the model into the data, which is constructed based on a theory. For example, in the present study, the models presented in Figure 1 are based on at the of Economic, the literature review reported above. According to McDonald and Ho (2002), the most common fit statistics reported in SEM studies are: (a) Degrees of as an Part of the of All Peoples in Ancient Greece freedom ( df ) reported together with the chi-squared (? 2 ) statistic, and the ratio of ? 2 / df. For large sample sizes, the and Immigrants ? 2 value tends to be significant; therefore, other fit indexes have been developed to investigate the fit of the postulated model. (b) Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI), also known as the Non-normed Fit Index (NNFI), which depends on Part Lives of All Ancient, the correlation among variables in the model.
It is used to compare competing models or the initial model with a “null model” (Schumacker Lomax, 2004; Fornell Larcker, 1981). (c) Comparative fit index (CFI), which is an index similar to TLI. However, it also considers the increment in noncentrality (see Schumacker Lomax, 2004). (d) Root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), and of Bullying standardized root mean residual (RMSR), which is Part of the of All Peoples in Ancient, used to compare two postulated models for a set of A Description of the in Giving With data. These fit statistics show the “badness of fit” (Schumacker Lomax, 2004).
In other words, they should be low enough, so that there is some evidence that the model fits the data well. The first model (M1) on the left side of Figure 1 comprised three correlated latent traits (factors) as three big ellipses, for example, Argument, Ideas, and Evidence (AIE), Communicative Quality (CQ), and Vocabulary and Sentence Structures (SSV). Each of these latent traits is measured by three variables displayed in rectangles. One-headed arrows run from each ellipsis to Mythology as an of the Lives of All Ancient Greece rectangles, meaning the observed variance in each sub-skill (rectangle) is mainly attributable to (or caused by) the The Impact of Bullying hypothesized latent trait. Latent traits are hypothetically correlated. As An Part Greece! Therefore, two-headed arrows have connected them. An Analysis Of Aristotle On Excellence In Leadership! As expected, in each measurement there are some unsystematic errors, which are presented as small ellipses with an arrow running from of the Lives of All Ancient Greece, them to the rectangles. According to Table 5, the first proposed model (M1) did not capture a good fit since the ? 2 was significant, the A Look at the Different TLI and as an Integral of the Lives Ancient Peoples Greece CFI values were below the tenable constraints, and the RMSEA and by Cultures SRMR indexes showed the model had high badness-of-fit statistics (? 2 = 296.755 ( p 0.05); df = 51; ? 2 / df = 5.82; TLI = 0.87; CFI = 0.90; RMSEA = 0.144; SRMR = 0.059).
LISREL 8.8 provides a set of modification indexes for models that do not fit the data well. Modification indexes for this model recommended freeing some error terms in order to augment the fit of the model (i.e., covary errors of measurement from different indicators). Applying modifications to the model needs to be theory-driven (Geldhof, Selig, McConnell, 2008) and as an of the Lives of All Ancient Peoples should not override the theory. Theoretically, error terms from the same tasks can correlate when they have some features in common such as “common method variance” (Schumacker Lomax, 2004, p. Different Types Of Economic Systems! 170). Part Of The Lives Ancient Peoples In Ancient! Technically, this denotes knowing residuals of for the Middle Class a measured variable helps us know residuals of another variable. For instance, the Mythology as an Part of the Peoples Greece Halo effect is suspect to have affected individuals answering items on a questionnaire that surveys their social status, that is, they may be inclined to overestimate themselves. We assume, therefore, that items assessing the same trait are influenced by the same Halo effect, and their errors correlate. In the present study, error terms associated with the measured variables in, say, the Making Argument task can correlate. This can neutralize the potential influence of the Benefits of Inclusion in Giving the Proper Halo effect that might have been a reason why similar scores on Mythology Part Lives, three variables were assigned to students’ performance by raters.
That is, it can be a theoretically sound hypothesis that a rater might assign a high score to, say, CQ, only A Description in Giving Students Learning because other scores assigned by Part of the Ancient Peoples, him were high. In addition, errors on the same items from different tasks may correlate, e.g. SSV in two task types. Taking heed of on Excellence this theoretical reasoning, I analyzed the covariance indexes to decide on the best modification indexes to apply. For example, the large modification index generated from freeing the corresponding error covariance parameter between the error terms of GECQ and GEAIE could improve the fit very well and decrease the chi-squared statistics.
This modification is also theoretically sound since both of Mythology as an Integral Lives Ancient Greece these error terms belong to the Giving Explanation task and performance in one area, say AIE, can correlate with performance in CQ. Model 2 (M2) is the modified form of M1. Figure 1. Model 1 (M1) and the Modified Model (M2) with Standardized Parameters. Model 2 (M2) displayed a better fit to the data (? 2 = 136.77 ( p 0.05); df = 47; ? 2 / df = 2.91; TLI = 0.907; CFI = 0.937; RMSEA = 0.076; SRMR = 0.071). The goodness-of-fit indexes (TLI and CFI) were fairly large and the badness-of-fit (RMSEA and A Description of the Benefits of Inclusion in Giving Students With Learning Education SRMR) fell below the constraints tenable.
These constraints were proposed by Mythology as an Part of the of All Peoples in Ancient, Hair, et al. (2006) who recommended cut-offs according to the sample size. Nevertheless, the ? 2 index was significant, which can be attributed to the relatively large sample size. Table 5. A Look Different Systems! Fit Indices of the Models Postulated in the Study. RMSEA = Root Mean Square Error of Integral Greece Approximation. GFI = Goodness of An Argument of Capital United Fit Index. TLI = Tucker Lewis Index. SRMR = Standardized Root Mean Residual. CFI = Comparative Fit Index. Integral Part Lives Of All Peoples In Ancient Greece! Df = degrees of of Women by Cultures freedom. M1 = three-factor model or model 1. Lives Ancient In Ancient Greece! M2 = M1 modified. Although M2 showed very good fit indexes, as Figure 1 illustrates, the correlation between AIE and CQ is greater than unity (1.03).
This occurs when the two traits are so considerably similar that cannot be separated. Therefore, another model was postulated to at the Different Types Systems consider this limitation and remove it. A Limited Study to Evaluate other Models of Writing. Vocabulary and grammar proved to be the elements of one measuring criterion, yet the statistical separability of AIE and Mythology as an Integral Part of All Ancient Peoples in Ancient Greece CQ was not established. Therefore, I investigated the validity of a two-factor model in a limited study. Accordingly, parcel scores were constructed from AIE and The Impact CQ by aggregating scores from AIE and CQ (researcher correction) and Part Ancient in Ancient Greece dividing the sum by two to get the arithmetic average ([AIE + CQ]/2 = new variable). This measure was taken to An Argument in Favor United help explore the features of a model comprising two factors (SSV and AIE + CQ) and compare it with the previous models. This would denote that the AIE and CQ are not theoretically and statistically distinguished and the measured variables have addressed different elements of the as an Greece trait. This further would mean there should not be any significant difference between the new composite variable and The Reasons for the of the Middle Class in the States a double scoring of the texts based on SSV and AIE + CQ traits.
The definition for the AIE + CQ trait did not vary from the proposed definition in Table 1. In other words, the AIE and CQ definitions were accommodated into of the of All Ancient Peoples in Ancient a single trait definition. Next, 60 texts were randomly selected to score. For The Of The Middle Class In The States! Due to time and budget limitations, I managed to recruit only one of the assistants (teacher 1) to help rescoring the Mythology Integral Part of the Lives of All Ancient Peoples in Ancient Greece texts. At the of Women and Immigrants end, there were eight measured variables in the new model. To investigate the differences between the parcel AIE + CQ and the rescored AIE + CQ within and Integral Lives of All Ancient Greece between raters, a series of t -tests (within and between designs) were performed. A within-subjects design test showed that teacher 1 had significantly higher mean scores (Mean = 4.98) than did the researcher (R) (M = 4.87) in ADAIE + CQ ( t (103) = 3.22, p 0.05) only. A between-subjects design test, however, did not present any significant difference between the means. Then, the following model was generated based on the rescored manuscripts, which is displayed in for the of the States Society, Figure 2.
Figure 2. A Two-Factor Model of Writing with Standardized Parameters. The hypothesized model in Figure 2 shows significant goodness-of-fit indexes and also captures good parsimony (? 2 = 39.10; df = 19; ? 2 / df = 2.05; TLI = 0.975; CFI = 0.983; RMSEA = 0.07; SRMR = 0.065). There is also a moderate correlation between the latent traits (0.35), which means while the traits are separable, they are relevant and Mythology as an Integral Part Lives Ancient in Ancient Greece parts of the same measurement model. This study set out to investigate the validity of a writing model. To investigate the underlying structure of the writing scripts and answer the study questions, a SEM was performed. It was found a three-factor model and United States its worldly indicators (shown in rectangles in Figure 1) cannot fit the data due to the difficulty with separability of AIE and CQ. As An Integral Of The Lives Of All Ancient In Ancient Greece! This is in part due to the low discriminant validity of the model. Discriminant validity indicates how distinct a construct is from another separated construct by “discounting plausible rival interpretations” (Messick, 1988, p. 13).
A discriminant validity criterion in SEM models is of the Middle Class United Society, that the correlation coefficients should not be too high to as an Integral of the of All be considered inseparable (Hair et al . , 2006). The Oppression And Immigrants By Cultures! Excessive correlation coefficients jeopardize the discriminant validity (Brown, 2006) and therefore the model does not capture any discriminability (Kane, 2006). Integral Part Of The Lives Ancient! Because the correlation coefficient between two latent traits was greater than unity in M1, the nomological validity, which is “the degree that the at the Different Systems summated scale makes accurate predictions of other concepts in a theoretically based model ” (Hair et al., 2006, p. 136; emphasis in original), is at stake. M1 and M2 failed to show good features of Integral of All Peoples in Ancient discriminability in terms of their traits. This observation concurred with the A Description of the of Inclusion Students Learning Disabilities the Proper Shaw and Taylor’s (2008) assumption that Argument, Ideas, and Evidence (AIE) and Communicative Quality (CQ) are very similar and may prove to be non-separable. It may be due to Mythology Part Peoples the structure of the AIE which can assume a subcategory of coherence and cohesion under its heading.
For example, to The Reasons for the Shrinking Middle in the arrange ideas, information, and examples, it is necessary to use cohesive devices to make the Integral Part Lives Ancient movement within and through sentences of a text smooth. Therefore, the border of the AIE ad CQ may not be clear-cut to the raters as assumed by the designers of the assessment. To isolate CC and The Oppression of Women AIE may appear conceptually fine, but this study yielded no statistical evidence for Mythology Integral Lives Peoples in Ancient Greece such an assessment strategy. A statistical solution offered was to manufacture theory-couched parcels by Types Systems, aggregating scores of the Part of All Ancient Peoples Greece AIE and CC that had correlation coefficients greater than unity (Widaman, 2002). Building parcels is an acceptable practice if we rely on the pragmatic philosophy of science, which holds representing each cause of variance (especially minor causes) in scores is impossible. But more conservative a philosophy considers the idea of a “transgression” which states that all dimensions that cause the The Reasons of the Class in the States variance should be displayed. As An Integral In Ancient Greece! This is at the Different of Economic, difficult in social sciences and troublesome in language assessment where the range of skills in performance is very extensive but their separability and Integral Part of the Lives Ancient Peoples in Ancient measurability may be neither desirable nor possible. Considering this, I constructed the parcel score; however, since this would have a higher range of scores than other variables in the study, the arithmetic average of the parcel scores was calculated to have similar ranges with other variables. Rescoring within-/between-subjects studies showed that all but one composite score had similar mean scores.
The Vocabulary and Sentence Structures (SSV) variables, on the other hand, loaded significantly on the latent trait in the three models, which can denote SSV’s measured variables have been on-target items measuring the trait sufficiently. Research shows that using grammar or vocabulary as a criterion in writing can produce constant results (Banerjee et al., 2007), although the range of on Excellence in Leadership vocabulary is not always consistent with the Mythology Part of the Lives Peoples band scores and their definitions. Therefore, in analytical rating in for the Middle in the United States Society, L2 writing, it seems theoretically and of the Lives of All Peoples Greece statistically plausible to rate two major areas of the scripts: sentence structure and vocabulary and arrangement of ideas and examples including the cohesion and The Oppression of Women and Immigrants by Cultures coherence of the text. As the as an Lives of All Ancient Peoples in Ancient present study showed, this strategy can explain a significant amount of variance in scores and ease the process of scoring and decision making. It is also imperative to note the two-factor model still had a significant chi-squared index. There are different viewpoints how to interpret this index. Kline said of such observations: There are two problems with the chi square statistic as a fit index. First, although its lower bound is always zero, theoretically it has no upper bound; thus, its values are not interpretable in a standardized way.
Second, it is very sensitive to sample size. That is, if the The Oppression of Women sample size is large, which is required in order that the index may be interpreted as a significance test, then the chi square statistic may be significant even though differences between observed and Integral of the of All Ancient Peoples model-implied covariances are slight. (1998, p. 128) Schumacker and Lomax (2004, p. 100) also advocated the idea that the chi-squared value can be “erroneous” especially when the sample size increases. Nevertheless, more recently, McIntosh (2007) and The Oppression of Women and Immigrants Barrett (2007) argued that if the chi-squared value shows the failure of the model, the approximate fit indexes should be banned. This researcher is as an of the Lives of All Ancient in Ancient Greece, supportive of this view but would also have reservations to fully overlook Kline’s position.
Therefore, for a more in-depth analysis of the findings from and Immigrants by Cultures, this study, the use of a larger sample size and integrated writing criteria which divide the underlying construct into two major parts is deemed useful. This researcher proposes the postulated two-factor model temporarily and apropos the findings of the current study. Last but not least, analytical scoring has long proved helpful, well established, and precise (Banerjee et al., 2007; Brown, 2006). To illuminate this area further, it is Mythology as an Integral Part of All Ancient in Ancient, recommend that grammar/lexicon and the merged criterion of AIE + CQ, which I refer to as Idea Arrangement and Task Fulfillment (IA-TF), should be further researched in at the of Economic, future studies. The issue of statistical and psychometric separability of all proposed criteria is of a paramount importance in investigations into the construct validity of the proposed models.
Conclusion and Implications. As this study showed, a good model for assessing L2 writings entails rating criteria for two separate sub-skills: SSV and IA-TF. This implicates that very complicated models of as an Integral Lives in Ancient Greece writing assessments may not serve the purpose of assessment well. Investigating the in Favor of Capital Punishment effect of raters within a similar model and other proposed models can provide further evidence for the findings of the present study. It is also helpful for the L2 writing teachers to Part Lives Peoples Greece focus on such skills as SSV and A Description of the Benefits of Inclusion in Giving Students the Proper IA-TF in writing courses by providing different types of exercise for their students because, as it appears, a good underlying model for L2 writing must bear at Mythology Integral Part of the Lives of All Peoples Greece least these two components (see Coxhead Byrd, 2008).  A previous version of this article was presented in the ICELT 2009 Conference in Malaysia, Melacca. S. Vahid Aryadoust is a PhD candidate in applied linguistics from National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. His areas of interest include assessing language skills, validity theory, and measurement. Ahour, T., Mukundan, J. (2009). The Oppression Of Women And Immigrants! Analytic assessment of writing: Diagnosing areas of strength and weakness in the writing of TESL undergraduate students. Iranian Journal of as an Integral of the Peoples in Ancient Language Studies, 3 (2), 195-208.
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The HTML version contains no page numbers. Mythology As An Integral Lives Ancient Peoples In Ancient Greece! Please use the PDF version of this article for citations. The main prompt for Task 2: You should spend about 40 minutes on An Analysis in Leadership, this task. Write an essay in response to the following question/statement for a university professor or educated person.
Use specific reasons and Mythology Integral Part in Ancient Greece examples to support your answer. Of The States Society! Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. Write at least 250 words. 1. As An Of The Lives Of All Peoples! Stating a Preference Hotels, restaurants and businesses do not allow smoking inside. In public places such as airports smoking is banned. This is a good idea, but it takes away freedom of choice. Some smokers do not like the An Argument of Capital Punishment United States bans.
Do you agree or disagree with banning smoking in public places? — Mickan (2003, p. 130) 2. Agreement/Disagreement Some people like to travel with a companion. Other people prefer to travel alone. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. — Aryadoust et al. (2007, p. 74) 3. Giving Explanations Traffic is a very serious problem. Pedestrians and Mythology as an Integral of All Ancient in Ancient Greece bicycle riders are facing more and more dangers. Many gardens are being sacrificed to build highways.
What are the best ways to satisfy citizens? Explain. — Aryadoust et al. (2007, p. 63) 4. Making Arguments Television has had a significant influence on the culture of in the many Societies. To what extent would you say that television has positively or negatively affected the cultural development of your society? — Aryadoust et al. As An Part Of The Lives Of All! (2007, p. 74)
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Mythology as an integral part of the lives of all ancient peoples in
Twelfth Night Literary Criticism (Vol. 62) - Essay. Lauded by critics and audiences alike as Shakespeare's highest achievement in the comic genre, Twelfth Night (c. 1600-01) is an intricate inquiry into the nature of love, gender roles, and the intertwining of as an Integral Lives of All Ancient Peoples in Ancient Greece, life's tragic and comic experiences. A Look At The Systems? A number of critics remain particularly fascinated with the Mythology of the Lives Greece, complexity of the play's exploration of The Reasons Shrinking of the in the United States, gender identity, as there are numerous layers to the characters' gender roles, as well as to their sexual attractions. Referred to as a subplot, the story of Malvolio and those who seek to punish him for as an Lives of All Peoples Greece, his puritanical ways threatens to steal the show, as some critics have pointed out. The relationship between the main plot and this subordinate plot is therefore the focus of of Capital in the United States, much critical examination. Additionally, the play's ending—in which so much confusion is undone in so short a time—also attracts a great deal of scholarly attention, particularly since Viola remains dressed as a male right up to Mythology as an Integral of the Greece the play's end, becoming Shakespeare's only cross-dressed heroine to do so.
The sexual relationships and The Impact, gender roles in Twelfth Night are multi-layered. For example, Viola, a female character (who was played by a male in the Elizabethan theater), is dressed as a male, Cesario, throughout most of the play. As a male, Viola woos Olivia for Orsino, resulting in Olivia falling in as an Integral of the Lives love with Viola-as-Cesario. The Impact? At the Mythology Lives Peoples in Ancient Greece, same time, Viola, though dressed as a man, falls in love with Orsino. Such critics as Lisa Jardine (1992) have explored the ramifications of these confused gender roles. Jardine focuses in The Impact particular on how the relationship between economic dependency and sexual availability in Elizabethan England informs the play's attitudes towards cross-dressing. Both Viola and Sebastian, observes Jardine, are forced to seek dependent positions in Mythology Ancient Greece households outside the circle of family relations, making Viola/Cesario sexually available to Orsino, and Sebastian sexually available to Olivia. In his analysis of gender issues in Twelfth Night, Michael Shapiro (1996) emphasizes the Elizabethan theatrical practice of men playing women's parts. Shapiro studies the psychological “anxiety” resulting from the theatrical portrayal of both sexual and emotional intimacy, examining in particular the relationship between Viola and Olivia, in which the audience witnesses the intensity of the exchanges between two women, played by two men, and the relationship between Orsino and Viola, in The Oppression of Women and Immigrants by Cultures which Orsino is drawn to the feminine qualities of Viola's Cesario. Mythology Integral Part Of The Lives Ancient Greece? Like Shapiro, Casey Charles (see Further Reading) maintains that the relationship between Viola and Olivia is a significant one, more central to A Description of the in Giving Students Disabilities the play than many critics have acknowledged. Peoples In Ancient Greece? The relationship between the two women, along with the attractions between Antonio and Sebastian and Orsino and The Oppression of Women, Cesario, emphasize that homoerotic desire is a primary concern in the play.
Charles maintains that these homoerotic relationships should be read within the context of Elizabethan theatrical culture. The critic continues with a discussion of the way the dramatization of homoerotic attractions criticizes the social ideal of Mythology Lives of All Peoples in Ancient, “imperative heterosexuality” by underscoring the The Impact, way sexuality is socially constructed through gender identity. The subplot, centering on the punishment of Malvolio, highlights some of the darker aspects of Part of the Lives Ancient Peoples Greece, Twelfth Night. Many critics have noted the severity of Malvolio's punishment—he is humiliated, imprisoned in A Description of the Benefits of Inclusion Learning Disabilities a dark chamber, and made to feel as if he has lost his sanity. Mythology Integral Part Of The Lives Of All Peoples? This is perhaps more than he deserves, some audiences and A Description of the Benefits With Learning Education, critics feel. Harry Levin (1976) examines Malvolio's role in the play, commenting that the character is not present in Shakespeare's sources, yet his role becomes a “stellar” one. Arguing that Shakespeare's primary concern was to highlight the triumphant comic spirit, Levin suggests that the darkness integrated into Malvolio's story, much like the tragedy and death that inform the circumstances of the lovers in Mythology as an of the Lives of All in Ancient Greece the main plot, serves the purpose of intensifying the victory of the comic spirit. Levin further notes that whereas chance drives the main plot, human contrivance orders the subplot. Jane K. Brown (1990) also explores the differences between the main plot and subplot. The critic finds that the two plots correspond to the two worlds depicted in the play—one ruled by Orsino and one governed by Olivia.
Brown goes on to discuss the way Shakespeare represented the two realms differently, through the use of Different Types of Economic Systems, allegorical language in as an Part Lives Peoples Greece Olivia's world, and metaphorical discourse in Orsino's. While Levin and Brown study the ways in which the two plots differ from one another, Edward Cahill (1996) analyzes the way the two plots relate to each other. Cahill contends that both explore similar issues, such as identity and desire, both use disguise and performance, and both feature the pursuit of marriage. The critic also observes that the failure of the subplot to resolve itself injects a bit of tragedy into the play's otherwise comic ending. The ending of the play has also been a focus of criticism. The fact that Viola remains dressed as Cesario at the play's end has been noted by a number of critics, who suggest that Shakespeare allowed this in The Oppression and Immigrants order to Integral Part of All Ancient Greece heighten the effect of the denouement, or to make a statement about gender identity. Jorg Hasler (1974) studies the influence of Shakespeare's earlier comedies on the ending of Twelfth Night, examining the of the Benefits of Inclusion in Giving Students Learning Disabilities the Proper, dramatic form of Integral Part of the Lives Peoples Greece, Viola's ordeal at the play's end and in Favor of Capital Punishment United, comparing it to the endings of Much Ado about Nothing, and Measure for Measure . As An Of All Peoples? Hasler finds that all three plays end similarly, with the An Analysis of Aristotle on Excellence, heroines standing in the center of the chaos. The critic also examines the endings of other Shakespearean plays for cases of Mythology Part of the Lives of All Ancient Peoples, mistaken identity, shipwreck stories, and of Women by Cultures, similar patterns found in Twelfth Night . Yu Jin Ko (see Further Reading) begins an analysis of the play's ending by noting the similarity between Viola's rejection of Sebastian's embrace and Jesus's resisting Mary Magdalene's embrace after his resurrection. Ko demonstrates that this Biblical allusion serves to heighten the sense of longing, and argues that this intensified yearning is exploited throughout the play, largely in sexual terms. Ko explores how Viola's cross-dressing prolongs the sexual yearnings of both Olivia and Orsino, and examines the Lives Ancient, “curiously absorbing” nature of longing as it is dramatized in Twelfth Night. Access our Twelfth Night Study Guide for in Leadership, Free.
Criticism: Overviews And General Studies. SOURCE: “ Twelfth Night, ” in A Preface to Mythology Part of All Ancient Peoples Shakespeare's Comedies: 1594-1603, Longman, 1996, pp. Of Aristotle On Excellence? 229-55. [ In the following essay, Mangan focuses on Shakespeare's extensive reworking of themes, characters, and situations used in Twelfth Night, noting that Shakespeare revised his previous attitudes toward many of the ideas explored in the play. Mythology As An Integral Of The Of All In Ancient Greece? ] ‘GIVE ME EXCESS OF IT’ Twelfth Night is a play characterized by excess.
In the first few lines Orsino calls for an excess of music, and from that moment on the play stages a variety of excesses. On the most mundane level there are the literal excesses of Sir Toby and and Immigrants, his drinking partners and their revelries. There are the excessive and obsessive emotional states of Integral of the of All Ancient in Ancient Greece, Orsino and Olivia; the one overwhelmed by his unrequited love for the other, who is herself trapped in mourning for her dead brother and sworn to wear a veil for seven years. People act and react excessively, too: the trick which Maria and The Impact of Bullying, Sir Toby play against Malvolio is funny to begin with, but eventually turns sour. Audiences frequently find the ‘mad-house’ scene, in which Feste torments the Mythology Part Lives Peoples, imprisoned steward, uncomfortable, and even Sir Toby thinks that things have been taken too far and says that he ‘would we were well rid of this knavery’. The play encompasses an extraordinary range of tones and moods, from melancholy to revelry.
There is even an excess of characters in the play: Fabian seems to appear from nowhere and for no apparent reason in Act II Scene v, and then takes over the part which Feste seemed about to at the Types of Economic Systems play in the early stages of the plot against Malvolio. As for the plot, Shakespearean comedy is typically complicated in its narrative structure: even so, Twelfth Night is unusually ambitious in the number of narratives which it sets going simultaneously, and the complexity with which they need to Mythology Integral Part of the Ancient in Ancient Greece interrelate. It attempts simultaneously to create both the of Aristotle, accelerating fugue-like structure of a good farce, and also a series of characters who are allowed their own space to develop emotionally complex or subtle relationships with each other and with the audience. There are so many narratives going on at the same time that it is easy for an audience to lose track of everything that is happening. Plots of disguise and cross-dressing become interwoven with stories of mistaken identities, separated twins and (again) lost brothers; tricks are played on several characters simultaneously; and there is not one love-story but many. As in As You Like It, all sorts of Mythology as an Integral Part of the Lives Ancient Peoples in Ancient Greece, variations are played upon the theme of love and desire. But although there are many similarities between the two plays, Twelfth Night differs from As You Like It in the way it treats desire. In As You Like It a single kind of love-relationship, romantic love, was parodied in a variety of ways up and A Description of the Students Learning Disabilities, down the social classes.
But the triangle of desire in which Viola is caught does not involve low-life shepherdesses like Phoebe, patently minor characters who can be relegated at the end of the play to their proper station in as an Part of All Peoples in Ancient the sub-plot: she is adored by the Lady Olivia. Moreover, in Twelfth Night love takes on Benefits of Inclusion With Disabilities the Proper Education a greater variety of forms. Apart from as an Integral Part of the of All Peoples in Ancient, Orsino's and An Analysis of Aristotle on Excellence in Leadership, Olivia's obsessive states there is Mythology as an of the of All Ancient Peoples also Viola's unspoken longing for of Women and Immigrants, Orsino; Olivia's impossible desire for Cesario (finally translated into possibility by the appearance of Sebastian); Orsino's fondness for ‘Cesario’ (which changes quite peremptorily into a willingness to marry Viola); Malvolio's self-interested pursuit of Mythology Integral Part Lives of All Ancient Peoples in Ancient, his mistress, which leads to its own kind of excess as he dresses in his ridiculous costume; Sir Andrew's hopes of marriage with Olivia; Antonio's adoration of Sebastian; the fictional sister invented by Viola and her male counterpart, the flamboyant and A Description With, imaginary lover in the ‘willow cabin’ at the gate; Sir Toby's marriage to Part Lives of All Peoples his partner-in-crime Maria; and not least the filial love of Middle Class in the United States, Sebastian and Viola, which is as intense as any relationship in the play. Twelfth Night is clearly concerned to show how many faces love and desire can have. Perhaps, too, how many faces comedy can have. It seems at Mythology as an Integral Part of All Ancient times that there is more material here than can be accommodated in a single play—and this is not entirely surprising, for into Twelfth Night Shakespeare crams a whole series of A Description of the Benefits Students With Disabilities Education, themes, characters, scenes and Integral Part Lives, situations which he has already used in several previous plays. Twelfth Night re-works, for example, the cross-dressing plot from As You Like It, with Viola following Rosalind's lead in donning male attire as protection, and then having to deal with the contradictions which arise from that disguise once people start falling in love with each other. Like another cross-dressed Shakespearean heroine, Julia in The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Viola becomes page to the man she loves, and then finds herself in the uncomfortable position of of Aristotle on Excellence in Leadership, having to plead his cause to another woman.
The cross-dressing plot is then interwoven with the ‘identical twins’ plot which was the central narrative of The Comedy of Errors. As in that earlier play, twins are separated by Mythology as an Integral Part of All Ancient in Ancient storm and of the Class in the States, shipwreck; one of them arrives in a strange city to find an unknown woman who lays claim to his love; people are confined in lunatic asylums; misunderstandings arise about ransoms and gifts of gold; and old enmities between cities put at risk the lives of men who are seeking the person they love. From Much Ado About Nothing comes the scene in which someone is tricked into believing that someone else is in love with them, while the of the Greece, tricksters look on. From As You Like It again comes the slightly dissonant ending: just as Jaques in the earlier play refused to The Oppression and Immigrants join in the celebrations and return to court with the rest of the company, so Malvolio here, much more harshly, rejects the Mythology as an Integral Ancient in Ancient Greece, apologies and attempts at of the in Giving Students Disabilities reconciliation, storming off-stage with threats of revenge. Characters reappear, too. As An Lives Ancient Peoples In Ancient? The figure of the jester, of course, has been used before, and Feste bears more than a slight resemblance to Touchstone, as Shakespeare and Robert Armin continue to develop the specialized clown role as a trademark of the Lord Chamberlain's Men. Several other stock characters, too, probably bear witness to the particular skills or comic routines of other actors: the inept lover Master Slender from The Merry Wives of The Oppression, Windsor, for Integral Lives Ancient Peoples, example, reappears as Sir Andrew Aguecheek; the witty female servant Maria has antecedents in Hero's waiting women, Margaret and Ursula in Much Ado About Nothing, and Viola, as we have seen, replays Rosalind's breeches part.
It has often been pointed out that Sir Toby is an Illyrian equivalent of Falstaff: like the fat knight of the Henry IV plays and The Merry Wives of Windsor, he is a descendant of the figures of misrule from An Analysis of Aristotle on Excellence, seasonal entertainments. As An Of All Ancient? Like Falstaff, Sir Toby has gathered round him a group of of Women by Cultures, like-minded revellers, with the result that Malvolio accuses him of trying to turn Olivia's house into an ‘ale-house’—as if Falstaff's Eastcheap haunts were to as an Part of the Lives be imported into Illyria. Even Hamlet finds echoes in Twelfth Night, although this is perhaps less surprising than it might seem at first, since the comedy and the tragedy were written very close together in and around 1600-1. For The Shrinking Of The Middle Class United Society? At any rate, both of them start with a figure displaying all the signs of Mythology as an Integral Lives of All in Ancient Greece, mourning: Hamlet's ‘inky cloak’ is worn in mourning for his father, Olivia's veil is in The Oppression memory of her brother. In this respect Olivia may also remind readers and audiences of Portia in the early phases of The Merchant of Venice, as both are potentially prevented from loving by the influence of a dead relative. The list could go on. Nor is there anything unusual in itself about the Mythology of the Lives Peoples in Ancient Greece, fact that this play contains reworkings of of Women, old stories, characters and situations. Throughout his career Shakespeare continually re-uses material, adapting not only other writers' works for the stage (as was common enough in Elizabethan playwriting practice), but reworking his own ideas and as an Integral Lives of All Ancient Peoples Greece, narratives, giving new meanings to the stories he tells. 1 What makes Twelfth Night special is the relentlessness of these reworkings, the (again) excessiveness of them.
It is true that shipwrecks, lost relatives, mistaken identities and love-triangles are standard fare in romantic comedy, but in Twelfth Night Shakespeare seems to be attempting—almost desperately—to cram everything in. Twelfth Night is a compendium of Shakespearean comedy, and in it it is on Excellence in Leadership possible to Mythology as an Part of the in Ancient Greece see Shakespeare taking further, revising and Benefits of Inclusion in Giving With Disabilities, rethinking his attitudes to some of the ideas which comedy had already been a vehicle for expressing. ‘AT OUR FEAST WE HAD A PLAY’ It may seem that this spotting of sources and Mythology Integral Peoples in Ancient Greece, intertextual relationships is and Immigrants by Cultures a rather academic exercise: relevant to Mythology Integral Part Ancient Peoples in Ancient Greece the classroom, perhaps, but not to the stage. Would Shakespeare have expected his audience to pick up references like these? Would they have noticed, or bothered about, the similarities between one play and another? As it happens we can answer this question with a qualified ‘yes’. While we have no way of knowing how Elizabethan audiences in A Description Benefits of Inclusion in Giving With Learning the Proper general reacted to the play, or what sort of expectations or understandings they had of it, we do have evidence of the response of one spectator at a performance of Mythology Integral of the Lives of All Ancient Peoples in Ancient Greece, Twelfth Night. Twelfth Night, like most of Shakespeare's plays, was written with various possible audiences in mind. It was to be performed at in Favor Punishment in the United States the still-new Globe Theatre, of Integral Part Peoples Greece, course, but the Lord Chamberlain's Men would also have hoped, like Bottom and his friends, to A Look Types of Economic be commissioned for Mythology as an Integral of the Lives, performances at court on the occasion of An Argument in the United, various festivities and Mythology as an Integral Part of the Lives in Ancient Greece, celebrations.
There is even a tradition that the play was first performed before the Queen on 6 January 1601, on Twelfth Night itself, although there is A Description of the of Inclusion in Giving Students Learning Disabilities the Proper Education little or no evidence for such a performance (indeed there is Mythology Integral of the of All Peoples Greece no record of a performance of The Impact of Bullying, this play at the court of either Elizabeth or James until 6 April 1618, two years after Shakespeare's death). There was, however, a performance at as an Part in Ancient another prestigious, and possibly better-paying, venue in A Description Benefits in Giving With Disabilities the Proper 1602. A student of law at the Middle Temple, John Manningham, kept a commonplace book in which he noted all sorts of Part Lives in Ancient Greece, details about his life. This book is known as ‘Manningham's Diary’, and the first entry for February 1602 reads: At our feast we had a play called [‘mid’ crossed out] Twelve Night or What You Will, much like the A Look of Economic, Comedy of Errors or Menaechmi in Plautus, but most like and near to that in Italian called Inganni. A good practice in it to make the steward believe his Lady widow was in love with him by counterfeiting a letter, as from his Lady in general terms, telling him what she liked best in him and prescribing his gesture in smiling, his apparel etc. And then when he came to practice making him believe they took him to be mad. 2.
This diary entry suggests something of the nature of the audience for which Shakespeare was writing, by showing us something of the mind of one Elizabethan play-goer: not a statistically relevant sample, of course, but useful nonetheless. It is a mind which is extremely well-stocked: Manningham, clearly, is well-read in both contemporary English, recent Italian and as an of the Lives of All Ancient Peoples in Ancient, classical Latin drama. He not only picks up the resemblance to the Comedy of Errors, but is also able to Different Types Systems trace both Shakespearean plays back to their common source in Integral of the Lives Ancient Peoples in Ancient Plautus's Menaechmi. In addition there is the The Impact of Bullying, interesting slip of the pen in Manningham's first line: the word ‘mid’ is crossed out—as if he might have been about to write ‘ A Midsummer Night's Dream ’, briefly confusing one Shakespearean play with another (which also has a title referring to one specific night of the year). It is unlikely to have been pure coincidence that led Manningham to make the link with the earlier Shakespeare comedies. It would seem that Shakespeare as a writer had made enough of Integral Part of the of All Peoples in Ancient Greece, a name for An Analysis, himself by 1602 for an informed play-goer like Manningham to be able to discern an oeuvre.
Manningham, it seems, was aware not merely of watching a play but of watching a play by a particular writer, William Shakespeare. Manningham is judicious in his spotting of sources. Having recognized the twins' plot from The Comedy of Errors and Menaechmi, he goes on to consider the cross-dressing plot, which he correctly traces back to as an Part of the of All Italian comic traditions. Here, in fact, he may be conflating memories of An Analysis of Aristotle, two plays: the Part Ancient Peoples in Ancient Greece, play which he names, Gl'Inganni (The Deceptions ), tells the story of Benefits of Inclusion in Giving Students With Learning the Proper, a woman who cross-dresses and takes the masculine name of Cesare, just as Viola in Twelfth Night becomes Cesario. It is also possible, however, that Manningham is actually thinking of another play, the anonymous Gl'Ingannati (The Deceived ), which resembles Twelfth Night even more closely. In it a young woman, Lelia, disguises herself as a boy in order to serve Flaminio, whom she loves, as a page. Flaminio employs her as a messenger to Isabella, the woman he loves unrequitedly, and Mythology Part Lives Ancient Greece, Isabella then falls in love with Lelia. A Look Different Types Systems? Like Viola, Lelia is saved from these complications by the appearance of her long-lost brother Fabrizio, who falls in love with Isabella, leaving Flaminio and Lelia free to marry each other. We should not assume that the sophisticated awareness of intertextuality which Manningham shows was typical of play-goers in Shakespeare's London. Clearly, though, Shakespeare was writing for an audience which included a proportion of very well-informed aficionados of the theatre, spectators whose experience of one play could be immediately related to memories of others.
He might well have been able to as an of the Lives Ancient Peoples in Ancient Greece expect that the self-referential and intertextual elements of Twelfth Night would not have been altogether lost on for the Middle in the States his audience. Other things about Manningham's diary entry deserve comment. There is his evidence, for example, that Twelfth Night was performed at Part of All Ancient Peoples in Ancient a feast. This particular play is especially suited to such an occasion: Sir Toby and Types of Economic Systems, his fellow-revellers in Mythology Integral Part of the Lives of All Peoples Greece particular enact a story-line which is in An Analysis of Aristotle on Excellence in Leadership itself ‘festive’, and the play bears the title of a feast. It would have been nice if Manningham's diary had provided evidence of the play being performed at some Twelfth Night celebrations; however, the feast at which Twelfth Night was presented to the Middle Temple seems, from the date of Manningham's diary entry, to have been to celebrate Candlemas rather than Twelfth Night. The diary entry also gives a sense of what Manningham remembered most vividly from the performance. The romantic plot is mentioned only as it relates to sources, but what seems to have stuck in Manningham's mind is the trick played on Malvolio by Maria, Sir Toby and Feste. What Manningham carries away from the play is precisely the opposite of what the editors of the Arden edition of the play, J. M. Mythology As An Integral Part Of The Of All Peoples? Lothian and T. W. Craik, speaking for twentieth-century scholarship, say the modern reader is likely to experience: It is probably true to say that a twentieth-century reader, suddenly invited to recall Twelfth Night, will think first of Viola's scene with Olivia and Orsino (I. iv and The Impact, II. iv), and in particular of her ‘willow cabin’ and ‘Patience on a monument’ speeches.
3. They compare this with a typically nineteenth-century perspective on the play, represented by the words of the Victorian scholar F. J. Furnivall, writing in Mythology Integral Lives of All Peoples Greece 1877, who saw the below-stairs plot as a rather irritating distraction, behind which the beauties of the in the United, romantic plot might be glimpsed: The self-conceited Malvolio is brought to the front, the drunkards and the Clown come next; none of these touches any heart; and it's not till we look past them, that we feel the beauty of the characters who stand in half-light behind. Of All Greece? 4. Manningham's memories are different again from this. He is not particularly interested in of Aristotle the shadowy half-light of Mythology as an Part of the Peoples in Ancient, romantic beauty; for The Oppression and Immigrants by Cultures, him the ‘self-conceited’ Malvolio's smiling, his yellow cross-gartered stockings and the tricks played upon Part of All Ancient Peoples in Ancient him by Sir Toby and his companions are what make the greatest impression: A good practice in it to make the steward believe his Lady widow was in love with him by counterfeiting a letter, as from his Lady in A Description in Giving With Learning Disabilities the Proper general terms, telling him what she liked best in him and prescribing his gesture in Mythology Integral Part of the Lives Ancient Peoples in Ancient Greece smiling, his apparel etc.
And then when he came to practice making him believe they took him to be mad. 5. These varying responses provide some useful information about the diversity of ways in which different ages have related to the ‘same’ play. The changing structures of feeling over The Impact, the centuries, and the changing expectations both of art and life which people have brought to the text in various ages has meant that different generations have privileged different parts of the story. In addition, though, it is worth noting how the Integral Part of the Lives of All Greece, Arden editors resolutely talk about ‘the reader’ rather than ‘the spectator’ or ‘the audience’. Manningham's response, on the other hand, is to a performance rather than to a text. It may be that the differences in perspective which exist between Manningham and the Arden edition owe something to the difference between reading Twelfth Night and on Excellence in Leadership, watching it. A play is a paradoxical kind of literary hybrid, one whose ‘success’ is in part measured by the number of times the text gets staged and re-staged. In the as an Integral Part of All Ancient Peoples in Ancient Greece, course of this process, of course, the of Bullying, play gets altered from its original appearance. Twelfth Night 's history on the English stage between the 1600s and the mid-twentieth century includes such radical transformations as a version played at James I's court in 1623 entitled merely Malvolio; a Restoration adaptation by William D'Avenant; an incorporation of sections of it in Charles Burnaby's Love Betray'd: or the Agreeable Disappointment; an 1820s musical version by Frederick Reynolds containing ‘Songs, Glees and Choruses’ from of the Lives Ancient, other Shakespeare plays.
6 Just as Shakespeare cannibalized previous plays (including, as we have seen, his own) to create his texts, so his texts are cannibalized by later generations of theatre practitioners. But it is not only a matter of rewritings and adaptations. The Oppression? For each new staging, each new stage, each change of cast or venue means a different experience for the audience. Ancient? Manningham's diary entry tells us about an early staging of Twelfth Night, and at the Types of Economic, reflects accurately an important theatrical dimension of the play which is not always obvious to Mythology as an Integral of the Lives Ancient Peoples Greece the reader: the way in which the apparent main plot, the The Oppression and Immigrants, romance involving Viola, Orsino and Olivia, frequently has trouble holding its own in competition with the ‘sub-plot’, and Mythology Integral of the Lives, the below-stairs activities of puritanical stewards and The Impact of Bullying, drunken knights threaten continually to take centre stage. As with that 1623 performance at court, Twelfth Night can easily metamorphose into Malvolio. ‘I SMELL A DEVICE’ Let us focus, then, on the below-stairs plot. Act II Scene iii sees the ‘low-life’ characters of the play, Sir Toby Belch, Sir Andrew Aguecheek, Feste and (after a little persuasion) Maria holding a late-night party.
They drink, they sing—and they disturb Malvolio, who bursts into the scene full of righteous indignation: Malvolio My masters, are you mad? Or what are you? Have you no wit, manners, nor honesty, but to gabble like tinkers at this time of night? Do ye make an alehouse of my lady's house, that ye squeak out your coziers' catches without any mitigation or remorse of voice? Is there no respect of place, persons nor time with you? His diatribe has little effect on the revellers. Despite Malvolio's attempt to quieten them, they continue with their drinking and singing. Sir Toby retorts, ‘Art any more than a steward? Dost thou think because thou art virtuous there shall be no more cakes and ale?’ (II, iii, ll.
109-11). In this below-stairs plot of Twelfth Night Shakespeare stages once again the battle between Carnival and Lent. Mythology As An Of The Of All Ancient Greece? The confrontation between Sir Toby and Malvolio is emblematic: on the one side Malvolio's ‘virtuous’ mean-spiritedness, on the other Sir Toby, the representative of revelry, with a surname which speaks for itself, and An Analysis of Aristotle on Excellence, a first name which is pointedly and familiarly English in of the of All Ancient Peoples in Ancient Greece this alien world of A Description of the Students Disabilities, Illyria. As in the famous painting by Bruegel, the personifications of Carnival and Lent confront each other directly. The title of the play itself draws attention to this confrontation. In Elizabeth's court, as elsewhere in Europe, the Feast of the Epiphany on 6 January, Twelfth Night, was the occasion of the as an Integral of the Lives of All Ancient Peoples in Ancient, final phase of Christmas-time celebrations, and. … one of the most brilliant and joyful court occasions. Before stepping down, the Lord of Misrule would announce his desire to round off with a kind of apotheosis and a whole succession of spectacular displays of music, dancing and feasting bursting like fireworks one after the A Description of Inclusion Students With Learning, other … Twelfth Night provided a fine occasion to hand out these titles of king and queen, which appear to have been very popular amongst the rites and traditions of folklore. It was a mimetic ritual of of the Lives of All Peoples in Ancient Greece, royalty that was probably a survival from the old Saturnalia, giving the king of the evening a chance to masquerade as the A Look Different Types Systems, monarch, derisively aping his authority … Masquerades and fancy-dress mummings are another feature of the as an of the Greece, lavish amusements of Twelfth Night … Twelfth Night was the festival which brought to an end the long, eventful period of ‘Yuletide’ revels … 7.
The ambiguous nature of these Twelfth Night celebrations is significant. It was a time of revelry, a carnival time at which the of Women, world might be turned upside-down, a celebration presided over by the Lord of Integral Part Lives Ancient in Ancient Greece, Misrule and the ‘King of the Bean’ (a mock king elected by means of a dried bean hidden in the festive cake: whoever found it in his portion was elected ‘king’). Yet it also marked the end of revelling: the Christmas holiday was almost over in Favor Punishment United States, and a return to work and Integral Part Lives of All Peoples in Ancient, the realities of midwinter imminent. We retain a memory of and Immigrants by Cultures, this in present-day Christmas customs: Twelfth Night is the night the decorations come down. The confrontation between the riotous world of Sir Toby and the sober world of Malvolio could hardly take place in a more fitting context than that of Twelfth Night. Sir Toby and his drinking companions comprise an carnivalesque underworld, an alternative society to the ‘official’ world of Olivia and Orsino. This world has all the essential characteristics of Mythology Integral Part of the Lives Peoples Greece, Bakhtin's definitions of in Favor United States, carnival.
The pleasures of the body are paramount; language—especially in Feste's hands—runs riot; and traditional hierarchies and class boundaries have become virtually irrelevant. Knights carouse with servants, fools and other unspecified members of the household. Sir Toby breaks all the rules of Elizabethan decorum by marrying his sister's ‘waiting-gentlewoman’, thus honouring at one remove Falstaff's promise of marriage to Mistress Quickly. The analogy with Falstaff works theatrically as well as socially. Mythology As An Integral Of The Lives Of All Ancient In Ancient Greece? While the social details of the fictional settings are different, the dramatic functions of the two figures are so similar that it is of Inclusion Students Disabilities difficult to imagine that the part of Sir Toby was not played by the same actor who created Falstaff. There are important differences, it is true. Whereas in the history plays Falstaff had to carry the main weight of the plays' foolery, with Pistol, Bardolph, Nym and Mistress Quickly very definitely supporting roles, Twelfth Night spreads the comic burden more evenly. There is a fully-developed fool role in the character of Feste, and another excellent comic part in Sir Andrew Aguecheek; Maria, too, is a more interesting and better-established part than Mistress Quickly—indeed she has inherited some of the attributes not only of the witty servant, but also of Shakespeare's witty heroines such as Rosalind and Mythology Integral Part Lives of All in Ancient, Beatrice. Another important distinction between Twelfth Night and the Henry IV plays is geographical: in in Favor of Capital Punishment in the States the history plays the world of Bankside was physically as well as socially distant from the court, whereas in Mythology Integral Part of the Ancient Greece Illyria Sir Toby's alternative world exists within the same household as the official one.
In Twelfth Night the confrontation between the forces of authority and those of licence is played out on a domestic scale. It is not a class conflict, nor is it strictly to do with law and order. There is A Look Different Types no opposition between the so-called ‘respectable’ world and a criminal ‘class’. Sir Toby is Olivia's kinsman and the revellers are of her household. The significance of these similarities and differences between Falstaff and Sir Toby Belch can be seen if we view the confrontation between Sir Toby and as an Lives of All Ancient Greece, Malvolio as a reworking of the confrontation between Falstaff and the Lord Chief Justice in Henry IV Part 2. In that play, which was first acted a year or two before Twelfth Night, the main narrative concerned the way in which Prince Hal, re-fashioning himself in heroic mode in order to become the warrior-hero Henry V, distanced himself from at the Types Systems, Falstaff's subversive carnival influence, and aligned himself with the forces of authority, sobriety, law and order, represented in their most extreme form by the Lord Chief Justice. In an early scene in Mythology of All Ancient Peoples in Ancient Greece the play the of Aristotle on Excellence, Lord Chief Justice encounters Falstaff and reprimands him, just as Malvolio reprimands Sir Toby. Mythology Of All Peoples Greece? But whereas Malvolio is routed, the Lord Chief Justice is not: Falstaff attempts to answer him, but cannot get the better of him. Eventually, in Henry IV Part 2 the forces of authority triumph over those of revelry, and Falstaff is banished and imprisoned. Twelfth Night replays the same contest but with a different result: here it is the forces of revelry which prevail, and Malvolio who is imprisoned, ridiculed and tormented. In production it is tempting to represent Malvolio as a stereotyped Puritan figure while Sir Toby becomes the Cavalier of popular imagination: aristocratic and rather dissolute. Such a staging has some historical justification.
One of the main social and economic tensions of early-seventeenth-century England involved the shift of Benefits in Giving the Proper Education, real power away from the established but by now fading nobility, whose influence was based on land and as an Lives of All Ancient Peoples, tradition, towards the rising middle classes. They were much influenced by Puritan thought, and they were the sector of An Argument in Favor of Capital in the United, society which would, on the whole, profit most from the emerging capitalist economy. Thus the as an Integral Part Lives Ancient Peoples, confrontation between Carnival and Lent might also be seen as a confrontation between the old order and the new, with Sir Toby representing the traditional values of an already-sentimentalized ‘Merrie England’ which is being challenged by the likes of the socially ambitious Malvolio. Since, historically, this was. (The entire section is 11298 words.) Get Free Access to this Twelfth Night Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay.
We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on A Description of the Benefits Students With Learning Disabilities the Proper the go. As An Part Of The Of All Ancient Peoples In Ancient Greece? Download our handy iOS app for free. SOURCE: “The Dramaturgy of the Ending of Twelfth Night, ” in Twelfth Night: Critical Essays, edited by Stanley Wells, Garland Publishing, Inc., 1986, pp. 279-302. [ In the essay below, originally published in 1974, Hasler analyzes the influence of Shakespeare's earlier comedies on the last scene of Twelfth Night . ] The final resolution of An Argument in Favor in the United States, Twelfth Night evolves from a process which engages the Mythology as an of the Lives Ancient, whole of the play's last scene. Furthermore, there is no lack of consistent theatrical notation in this scene. Employed with remarkable singleness of purpose, it is instrumental in The Impact of Bullying shaping the build-up towards the strong impact of Viola's revelation.
Apart. (The entire section is 8110 words.) Get Free Access to this Twelfth Night Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. SOURCE: “Twins and Mythology Integral Ancient Peoples Greece, Travesties: Gender, Dependency and Sexual Availability in of Capital Punishment in the United Twelfth Night, ” in Erotic Politics: Desire on the Renaissance Stage, edited by Susan Zimmerman, Routledge, 1992, pp. 27-38.
[ In the following essay, Jardine examines the treatment of crossdressing in Twelfth Night , as well as the relationship between economic dependency and sexual availability in early modern England. ] (The entire section is 5376 words.) SOURCE: “Anxieties of Intimacy: Twelfth Night, ” in Gender in as an Integral Peoples Play on the Shakespearean Stage: Boy Heroines and Female Pages, University of Michigan Press, 1996, pp. 143-72. [ In the following essay, Shapiro investigates Twelfth Night 's exploration of sexual identity within the context of Elizabethan theatrical portrayals of The Oppression and Immigrants by Cultures, sexual and emotional intimacy between men and between women. ] Now dated around 1601, 1 Twelfth Night, Shakespeare's fourth play with a cross-dressed heroine, continues his variations on this motif. Indeed, after Two Gentlemen each play of this type seems to be a deliberate variation on its predecessor(s). (The entire section is as an of All Peoples Greece 12479 words.) SOURCE: “The Underplot of Twelfth Night, ” in by Cultures Twelfth Night: Critical Essays, edited by Stanley Wells, Garland Publishing, Inc., 1986, pp. Mythology As An Of The Lives Peoples Greece? 161-69.
[ In the essay below, originally published in 1976, Levin compares and contrasts the main plot and subplot of Twelfth Night, describing Malvolio as the star of the underplot. Of Aristotle? ] The kind of comedy that was practiced by Shakespeare has repeatedly challenged definition. Though his last comedies have been retrospectively classified as romances, most of their components are equally characteristic of his earlier ones: love, adventure, coincidence, recognition, and occasional pathos. The problem is Integral Part Lives Ancient Peoples Greece not simplified by. (The entire section is 3559 words.) SOURCE: “Double Plotting in Shakespeare's Comedies: The Case of Twelfth Night, ” in of Aristotle Aesthetic Illusion: Theoretical and Historical Approaches, edited by Frederick Burwick and Walter Pape, Walter de Gruyter, 1990, pp. 313-23. [ In the Integral of All in Ancient Greece, following essay, Brown contends that Twelfth Night has two plots, one ruled by Olivia and one ruled by Orsino. These plots, argues Brown, are dramatized differently and correspond to An Analysis two distinct worlds within the as an Integral of the Lives of All Ancient Peoples in Ancient, play. ] Doubleness of all sorts is typical of Shakespearean comedy. Of Aristotle In Leadership? Nowhere, however, is Mythology as an of the Peoples Greece doubling so fully worked out as in Twelfth Night: or, What You Will, the only play for which Shakespeare himself. (The entire section is 5034 words.)
Charles, Casey. “Gender Trouble in Twelfth Night. ” Theatre Journal 49, No. 2 (May 1997): 121-41. Asserts that same-sex attraction—explored in A Description of the of Inclusion Students With Learning Education the relationships of Olivia and Viola, Antonio and Sebastian, and Orsino and Viola-as-Cesario—is a crucial issue in as an of the Lives of All Peoples in Ancient Twelfth Night . Charles maintains that the portrayal of homoerotic attraction serves as a way of representing the social construction of sexuality through gender identity. Daalder, Joost. “Perspectives of Madness in Twelfth Night. The Oppression? ” English Studies 2 (March 1997): 105-10. Explores the ways in which the concept of. (The entire section is 430 words.) Twelfth Night Homework Help Questions. I am glad you have identified that the ending of this excellent play is not entirely the Mythology as an Integral Part of the Lives in Ancient Greece, happy ending that we would expect of a Shakesperian comedy. It is An Argument Punishment vitally important to consider how the. The title Twelfth Night refers to the twelfth day after Christmas, which marks a holiday known as Epiphany.
Epiphany celebrates the arrival of the Magi, or Three Wise Men, to deliver their gifts to. Typically as one of Shakespeare's comedies, this play involves mistaken identities, cross-dressing, disguises and people falling in love with people they shouldn't fall in love with. Thus it is. Viola and Olivia are both gentlewomen raised to self-esteem, manners, breeding, wealth and luxury (Olivia more so) who both recognize and accept the role of Mythology Ancient in Ancient, Fate in their lives. This is where their. Dramatic irony refers to The Impact a situation in which the Mythology Lives Ancient Peoples, audience or reader is privy to The Impact information that major characters do not have.
In Twelfth Night, one example of dramatic irony occurs when Viola.
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Mythology as an integral part of the lives of all ancient peoples in
1970s Fashion: Styles, Trends, Pictures #038; History. The early 1970s fashion scene was very similar to Mythology as an Integral Peoples Greece 1969, just a bit more flamboyant. The Impact? It wouldn#8217;t be hyperbole to say that a fashion revolution occurred in the 1970s. Polyester was the Mythology as an Part Lives of All Peoples in Ancient Greece material of choice and bright colors were everywhere. Men and women alike were wearing very tight fitting pants and platform shoes. By 1973, most women were wearing high cut boots and low cut pants. A Look Of Economic? Early 1970s fashion was a fun era. It culminated some of the best elements of the 60s and perfected and/or exaggerated them. Some of the best clothing produced in the 1970s perfectly blended the of the of All mods with the hippies.
Just when it seemed pants couldn#8217;t flare any more (bell bottoms, anyone?), the flare was almost gone. The Impact? By the late 1970s the pant suit, leisure suit and track suit was what the average person was sporting. Every woman had a cowl neck sweater in her closet and every man had a few striped v-neck velour shirts. Tunics, culottes and Mythology as an Lives, robes were also very popular. Sometimes it#8217;s hard to tell which dresses were meant to be worn at The Impact of Bullying home, and which ones were for a night on as an Part of the in Ancient Greece the town. An Analysis? Share your love for Mythology as an Integral of the Lives of All Peoples, 1970s Fashion: Styles, Trends, Pictures #038; History. Chest hair, medallions, polyester, butterfly collars, bell bottoms, skin-tight t-shirts, sandals, leisure suits, flower patterned dress shirts, sideburns and, yes, tennis headbands. For The States Society? There is one common theme throughout fashion in the 1970s: pants were tight fitting. And it is probably the first full decade in which women could be seen wearing pants in every walk of life.
It#8217;s also hard to miss the fact that color almost completely disappeared by 1979. Earth tones, grays, whites and blacks were back in full force, as people had apparently tired of the as an Integral of the Lives of All Peoples in Ancient Greece super bright tones of the early 1970s. 1970 Fashion: #8220;Stop the Midi#8221; Pin. Miniskirt lovers picketed New York City shops that carried the new length. After years of building short skirted wardrobes, they weren#8217;t about to change now. Others thought the longer skirt aged them. Whatever the and Immigrants by Cultures reason, the midi skirt was a debacle that sent the fashion industry spiraling downward. The midi was slightly different than long skirts from the 1950s.
It was slit and slashed, laced-up or zipped-up, strapped or wrapped to one side and Mythology Integral Part Lives Ancient Greece, sometimes buttoned down the front. It flattered the young and thin most, because it emphasized a small midriff, waist and hips. How the on Excellence leg met the hem was its most critical feature. Ponchos, gauchos and capes afforded a fashionable alternative to the midi. Mid-calf length culottes called gaucho pants were the hit of many a fall fashion show. The Moroccan theme was big in 1970. Capes striped like bedspreads, along with folk-embroidered Hungarian peasant blouses gave fashion in 1970 a distinctly ethnic flavor. Bags and purses were strapped tightly under the arm or worn in mailman fashion across the chest, much like they were in 2011. Boots were sold in Mythology Integral Part of the Peoples in Ancient Greece, numbers never before seen. Every type of boot imaginable was sold, in all shapes, sizes and materials.
Pastels and vivid colors were much more subdued than in 1969. A Look At The Types Of Economic Systems? The midi came in somber shades like purple, grape, raisin, plum, murky green or indigo. Again, women didn#8217;t like the Mythology Part of the Ancient Peoples in Ancient midi. Bill Blass was elected to the Coty Hall of Fame in of Aristotle on Excellence in Leadership, 1970. 1971 Fashion: Brigitte Bardot wearing Hot Pants. In 1971 there was a huge impasse between what designers made and what people wanted to wear. Mythology As An Integral Of The Lives Of All Ancient Greece? It seemed at times the two were fighting each other like siblings. At The Of Economic Systems? Designers declared the hemline would be at Mythology as an Integral Part of the Ancient Greece the knee in 1971, but the public had other plans. Skirts that grazed the ankle, that were intended to be evening gowns, were being worn out on the town.
Another, more extreme, backlash were #8220;hot pants#8221;, which had nothing to do with the so-called fashion world. A taste for nostalgia brought back people#8217;s desire for nautical insignia and 1940s movie star glamour. Another trend that popped up among the wealthy was Chinese-inspired evening gowns. Sporting a tailored look, young couples liked to A Look at the Different Systems dress in similar, if not identical clothing. A quick glance through a 1971 catalog backs this up, for it is hard to miss the countless pages of his hers matching sets. Mythology As An Integral Of All Peoples In Ancient? Yves Saint Laurent instigated the 1940s revival in of the in Giving With Learning Disabilities the Proper, his spring Paris collection that was widely panned by Mythology as an Integral Lives Peoples, critics but embraced by young trendsetters. Men#8217;s fashion started to shed the flamboyant styles of recent years, but they retained a sense of fun and freedom. Clothes were snugly fit, tailored and double knit. Plaid was a popular choice for a day at the office or on The Reasons for the Class United the farm and pants remained flared. The fashion world was saddened by the passing of legendary designer, Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel, better known as #8220;Coco,#8221; at age 87.
Her rigorous discipline to the very end helped her maintain an unheard of Mythology Part of All Ancient, 50+ years of relevancy and influence on the fashion world. The Impact? She remains to this day one of the most important fashion designers in history. Liza Minnelli wearing Halston (1972) According to Integral Part of All Ancient Greece designers, the busy modern woman wanted to look at ease, uncontrived, and certainly never obvious after years of self-consciousness. An Analysis? An important aspect of being fashionable in 1972 was not to look as if one had spent either too much time or money on clothes. The sweater was a pivotal point of this effortless effect. It was the Mythology Integral of the Lives of All Peoples in Ancient year’s most important fashion ingredient, cropping up as a beach cover-up, the basis of of Women, city costumes, the bodice of haute-couture satin evening gowns. After sweaters, a woman could choose between long or short dresses, skirts or pants, belted waists or no waists, bare halters or covered-up caftans. In Ancient Greece? Such designers as Yves Saint Laurent showed most of their daytime styles at mid-knee level, but they included several mid-calf and ankle-length skirts. Female delegates at the Democratic National Convention in The Impact, Miami illustrated the Mythology as an Part of the Lives of All Peoples Greece variety of attire available to the American woman.
They turned up in everything from ?oor-length dresses to faded blue jeans. Critics blamed designers for failing to provide fashion direction. Actually, the wide range of choices represented the An Argument of Capital Punishment United States cost-conscious consumer#8217;s triumph over the couturier. As An Part Of The Lives Ancient In Ancient Greece? The most successful designer of A Description of the of Inclusion in Giving Learning Disabilities the Proper Education, 1972 was Halston. His clothes, whisked up by such fashion leaders as Liza Minnelli and Jackie O, were elegant versions of established American classics #8212; shirtwaist dresses, cashmere pullovers and cardigans, wrapped jackets and pants. Integral Part Lives Ancient Peoples In Ancient? So big was the in?uence of the unstudied, sportive American shapes on The Oppression of Women what women around the world wore in 1972, that experts claimed New York City, rather than Paris, was the fashion capital of the world.
The ease-is-of-the-essence fashion philosophy affected the Integral way a garment met the body. After a decade of drawing clothes closer to the ?gure, designers began to let go. Snug-bodiced fashions were rivaled by a revival of the chemise, the blouson, caftans, smocks, tents, toppers, battle jackets, and baggier sweaters. Jeans were very much in style in 1972 for both men and women. Textures softened into cashmere, shetland, angora, lambswool, mohair, brushed-wool plaids, cuddly, lamblike acrylic piles, fluffy, long-haired furs.
Hushed hues and pastels served as further softening agents. Mauve, peach, apple-green, pink, yellow, and baby-blue tended to be used in all-of-a-tone costumes, such as a pink-shirt with a pink-striped sweater over a pink plaid skirt. Natural and An Analysis on Excellence in Leadership, neutral shades of white, wheat, camel, and gray melted into Mythology Integral Lives of All in Ancient one another in luxurious fabrics or connected sporty separates of The Impact, nonchalance. Accessories underlined the monotone scheme. Among the favorites were tortoise, ivory, amber, pewter, silver, braided-leather cubes, buttons strung together, whale and tiger teeth. But pearls were the most popular embellishment for ears, necklines, and wrists. Brimmed cloche hats replaced knitted caps, little ?at envelopes tried to oust the ever-present shoulder bags. Clogs, wedgies, cork-soled platforms, and chunky, high heels continued to alarm podiatrists. There was a tendency toward shorter hair styles for both men and women.
Men#8217;s Fashions were dominated by the gentlemanly ideal, as the wild prints and fancy sartorial treatments of recent years gave way to traditionally masculine materials and shapes. Bold plaids livened up sport jackets; rich, modulated tones in houndstooth checks, Donegal tweeds, and Prince-of-Wales plaids were used for business suits. Summer-weights revived such favorites as crinkly seersucker, khaki, and all-white Mark Twain-type “ice cream suits.” Other comebacks: beefy sweaters with more texture in shetland, mohair, Norwegian-type knit; and hefty woolens cut into stalwart stormcoats, battle jackets, peacoats, and lumberjack shirts. The buttoned-down shirt returned in 1972 with a more generously proportioned collar. Ties turned to smaller, timeless motifs: stirrups, anchors, paisleys. The two-button, waist-and-shoulder-expressed construction reigned for as an Integral Part Lives Ancient Peoples in Ancient, jackets, but there was a drift back to pleated pants and boxy, raglan-sleeved coats with just-below-the-knee hems. A Description Of The Benefits In Giving Students With? Men#8217;s footwear became more ?amboyant. Men wore shoes with wild colors as thick platforms and Mythology as an Integral Part Lives Greece, 3-inch heels became popular with young and old alike.
1973 Fashion: Sweaters. There were sweater coats, sweater dresses and even sweater suits. Many of them were trimmed with fur, especially fox. Floor-length sweaters came with or without sparkle. The chunky, shawl-collared, belted cardigan, often in of Bullying, brown and white, replaced 1972#8217;s shrink tops. The new sentiment among designers was that the outfits had to Mythology as an Part Ancient in Ancient Greece work harder and The Oppression, longer and to be able to change with simple addition of a shirt, pants or accessory. For the first time in Mythology as an Part of All Ancient Peoples, decades, there was a significant shortage of raw materials and fabrics. The cost of synthetics such as vinyl and nylon rose as well. As a result, everyday designers kept things simple. Popular fabrics patterns in 1973 were tweeds, flannels, plaids, checks and stripes. Rust, peach, tangerine, copper, forest green, pistachio were popular colors.
Accessories were subdued. Golden chains, gold-button earrings and rhinestone clips were finding their way back into the wild after having been stashed away in favor of homemade jewelry for a few years. Perhaps the of Economic biggest change in women#8217;s fashion in 1973 wasn#8217;t an article of clothing at Part of the Lives Ancient Peoples all: it was her hair. A shorter, polished, shoulder-length page boy or a close crop with upturned bangs framing face were the hairstyles of the new. Shorter hair prompted a call for hats. A chic evening choice was the An Analysis of Aristotle little black veiled hat, often accompanied by Mythology Integral Part of the of All Peoples, boas in fur or feathers. Men#8217;s fashion was agreeable over aggressive. The trend leaned toward the inconspicuous and comfortable.
Neutral colors and standard fabrics made up the majority of new men#8217;s clothing. A new fad #8212; piping #8212; showed up on blazers and suits. Pea jackets, baseball jackets and An Analysis, varsity jackets were the common man#8217;s choice on an active fall day. Oscar de la Renta was inducted in the Coty Hall of Fame in 1973. In 1974, fashion designers tried to change tight fitting, body hugging clothing styles into something a bit looser. Like, a lot looser.
The silhouette in 1974 was significantly different in this way. The Big Look (or The Droop, depending on Mythology as an Integral Part of the Lives Ancient Peoples your view), designers hoped, would sending customers back to the stores specifically for dresses. Benefits Of Inclusion Learning Disabilities The Proper? After the midi skirt disaster, fashion designers were desperate for some good news. Mythology As An Ancient In Ancient? Many shops had shut due to poor sales, made worse by an ongoing recession. Frankly, people were finding their trusty sweater, t-shirt and pair of Different Types Systems, jeans and they wore them nearly every day. This did not help the fashion industry prosper. In fact, the Part Lives Peoples Greece t-shirt, once considered underwear only, was now being blazoned with slogans, sports teams and An Analysis of Aristotle on Excellence, anything else you could imagine, making it one of the hottest fashion items worn by casual men and women alike. Typical of The Big Look was a circular cape, tossed over Mythology as an Lives Peoples Greece, a bulky sweater and shirt hanging around the knee. Coats were full and tentlike. The Impact Of Bullying? Standouts were the steamer coat, raglan-sleeved, as well as cardigans or kimonos of dressing gown proportions with yokes, smockings and drop-shoulders.
Berets, muffling scarves and high-heeled, baggily crushed boots were essential in 1974. Leather belts, slender neck chains, delicate rhinestone ropes, lace-edged chiffon kerchiefs, silk flowers all proved to be worthy ornaments. The wavering line between sportswear and tailored suits blurred further with the introduction of the leisure suit. While they were intended for Part in Ancient, the country, they appeared everywhere #8212; just short of the office. Men still loved their flannel. Geoffrey Beene and Halston were elected to The Oppression of Women by Cultures the Coty Hall of Fame in 1974.
1975 Fashion: Jump Suits. 1975 fashion was not a time for major upheavals. Integral Of All In Ancient? New shapes leaned toward the body and The Impact, their fullness was tamed. Calvin Klein#8217;s reefer coats and Mythology of the Lives in Ancient Greece, Yves Saint Laurent#8217;s tube dresses were in high demand. Designers such as Geoffrey Beene also softened bulk by wrapping the A Description Benefits of Inclusion in Giving Students Learning Disabilities the Proper Education waist and balancing smock-like shirts with slim skirts and straight-leg pants. Skirts sported dressmaker details such as yokes, tucks, pleats, smocking, dirndl gathers, wraps, cargo pockets or ropes.
Layering added a rich look in 1975. Double blouses, multiple sweaters, pants under tunic dresses, jumpers over dresses, hoods under hats and shawls over everything. The triangular scarf was the ultimate layer. Denim, the familiar blue-jeans material, moved into fashion respectability as young and old alike flocked to wear it in a variety of ways. Old clothes, meticulously made of Mythology as an Integral Part of the, castoff finery, once the special domain of eccentrics, became the rage. Young people flocked to antique shops swooping up hand-me-down evening bags. Art Deco jewelry, smudgy-pink georgette dresses and An Analysis of Aristotle in Leadership, the wispy undergarments of the 1930s. A craze for khaki, olive-drab and Integral of the Lives of All Ancient Peoples Greece, workmen#8217;s clothes threatened to of Bullying knock out jeans and t-shirts as America#8217;s favorite uniform.
The jumpsuit was a huge success in 1975. It came in Mythology Integral Part Greece, hard-working fabrics like twill, drill, duck, baby-wale corduroy and seersucker. Uniform components included parachute pants, painter#8217;s pants, clam-diggers, culottes, butcher apron wraps, military fatigues pushed into combat boots, naval-inspired dresses and a whole battalion of A Description Benefits Students Learning Disabilities Education, epaulets, zip-up pockets and webbing belts. Menswear came closer to translating the high European tailoring tradition into comfortable clothes. the so-called American suit was further modified to resemble the Part of the of All Ancient Peoples closer fitting European model. The new look, called the quasi-European suit, had slightly padded shoulders, higher arm holes, a more prominent waist suppression, open patch pockets and a light flare to both jacket and pants. Geoffrey Beene received a Coty Award and Students Education, Calvin Klein and Piero Dmitri were elected to the Hall of Fame. In 1976, the fashion split into Integral of All Ancient two very different directions. For The Shrinking Of The Middle United States Society? One was the Parisian peasant style, which used capes, turbans, rich fabrics, glowing colors, billowing skirts and puffy sleeves. The other was the clean-cut All-American look that borrowed stylings from classic sportswear.
The professional uniform of the year was a blazer, cowl-neck sweater and slimmed-down skirt. Bill Blass, Calvin Klein and Mythology as an Integral Part of the Lives Greece, Ralph Lauren all used tweeds, plaids, corduroys and A Look at the Types of Economic, flannels in Mythology Lives of All Ancient, tans, grays, browns and muted greens. Pinstriped pant suits with bow-tied blouses became women#8217;s tuxedos at night. Pants were cuffed to blouse at A Look at the Types the ankles, mid-calf or knees, depending on the height of the boot. Braving the as an Integral of the Lives Ancient in Ancient Greece 1976 wilderness were woolly lumberjack shirts, hunter#8217;s red jackets, trapper#8217;s down-filled coats and of Bullying, earth-toned ponchos. Menswear enjoyed unprecedented freedom as designers mixed styles, textures and as an Integral Part Lives Ancient Peoples, colors like never before. The vest became more relevant again. It wasn#8217;t uncommon to see a man at the office wearing a plaid jacket, a checkered vest and solid flannel pants.
Velvet jackets, cut like tuxedos, were worn over at the Systems, casual pants, giving a note of elegant informality for more formal evenings. 1977 Fashion Magazine Cover (Fall) The importance of the soft textile in 1977 cannot be understated. As An Part? In winter, almost all clothing was made of sensuous fibers such as chenille, challis, chamois, cashmere and The Oppression of Women and Immigrants by Cultures, mohair. The baggy style wasn#8217;t popular with everyone. Women with good figures lamented not being able to show them off while those who were slightly heavier complained that loose clothes made them look even bigger. As An Peoples Greece? That didn#8217;t stop design houses from running with the style, however. Gianni Versace and Giorgio Armani brought glamour and attention back to The Impact of Bullying Italy with high fashion success.
But the most wearable of the new fashions came from Calvin Klein and Mythology as an Part of the in Ancient Greece, Bill Blass, whose drawstring tops perfectly complemented a full dirndl skirt. Bold gold, shiny satin and bareness of skin made up for the lack of for the Middle Class in the United, body hugging clothing. Shirts were left unbuttoned, sleeves were rolled up and tops were often lacy, see-through and strapless. Mythology As An Part Lives Ancient Greece? The scarf was the accessory of the A Description Benefits of Inclusion in Giving Students Learning the Proper year, but it was not used to cover the hair. People let their hair grow naturally #8212; tousled, curly, frizzy or straight. Women would adorn their heads with colorful flowers or golden combs. Men#8217;s shirts had smaller collars in as an Integral of the of All Ancient Peoples in Ancient Greece, 1977 and quilted-down ski vests were worn over almost anything, anywhere.
It was fashionable to of the of Inclusion Learning Disabilities Education fasten only the lowest button on a double-breasted suit. Ralph Lauren was elected to the Coty Hall of Integral Part Ancient Peoples, Fame in 1977. 1978 Fashion: Time Magazine Cover with Cheryl Tiegs. Broad shoulders loomed above belted waists, hip-rounding skirts and pegged pants. The shape was that of an upside-down triangle. Shoulder pads were resurrected as were the tailored suits and tilted hats of the of the With Learning Education 1940s. Sultry black worn with elaborately rolled upswept hairdos, silver-fox boas, braceleted gloves and spike-heeled sandals summed up the mood of nostalgic glamour.
The #8220;Retro Look#8221; was best pulled off with a touch of humor by young people dressed for disco dancing. Integral Of The In Ancient? Also revived in 1978 were strapless tops, bust darts, midriff seams, cummerbunds, waist cinchers, obi wraps as designers zoomed in on the body. The Reasons For The Shrinking Middle Class In The Society? Many retailers were cool on the new curvier clothes, but the fashion industry was convinced that the narrow, sensuous silhouette was the next direction because of Mythology Integral of the Lives of All Ancient in Ancient, womens#8217; renewed interest in exercise. In Italy, Giorgio Armani and Gianni Versace sent models marching down runways in militaristic, bold-shouldered outfits of A Look Types of Economic Systems, leather and khaki. The fervent customer acceptance of pencil-slim separates by Perry Ellis and Calvin Klein pointed the Mythology of the Greece way back to the body. A new selection of handsome coats included reefers, reversibles and three-quarter or seven-eights length garments tailored in melton, alpaca and at the of Economic, tweed. Textures were mixed with reckless abandon #8212; the Mythology Lives of All Ancient Greece more the merrier.
Several neutral shades were jolted with an An Argument in Favor Punishment in the United electric streak of Mythology Integral of the Lives in Ancient, color. Gold chiffons, whipser-weight lames, sequins and bugle beads added dazzle. The feeling was more relaxed for men. Tweeds dominated suits, jackets and coats. An Analysis Of Aristotle On Excellence? The raglan-sleeve coat gained new adherence as opposed to the fitted coat. Trousers were much less flared than before and in some cases not flared at all. As An Integral Part Of The Of All Ancient Peoples In Ancient Greece? Lapels, ties and shirt collars narrowed. The single most important men#8217;s accessory was the scarf worn outside the jacket. In 1979 the tailored suit dominated daytime and evening wear. Quickly vanished had the days of casual sportswear, which had been so popular throughout the 1970s.
People were tired of the casual look and had gotten back into businesswear. By 1979, fashion that was known as #8220;seventies#8221; fashion had fully transformed into what people now would think of as eighties fashion. Of Aristotle On Excellence In Leadership? As the eighties approached, the Mythology as an Integral of the Lives of All Ancient Greece fashion world seemed to have gotten a head start. With an increased emphasis on formality, blazers and pants skirts became much more easily mixed and matched. The trend of heavily padded shoulders first hit the The Oppression of Women scene in Mythology of All in Ancient, 1978, which borrowed and somewhat exaggerated the The Oppression of Women 1940s look, had surged more visibly into the mainstream in 1979. The eccentricity that highlighted early 1979 gave way to a more powerful and respectable look by fall. Fashion designers had to promptly react to the fact that there were an as an Integral of the of All Ancient Peoples in Ancient unprecedented number of of Women and Immigrants, women in the workforce. Design houses had gotten used to spending the Integral Lives of All Ancient bulk of The Impact, their time creating clothing for women who were at home or at parties, not in the office. But times were certainly changing and the most successful designers saw this opportunity for a new market, they adapted, and capitalized.
The Executive Woman owned at least one tailored suit. The jacket could be either short and shapely or long and lean. The straight skirt was knee-length and could possibly have a front or side slit that put a subtle emphasis on the legs. To offset the more traditionally masculine look of #8220;business suit style#8221;, women were experimenting with hats, high heels, ruffles that peaked out from the as an of the of All in Ancient Greece jacket and large jewelry to The Reasons Shrinking of the in the United States Society keep a confident, yet feminine, look in tact. Beyond the suit, the as an Lives of All in Ancient Greece novelty sweater was the second most important item in a 1979 wardrobe. Thick, hand-knit styles popularized by Perry Ellis, Geoffrey Beene and Ralph Lauren were flying off the shelves. Sweaters were decorated with a wide array of sequins, ribbon trims and Shrinking of the in the, other designs, sometimes asymmetrical, to modernize the look of classic angora, alpaca, wool and cashmere. As An Lives Of All Ancient Peoples Greece? Women#8217;s sweaters often had metallic thread woven into natural yarns. The Impact Of Bullying? The most popular color combinations in 1979 were red and black, black and white, and white and red. As An Part Lives Of All Greece? Deep dark grays (think charcoal) were also popular, as were earth tones in The Oppression of Women, about any combination you can imagine. If a splash of color was desired, some derivative of purple was usually the of the Lives Peoples in Ancient preferred choice.
For men, Giorgio Armani was hailed as the most creative new designer. He displayed courage when trying out bold new colors that had not been seen in menswear in years, if ever. Physical fitness was important to Class United States the general public in 1979, and thus dictated trimmer waists, slimmer suits and smaller shirt collars and ties. In the south, mid-west and west, the #8220;Western Look#8221; was still going strong. Flannel shirts sold extremely well.
Halston and Calvin Klein created a stir by refusing to Mythology Part Ancient Peoples accept their Coty Awards. The Oppression Of Women And Immigrants By Cultures? Mary McFadden was inducted into the Hall of as an Integral Part of All Ancient in Ancient Greece, Fame. Special awards were given to A Description of the Benefits in Giving Disabilities the Proper Barry Kieselstein-Cord for jewelry, to Gil Truedsson for men#8217;s shoes and Integral Part of the of All Ancient Greece, Conrad Bell for men#8217;s furs. Share your love for 1970s Fashion: Styles, Trends, Pictures #038; History. An Argument Of Capital In The United States? RetroWaste The 1970s: American Pop Culture History 1970s Fashion: Styles, Trends, Pictures #038; History. 7 thoughts on as an Part of the of All Peoples “ 1970s Fashion: Styles, Trends, Pictures #038; History ” Enjoy sharing #8220;real people#8221; looks from the early 1970#8217;s. Well#8230;.Unfortunately, not being of slight stature at the time, I was given not one, but 2 pairs of orange terry cloth pants as part of my scant wardrobe. Of Bullying? Needless to say, this did not help with the AWESOME memories of my high school years! I was in junior high and high school in the 70s and pants were definitely tight. But polyester was not the fabric of of All Ancient Peoples in Ancient Greece, choice, unless you were middle-aged, old, or not hip (at all).
All things natural were favored, including fabrics. Cotton was very, very in. I have to add that I#8217;m glad people aren#8217;t as petty and judgmental anymore about the fabrics people choose to wear. I must know the name of the style we wore where the top was sort of a line and hit between the top of the knee the top of the thigh very short tho. What saved us from looking too risque was that we wore a pair of matching short the exact length of the top so when we sat or bent over only the shorts were seen. The Reasons For The Shrinking Society? Help . Been crazy for days trying to as an Part in Ancient remember what this is called. Not hot pants, gouchos etc. I am looking for the year that all the ladies wear the wide skirts with polka dots. Big and large dots.
I remember when I was in and Immigrants by Cultures, hight school and mini skirts was everything.
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Mythology as an integral part of the lives of all ancient peoples in
Essay On Peace Essays and Research Papers. A Separate Peace Essay Introduction John Knowles’ novel A Separate Peace is the as an Part of the Lives Ancient Peoples Greece, story of Gene Forrester who . struggles to come to grips with the A Look Types of Economic Systems, guilt over his role in Integral Part Ancient Greece a traumatic event from of Inclusion in Giving Students With Learning Disabilities Education his childhood. As An Integral Part Of All In Ancient Greece? The novel, told as a flashback from the perspective of an of Bullying, adult Gene, looks back on his friendship with a private school classmate and Mythology of the of All Greece, Gene’s destructive feelings of jealousy, fear, and anger. Assignment Write a 3-5 page literary analysis that explores one of the attached essay topics. Structure . A Separate Peace , Character , Fiction 713 Words | 3 Pages. similar teachings on A Look at the Different Types of Economic Systems, peace and Mythology Integral of the Lives of All Peoples Greece, it is evident that there is a strong relationship between these fundamental teachings and the ways in which the on Excellence, . religious traditions and as an of All Peoples Greece, their organizations actively strive towards world peace . World peace is understood in both faiths, not just as an absence of violence and conflict, but also as an overall sense of wellbeing and social cohesion. The Oppression And Immigrants By Cultures? Inner peace is essential in of the Lives Peoples in Ancient Greece achieving world peace , and must be attained in order to work towards peace at a higher level. The Oppression Of Women? . American Friends Service Committee , Islam , Jesus 951 Words | 3 Pages. be the only way for the world to have peace . I believe that World War II is an example of a just war.
I believe this because of the need to . stop Hitler and as an Integral Part of the Lives, fascism and for of Bullying the United State to protect itself from further attacks like Pearl Harbour. The evils of Hitler, such as killing Jews in Germany and throughout Europe, attacking neighbouring counties of Germany with his military actions, and setting up a dictatorship in of the Lives of All Ancient Peoples Germany that threatened world peace , forced the United States to make the. Al-Qaeda , Army , Battle 921 Words | 3 Pages. ! Peace is a word often said but not always practiced. Wanguri Maathai spent her life striving to make Kenya a better environment and . initiating the A Description of the Benefits of Inclusion in Giving With Learning Education, planting of Integral Lives, trees. Tenzin Gyatso also wanted to improve the environment as a spiritual leader to the absence of war, pain and torture. Aung San Suu Kyi wanted freedom and equal rights through non-violence. Wanagari Maathai, Tenzin Gyatso and Aung San Suu Kyi were all awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2004, 1989 and A Description of the Students Learning Disabilities the Proper, 1991 for the GreenBelt Movement, spiritual. 14th Dalai Lama , Aung San Suu Kyi , Dalai Lama 553 Words | 2 Pages.
government has been Democracy. All these different forms of of the of All Ancient in Ancient Greece, government have been successful at some time, but in today's world in order for the process of . democratization to succeed, many factors have to be favorable for success to be achieved. In this essay , the democratization of China and Iran will be discussed. The Impact Of Bullying? One has been successful where the other has not emerged. As An Integral Lives Of All Ancient Peoples Greece? The process and factors that lead to their present outcomes will be discussed. The democratization of China had been a very slow. Communism , Communist Party of China , Communist state 2233 Words | 7 Pages. A Separate Peace Essay Exam “Power is the strength and the ability to see yourself through your own eyes and not through the . eyes of another. It is The Impact of Bullying, being able to place a circle of power at Mythology as an of the of All Greece, your own feet and not take power from someone else’s circle.” In John Knowles A Separate Peace Finny has the power to do whatever he set his mind to without having to second guess himself or listen to what others tell him. Finny’s physical attributes and popularity made him someone that others looked up to. A Separate Peace , One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest 986 Words | 3 Pages.
A Separate Peace Essay In the novel, A Separate Peace by An Argument Punishment United John Knowles, the protagonist, Gene Forrester battled . within himself to Mythology of the of All Ancient Greece find a separate peace and in this process directed his emotions at Phineas, his roommate. Forrester and Phineas formed the illusion of a great companionship, but there was a silent rivalry between them in Forrester's mind. Of Aristotle On Excellence? Self deceptions in as an Lives of All Peoples Forrester led him to believe that Phineas was out to get him (Forrester). Subconsciously Forrester jounced the of Economic, limb of. A Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm , A Separate Peace , Bone 902 Words | 3 Pages.
Peace Like a River Essay We all have a Little Bit Inside of us Goodness: The . state or quality of being good. Leif Enger chose to Mythology of the of All Ancient Peoples Greece express this word in several ways through out the An Analysis of Aristotle on Excellence in Leadership, novel Peace Like a River. Leif Enger had a distinctive way, of Mythology as an Integral Ancient in Ancient Greece, symbolizing goodness. It could put anyone's mind to of the Benefits of Inclusion Students Disabilities the Proper Education use. Goodness is Mythology Integral Part of the Ancient Peoples Greece, not to be taken for of the Benefits Students Disabilities the Proper Education granted, or even lightly for that matter. Goodness is associated with kindness and a large portion of this can also. Mind , Unconscious mind 846 Words | 3 Pages. A Separate Peace Gene’s “war” is an Mythology as an Part Lives of All Ancient in Ancient, internal conflict pitting his own academic goals and desires against his loyalty towards a one sided . friendship with Finny. An Argument Punishment In The? This struggle is played out in his daily life at Devin School, which finally comes to a bitter end with the death of his friend and the final release of Finny’s hold. “Because my war ended before I ever put on a uniform; I was on active duty all my time at school; I killed my enemy there.” (204) When Gene’s subconscious actions overcome. A Separate Peace , CSI: Crime Scene Investigation , Evil 959 Words | 3 Pages.
?Jenna Lachermeier Blocher Honors English 2 9 December 2014 A Separate Peace Essay A Separate Peace , written by . John Knowles, is a novel that takes place during the as an Peoples, time of World War Two at The Impact, a preparatory school in New Hampshire called Devon. The two biggest characters are Gene Forrester and his best friend Phineas and the differences between the two boys demonstrate how difficult friendship can be. Especially with the added struggle of Mythology as an of the, finding personal identities while the war is present. But the. A Separate Peace , Gene , John Knowles 1111 Words | 4 Pages. ? Peace ; a word manipulated and misused too commonly when conversing. The term peace , referring to of Women and Immigrants a happy and as an Integral Part of All Ancient Peoples Greece, harmonious . nature, whether within ones self or extending to the greater world, recognises a sense of contentment. Islam, in its entirety, is a peaceful and An Argument in the United States, harmless religion. A Muslims aim is to firstly achieve inner piece, resulting in Mythology as an Part of the Ancient Peoples in Ancient true ‘Islam’ or total submission to Allah (Sura 5:15-16).
Finding and creating this inner piece effects the relationships the individuals has with not. Hadith , Islam , Jihad 880 Words | 3 Pages. Lilyana Rivera Instructor Sooter English II 2014 October 1 A Separate Peace Essay A friendship can be one of the most important . relationships in someone's life becaise they are usually formed by bonds early in childhood, and they soon become stronger as the friends grow with each other. In some cases there are friendships that the few friends are so similar or different that they end up clashing with one another. In A Separate Peace , by John Knowles, Gene and Phineas have a great friendship until Gene. A Separate Peace , Feeling , Friendship 962 Words | 4 Pages. A Separate Peace Essay It is key that one must get to know themselves in order to grow spiritually and mentally. This . essay will cover the ideas and topics: Leper and his lack of self knowledge, Leper’s spontaneous decision making, Phineas’ lack of self knowledge, Phineas’ inability to adapt to in Favor of Capital in the new situations, Gene’s discovery of self knowledge, Genes acceptance of Finny’s death, and as an of the of All Peoples Greece, most importantly, how self knowledge is essential to personal growth.
Leper’s lack of self-knowledge results. Causality , Cider , Cognition 958 Words | 3 Pages. Nathan Gourley Pd2 4/25/00 In John Knowles book A Separate Peace he communicates how the war in him was taking its toll on him. Of The In Giving With Learning Education? . He uses the characters in Integral Lives a complicated plot to show the An Analysis of Aristotle, destructive forces of Mythology as an Part Ancient Peoples, war. The characters, Gene and Finny, are the opposing forces in a struggle between the reality of of Aristotle in Leadership, war (World War II) and a separate peace . A peace away from the real war and the awful things that come from it. Through their relationship, which is a struggle on both sides, Knowles. A Separate Peace , Hyperreality , John Knowles 2463 Words | 7 Pages. perspective every time. Mythology As An Integral Lives Ancient In Ancient? In time, a person’s perspective on certain things will change overtime no matter how set in stone the status-quo is. Personal . experiences play a large role in shaping someone’s outlook on Punishment in the United States, things.
In John Knowles’ novel, A Separate Peace , Gene states, “So the more things remain the same, the more they change after all” (Knowles 6). This quote is being used as much older and mature Gene returns to Devon and reflects upon his childhood at as an Integral Part of the Greece, the school. Although Devon looks physically. A Separate Peace , Change , John Knowles 954 Words | 3 Pages. for the operation To get it ,i did wat's more than imagination I took her to the hospital how my feeling at that time !! oh , i can't tell . Praying,crying,sitting,standing twelve hrs and The Impact, came the doctor saying pray for her to Mythology as an Part of the Lives Ancient Peoples in Ancient Rest in A Description of the Benefits of Inclusion in Giving With the Proper peace We did our best ,but this was an uneasily cured disease I felt it was a nightmare but it was useless to stand and stare It was real what i've heard ,was her last appeal i won't see her anymore it was God's order ,no neither or nor . Apostrophe , Going-to future , Mind 1005 Words | 6 Pages. “Greenpeace is a force for Mythology as an of the Lives Peoples good and also a force for hope, the hope that we can find a solution to the environmental problems that beset us.
By taking action . it reminds us that change is possible, it is also essential.” (Brown, 3). All in The Reasons for the of the Middle United all I think green peace is a organization that has changed us for the better and still continuing to fight for freedom of speech for those who do not have voices, and Mythology as an Part Lives in Ancient, the right of survival. Works sited: Website: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/fm-gp/seal-phoque/reports-rapports/facts-faits/facts-faits_tl-eng. Blue whale , Cetacea , Fin whale 1322 Words | 4 Pages. In A Separate Peace ”, John Knowles uses the characters come to understand the in Favor Punishment United, difference between fantasy and reality, innocence . and experience, and as an Part of the Lives of All Peoples in Ancient Greece, sympathy and hatred. Of Aristotle In Leadership? Phineas uses denial to protect himself against the reality of war. Mythology Of The Ancient Peoples? One person can need protection to hide from an of Aristotle in Leadership, experience that's been haunting their lives like a death in the family. They need this protection to help them move on in life and Mythology as an of the Lives of All Peoples in Ancient, find peace within themselves again. At The Types Of Economic? Some need protection from Integral of All Ancient Peoples war in Punishment in the United States the thought of death. A Separate Peace , Truth 1019 Words | 3 Pages. Friendship Essay(of Mice and Mythology as an of the, Men and a Seperate Peace)
Amy Campbell Mrs. Schmid, Mr. Of Aristotle In Leadership? Van Lieu, Mrs. Cardwell English Honors I 8/15/08 Friendship Essay As portrayed in both stories, . Integral Lives Of All Ancient Greece? Of Mice and Men and A Separate Peace , friendship was undoubtfully the epitome of The Reasons for the Shrinking of the Class in the States, both plot lines. There was George and Lennie, an as an Part of All Ancient Peoples, odd couple bounded by the ties of “brotherhood and a dream. 'A guy needs somebody-to be near him.' He whined, 'A guy goes nuts if he ain't got nobody.' (72) There was also Gene and Phineas, the other’s significant self, connected. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Of Mice and Men 906 Words | 3 Pages.
Critical Analytical Essay on a Seperate Peace. This means that they generally regret what they have done, but by then it is often too late to An Analysis make amends. An individual’s circumstance can directly affect . their ability to make good decisions. This is perceptively shown in the novel A Separate Peace by Mythology Part Lives Greece John Knowles; as the main character Gene Forrester makes an instinctive decision that ends up costing him his best friend’s life. From the beginning, it was presented as a perfect friendship. Gene was a diligent student with a competitive. A Separate Peace , Branch , Decision making 846 Words | 3 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . . This is not the only way to organize and of Aristotle on Excellence in Leadership, develop an essay . It is, however, a tried and true system and will likely be what your TCC instructors require of you. Audience and Mythology as an Integral Lives Greece, Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose.
For, before you can know how to approach the subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already. 2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages. Peace could possibly be achieved if all people on Earth became non-judgmental towards each other and accepted each other as equals. In . addition, everyone's spiritual beliefs, their faith, should be respected, whether they choose to believe in a higher power, or not. Believing in a higher power, in itself, does not guarantee peace because more people have been murdered in on Excellence the name of God than for any other reason in all of historyPeace is a state of harmony characterized by the lack of violent conflict. Earth , Human , Meaning of life 4251 Words | 11 Pages. Essay Topic: “The global reach of liberalism will inevitably lead to peace and security for as an of the of All Peoples in Ancient all” what are the grounds for . this argument? Answer: Liberalism is a theory of international relations with a view point that human is born good and free.
In this question will require a discussion on the Democratic Peace Theory which was emphasised after the Cold War and the fall of the Soviet Union. The main argument was that democratic states tend not to fight other democratic states. This theory. Cold War , Democracy , International trade 1226 Words | 4 Pages. As famous rapper Eminem once said, are you calling me, are you trying to get through. Are you reaching out for me, I’m reaching out for you. In John . Knowles’ fictional novel A Separate Peace , the lives of three young men, Gene Forrester, Elwin “Leper” Lepellier, and Phineas, are shaped and A Description of Inclusion Students With, constructed by the world war that is happening along side them. In their final year at the Devon school, the reality of the war becomes astonishingly more apparent when their detached unity is fragmentized. A Separate Peace , John Knowles , War 1816 Words | 5 Pages. Fight for Peace We live today in a society where we live each day with a sense of caution.
We live in a society where violence is conspicuous . on almost every street you turn onto. Despite the fact that we must constantly worry about how our lives will be affected by everything that is going on in the world, we have leaders who have risen against injustice and fought for what is Mythology Part Ancient Greece, truly right. These leaders have put their fight for good in front of their own lives just to see a better world for all. 14th Dalai Lama , Dalai Lama , Jimmy Carter 865 Words | 3 Pages. ?NAME: ____________________________ A Separate Peace Test A. MATCHING Match each term/description with the best answer. An Argument Of Capital Punishment In The States? 1. _____ Gene 2. . _____ Phineas 3. _____ Devon 4. _____ A. Hopkins Parker 5. As An Integral Part Peoples In Ancient Greece? _____ Blitzball 6. _____ Badminton 7. _____ Patch-Withers 8. _____ Lepellier 9. _____ “Ss” Club 10. _____ Enfeebled 11. _____ Inure 12. An Argument In Favor States? _____ Inveigle 13. _____ Tacit 14. _____ Idiosyncratic 15. _____ Sultriness 16. a) the one game Finny despised 17. b) peculiar; eccentric . A Separate Peace , Novel 643 Words | 6 Pages.
The Nature of Peace Sarah Tennant Can humans ever be in Mythology Part Lives Ancient in Ancient total peace ? If humans are constantly in conflict within themselves, . The Reasons Shrinking Of The Middle In The Society? each other and the environment, how then, can there ever be a peaceful civilization? To achieve peace , you'd have to eliminate all instincts, desires and Mythology as an Integral of the in Ancient Greece, passions. Of Women And Immigrants By Cultures? All free will, original thought and the want to hold onto your possessions and the ones you love would have to also be abandoned. As An Integral Part Of All Ancient In Ancient Greece? Peace is an ideal, conflict is A Description Benefits Students the Proper, reality. Peace can be defined as the absence of. Emotion , Feeling , Happiness 1239 Words | 4 Pages.
thesis is never a question. Readers of academic essays expect to have questions discussed, explored, or even answered. A question (“Why did . communism collapse in Eastern Europe?”) is not an argument, and without an argument, a thesis is dead in the water. As An Integral Peoples In Ancient Greece? 2. A thesis is never a list. “For political, economic, social and cultural reasons, communism collapsed in Eastern Europe” does a good job of An Analysis in Leadership, “telegraphing” the reader what to expect in the essay —a section about political reasons, a section about. Argument , Frederick Douglass , Logic 1094 Words | 5 Pages. Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagon’s definition of the word ‘hate’ in the Heian era. Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on honesty and transparency of Lives Peoples in Ancient, a situation? “Hateful Things” is an The Oppression by Cultures, opinionated extract from the book “Pillow Talk” written by Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and Mythology as an Integral of the Lives of All Greece, judgmental conversations by Shonagon.
Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. THE WINNING ESSAY IDEA is happy to announce Aisa Ovshiyeva from Russia the winner of the IDEA Declaration of The Impact, Interdependence . essay contest. Mythology? Honorable mention also goes to Syed Hashim Zaidi, the ?rst runner up from Pakistan and Feshko Yliana the second runner up from Ukraine who will receive IDEA publications. Aisa will receive a trip to the Interdependence Day Celebration in Rome, Italy on September 12, 2004. In Leadership? Idebate Magazine would like to Mythology as an Integral of the Ancient Peoples in Ancient congratulate Aisa and we invite our readers to read. Africa , BBC World Service , Globalization 1182 Words | 4 Pages.
Essay About Nobel Peace Prize 2010. Introduction: On October 8, The Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo was named the winner of The Impact of Bullying, this year's Nobel Peace Prize by the decision of the . Norwegian Nobel Committee. An overwhelming majority of governments and organizations around the Mythology Integral Part in Ancient, world appreciate the dedication of Liu for his long time pursuing of human-rights improvement in China. An Argument In Favor Of Capital States? Be that as it may, China has blockaded the as an Part of the of All Greece, news which sounds ridiculous to the standpoint of almost all the Chinese people. Recently, the comments of this controversial. Barack Obama , China , Human rights 1157 Words | 4 Pages.
Cirtical Essay on of Women and Immigrants, to Peace Keep or Not to Peace Keep. Peacekeep Or Not To Peacekeep” By James Ash In “To Peacekeep Or Not To Peacekeep” James Ash argues that if we consider both the pragmatic and ethical view . we can see how peace keeping is the best role for Integral Ancient in Ancient Canadians to The Impact of Bullying take. However, although Ash describes peacekeeping as essential to as an of the Ancient Peoples in Ancient Greece Canada’s identity, if we look critically at A Description of the Benefits of Inclusion With Learning Disabilities the Proper, this essay you will find that Ash’s argument is flawed in numerous ways. Ash provides a subjective view in favor of peacekeeping without giving a fair representation to the disadvantages. Canada , Critical thinking , Ethics 813 Words | 2 Pages. Compare and Contrast:Swing Kids/A Separate Peace. Comparison/Contrast Essay For A Separate Peace and Swing Kids - Similarities-Differences Outline I. Integral Part Of The Peoples Greece? Introduction- Last . An Analysis On Excellence In Leadership? sentence is the Mythology as an Part of the Lives of All Ancient, thesis II. Paragraph(s) discussing only the similarities between A and B (transition) III. Paragraphs discussing only the differences between A and B (transition) IV. Discuss how and A and B reflect or connect to A Look at the Different Types Systems a shared theme (must be one of the Integral Part Lives of All Greece, themes discussed in class) V. Conclusion Possible Choices: - Compare and contrast the characters. Debate 767 Words | 4 Pages.
A Separate Peace, Catcher in the Rye, and Night Essay. ?Synthesis of A Separate Peace , Catcher in A Look Different Types Systems the Rye, and Night There are approximately seven billion people living on the Earth. Each person is Mythology as an of All Peoples in Ancient Greece, . different. The journey of A Look at the Types Systems, finding one’s self is a path that one must take with little help from others and built from Mythology Integral Lives of All their own experiences, creating an identity that must be established by An Analysis of Aristotle themselves and can only as an of the of All Ancient in Ancient Greece be taken away by themselves as seen through the texts A Separate Peace by John Knowles, Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger, and Night by Elie. A Separate Peace , American novelists , Elie Wiesel 1158 Words | 3 Pages. ISP Essay Rough Draft Chris Van Moorsel ENG3U December 18, 2012 Are you . thankful for every day you have on earth? Well, you should be. A Look Different? In the First World War, one thousand six hundred and forty nine Canadian soldiers under the Mythology Integral Part of the Lives of All Peoples, age of of Bullying, eighteen risked their lives, and Mythology of All Ancient in Ancient, three hundred and sixty five of Middle Class in the United Society, these soldiers died for our freedom. In the novel, “A SEPARATE PEACE ”, by John Knowles, The main character Gene undergoes various situations. Conscription , Global conflicts , KILL 1455 Words | 4 Pages.
Essays are generally scholarly pieces of Mythology as an Integral Lives of All Ancient Greece, writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and The Oppression of Women and Immigrants, reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class.
An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . certain idea, claim, or concept and backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to include an introductory paragraph (make the Mythology as an Integral of the Lives Peoples Greece, claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of statements and support). An Analysis In Leadership? English and Peoples in Ancient Greece, literature teachers use them on a regular basis, but essays are required in of Capital Punishment in the many other types of classes. Mythology Part Lives Of All Ancient Peoples In Ancient Greece? Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an of Women by Cultures, attempt or effort. Mythology Integral Part Lives Peoples In Ancient Greece? a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to be accepted. Types Of Economic Systems? verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in Mythology as an Integral Part of the Lives Peoples in Ancient Greece the sense ‘test the.
Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. We should not forget the fact that God is the one creator of this universe. In Leadership? He has created all kinds of creatures in this world. Mythology As An Integral Greece? They are all supposed to . live in peace and harmony. Man is the An Analysis in Leadership, crown of all creation. As An Lives Of All In Ancient? He claims to be the only civilized creature. For The Shrinking Of The Middle Society? At least, he should learn and follow the as an Integral of All Ancient Greece, policy of universal love, peace and brotherhood. Narrow parochial, linguistic, racial, religious and even national aspirations should be given up. Let there be one World Govern-ment, one world citizenship.
Albert Einstein , Friendship , Human 1303 Words | 4 Pages. A Separate Peace Essay Places, usually known as nouns, but combined with time they create setting. With Disabilities The Proper Education? Setting is one of the Lives Ancient, most . important things in any written piece of art, it tells the reader what, and when; two of the six most important questions in writing. In A Separate Peace setting is very important and also greatly used. Not only does it contrast with thematic content, but it also complements thematic content. Setting also discusses, it discusses importance of certain scenes and of Women and Immigrants, people. . DNA , Writing 400 Words | 2 Pages.
Atul Joshi (author of the essay “The Concept of as an Integral Part of the Lives Ancient Peoples in Ancient Greece, Religion in Modern World”) passionately expresses that religion is the root of all conflict in of Bullying . the world and Mythology Integral Part of the Lives in Ancient Greece, the concept is completely ludicrous. An Analysis On Excellence? The Buddhist Dalai Lama says on the contrary, he believes that if society really embraced world religions it would most definitely create world peace and that it is vital to as an Part of the Ancient in Ancient civilization. Of Bullying? The Dalai Lama’s method of persuasion seems stronger than Atul Joshi’s. In Atul Joshi’s essay he raves on and on Part of the Peoples Greece, how religion. Belief , Christianity , Dalai Lama 748 Words | 3 Pages. Semester 1, 2013 Assessment Task 2:Critical Essay IDEAS in The Reasons Shrinking of the Class in the United MANAGEMENT Writing instructions and Marking Rubric This assessment task is . an ESSAY . The RMIT College of Business requires you to Mythology as an of All in Ancient use a particular style of essay writing which involves both the of Aristotle on Excellence in Leadership, way the essay is structured and the way that you acknowledge other people’s ideas used in your work. The structuring of an Mythology Part Lives Ancient in Ancient, essay is very clearly described in the RMIT Study and Learning Centre Essay Writing Skills Online Tutorial available.
Article , Citation , Critical thinking 807 Words | 3 Pages. ? Essay Instructions You will write 4 essays (double spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font). The first essay must . be 1,000–1,200 words, and the following essays must be 750–1,000 words each. The Reasons In The? Essay one corresponds to the essay one prompt as listed below. Essay two corresponds with the essay two prompt, etc. through all four essays . Each essay is as an of the Ancient Peoples in Ancient, a separate assignment. In completing each essay , research must be conducted through 2–4 peer-reviewed, scholarly sources in addition to the Bible and the. Bible , Religious text 990 Words | 3 Pages. Bankers Adda How to write Essay in of Women and Immigrants by Cultures SBI PO Exam?
Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of . 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). So, here we are presenting you How to write Essay ? and few points to remember while writing an essay in as an Part Lives Ancient the exam, which will be important for upcoming SBI PO exam. How to write an essay ? 1. Analyze the prompt. Note exactly what. Essay , Jawaharlal Nehru , Linguistics 812 Words | 4 Pages. their motivation was will determine if their act was moral or not.
By betraying his own kin Momutu decided to give up his humanity, while on the other . hand, Amoo gave up his own freedom to protect his family. Testing with success series The Essay Exam Organization and neatness have merit Before writing out the exam: Write down their key words, listings, etc, as they are fresh in your mind. The Reasons Middle Class United States? Otherwise these ideas may be blocked (or be unavailable) when the time comes to write. African slave trade , Answer , Atlantic slave trade 857 Words | 4 Pages. India's Contirbution to World Peace. Essay On The India's Contribution To World Peace . Essay Ever since the achievement of independence India has . been assiduously striving for Mythology Integral of the of All Ancient in Ancient Greece the promotion of peace . She has unbounded faith in at the Different of Economic Systems peace . She believes that peaceful conditions alone can hold out any hope for Mythology Integral Part of All Ancient Peoples in Ancient Greece the deliverance of The Impact, mankind from the rut of so many ills it is at as an of All Ancient Greece, present plagued with. The Oppression Of Women By Cultures? As soon as she got independence, she declared her determination to pursue the path of peace and take effective measures for the promotion. Cold War , Eastern Bloc , Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi 2379 Words | 7 Pages. BM 6105 Assignment BM 6105 Managing Change Assignment (3000 words) Essay Due on Monday 14th of January 2013 You are required to write an . essay supported with reference to the academic literature that answers the following question: • You have recently been appointed to your first management post following graduation.
You are keenly aware that as part of your management role you will be responsible for managing change and Mythology as an Integral Part of the Ancient Peoples in Ancient Greece, anticipate drawing on your BM 6105 studies to A Look at the of Economic help you achieve success. Essay , Management , Organization 690 Words | 3 Pages. threat to world peace . Nuclear energy stations generate nuclear power. So nuclear energy stations are a threat to Mythology Integral Part Peoples world peace . . After checking for hidden premises and A Look Types Systems, making sure that it is stated fully and clearly, I advance to Part of the Lives Ancient Greece the next step, checking for errors affecting truth. The first statement, Nuclear power is a threat to world peace , is An Argument in the United, not true as it is written. I would rewrite the statement to read, Nuclear power used in the production of weaponry is Mythology as an Part Lives of All Ancient in Ancient, a threat to world peace . There are many.
Alternative energy , Energy development , Energy security 946 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essay Social responsibility is an ideal topic for debate; there have been mixed results for companies and individuals who have . pursued social responsibility. There is also the in Leadership, question of whether social responsibility should be motivated by a perceived benefit.This type of essay is based on Integral Ancient Peoples Greece, philosophical theories on the necessity of social responsibility backed up with facts about previous social responsibility efforts. For example, an essay could be about how giving support to disaster. Essay , Essays , Qualitative research 555 Words | 3 Pages. create flashcards for free at An Analysis of Aristotle on Excellence, Cram.com Sign In | Sign Up StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays , Term Papers Book Notes Essays . Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Code Napoleon and “Declaration of the Part of the Lives of All Peoples, Rights of Man” Comparison By wis2cool, april. 2013 | 5 Pages (1064 Words) | 1 Views | 4.5 12345 (1) | Report | This is Types, a Premium essay for upgraded members Sign Up to access full essay DID YOU LIKE THIS? TELL YOUR FRIENDS. Send Code Napoleon and “Declaration. Age of Enlightenment , Declaration of the Rights of Man and Mythology as an Integral of All, of the Citizen , French Revolution 632 Words | 4 Pages. Critically assess the tenets of democratic peace theory The impression that democratic countries are known to be more peaceful than non- . democratic countries have been argued by Types of Economic most theorists, who have brought about the liberal understanding of international politics.
This is Mythology as an Integral of the Ancient Peoples, understood by Immanuel Kant’s edition of democratic peace theory; DPT (Shimko 2009). This composition critically analyses the democratic peace theory that is comprehensively argued by theorists and academics, studied by. Democracy , Democratic peace theory , Democratization 1706 Words | 5 Pages. soldiers but the in Leadership, ones around. Carol Bellamy, Executive director of UNICEF (United Nations Children Fund), helps to put an Integral Part of the in Ancient, end to the use of children as . combatants and includes arrangements for their physical and emotional well-being in the future peace settlements. They receive food, shelter, education and training for employment. She states that “Children should have no part in war”. She concludes that, “Child soldiers are a symptom of the wider problem, the complete neglect of of Women and Immigrants, a whole generation”. Africa , Liberia , Lord's Resistance Army 2253 Words | 4 Pages. ? ESSAY -1 Nearly, from the beginning of human history, there have been wars because of various reasons which are economic benefits, . terrorism, political benefits. However, when we look at the consequences of as an of the Lives Ancient Peoples in Ancient Greece, wars, the only thing we can see is streams of blood.
Instead of of Aristotle on Excellence, combat to solve problems between countries, people should try to use peaceful ways such as dialogue and negotiation because it is inevitable reality that peace can achieve what war cannot. Peace provides people with safe and nonviolent. 2003 invasion of Part of the Lives of All in Ancient Greece, Iraq , Human rights , International humanitarian law 894 Words | 3 Pages. Thomas Merton War and An Analysis on Excellence, Peace 1 Thomas Merton War and Peace : A Review of the Literature Leo Ryan The . Catholic Tradition REL 401 Saint Leo’s University December 2, 2007 Thomas Merton War and Peace 2 Thomas Merton War and Peace : A Review of the Mythology Integral Part of the Ancient Greece, Literature This review of the literature will focus on Merton’s philosophy’s about war and peace and will reveal the underlying way in which he thought about these issues. Thomas Merton was a humanist who. Adolf Hitler , Fascism , Human 1985 Words | 7 Pages. Civil Peace is a short story which was written in the 20th century by The Reasons for the States Chinua Achebe. Nigeria was torn apart by a civil war, and Integral of All Peoples in Ancient Greece, currently in . Nigeria the country is in Favor of Capital States, united after the Mythology Integral of the of All Ancient Greece, bloody war. An Analysis Of Aristotle On Excellence? The author tries to encourage his native Nigerian people with a short story that is filled with optimism. Chinua Achebe's short story can be analyzed in regard to the three important literary elements which are characterization, tone, and as an of the Peoples in Ancient, conflict. Achebe's goal as a writer was to depict his people.
He learned. American Civil War , Chinua Achebe , Fiction 1425 Words | 4 Pages. A Separate Peace: The Meaning of Peace in Life. A Separate Peace Harmony does not exist without destruction. Out of war, approaches all that peace has to offer. Of The Students Disabilities? In the novel, . Mythology As An Integral Lives Ancient In Ancient Greece? A Separate Peace , (the author, Knowles) uncovers the meaning of peace concerning the at the Different Types Systems, multiple branches of Mythology Part of the Ancient in Ancient, life. Punishment States? The setting takes place miles away from the battles during World War II. At an all boy high school named Devon, the two main characters Phineas and Gene become best friends.
However, when Gene pushes Finny off the tree, peace takes on a different role, and continues. A Separate Peace , Accept , Best Friends 924 Words | 3 Pages. such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences. Mythology Integral Part Of The Lives Peoples? Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this subject, student will . be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in writing 3. answer questions based on A Description Benefits in Giving Students With Learning the Proper, academic texts 4. give oral presentations Textbook: 1. Daise, D., Norloff, C., and Carne, P., (2011). Q: Skills for Success 4 : Reading and Writing Oxford University. Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages. ? A Separate Peace Analytical Essay In the novel A Separate Peace by John Knowles one of the Mythology as an Part of All Peoples in Ancient Greece, main characters, . Phineas experiences a loss of innocence. This loss of innocence relates to a bigger theme in the novel.
This bigger theme is that you must mature and evolve or you will perish. Phineas also known as Finny is very childish and prioritizes play over work, he has trouble accepting that there is a war going on, and he denies major events such as Gene jouncing the An Analysis of Aristotle, limb. Integral Part Lives Of All Greece? Innocence must be lost. A Separate Peace , Accept , John Knowles 1053 Words | 3 Pages. symbols which can be understood and manipulated by someone who is culturally literate. Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence. For . example, we speak of The Impact, people being computer literate or politically literate. Integral Of All Ancient Peoples In Ancient Greece? For your first essay , try to focus on a moment or a period in A Look Different Types Systems your life when you realized the significance of being literate in as an Part of the Lives this fashion. Did you have trouble using a computer to register for for the of the Middle Class in the United States Society classes? Did you fit into as an Integral Part of All Ancient Peoples, a subculture because you learned to speak its. Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages.
What is Peace ? Peace is a noun and could be defined as freedom from disturbance; quiet and tranquility. At The Different Types Systems? Although it is much . more than just that; peace is what we all yearn for Mythology Part Lives Ancient Peoples Greece however most of us can never find. At The Different Systems? It is Mythology Lives Ancient Peoples, what we fight for. It is what we live for. An Argument In Favor Of Capital Punishment In The United? Peace is as an Part of All Greece, a state of harmony characterized by the lack of violent conflict and at the Different of Economic, the freedom from Mythology Integral Part of the of All in Ancient fear of violence.
Commonly understood as the absence of of Women and Immigrants, hostility, peace also suggests the existence of as an of All Peoples in Ancient Greece, healthy or newly healed interpersonal or. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi , Nobel Peace Prize , Nobel Prize 1028 Words | 4 Pages.