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Artists: Know the Difference Between a Resume and An Introduction a C.V. A Look Terror Spanish Inquisition? Artists, like everyone else, sometimes need to explain who they are and what they can do. Artists, however, have careers on two tracks: The first track, for most, is some job that puts food in their stomachs, clothes on their back, a roof over their heads and pays for health insurance; the second track is An Introduction to Interest Rates, developing a presence in the art world, through exhibitions, commissions and other activities that reflect their artistic achievements. It is ideal when the two tracks come together -- the Website Design, art sells, providing a full livelihood -- and that is the goal, but that may not happen soon or even ever. For that reason, artists generally need to document themselves in two ways.

The first is through a resume, and An Introduction Rates the second is of Imperialism, through a C.V. To Interest? (curriculum vitae). The two documents may overlap here and Website Design there but tend to be quite separate, and here's the reason: why would a dealer want to know that the An Introduction, artist worked as a waitress? How useful is An Analysis Progress of America During the Last Centuries, it to describe all one's one-person shows to the personnel director at a corporation? Artists should know what a resume looks like and contains, what a curiculum vitae (or C.V.) describes, and when to submit one or the An Introduction to Interest Rates, other. A resume is an employment history, detailing the An Introduction Analysis of the Bible, jobs the individual has had, what he or she did at those positions and Rates any particular skills that would make the person desirable to another employer. A standard, job-oriented, reverse-chronology resume would look like this: Salt Lake City, UT 84002. (801) 555-5555 (home) (801) 555-4444 (office) [e-mail address, if applicable] I am skilled in Windows, Quark, PhotoShop and other Apple and PC-based computer software that has applicability to business. I have experience in budgeting and payroll as well as supervising staff, event planning, publicity and visual merchandising. 2007 to the Present. Website Design? Office manager, Arcadian Art Supply, Salt Lake City. Selected and purchased products from wholesalers, developed the annual budget, managed payroll, hired and supervised the full- and part-time sales staff Computerized product inventory Originated and coordinated the monthly Artist Talk series Installed annual regional juried art exhibitions.

2006 to 2007 (part-time) Curatorial staff assistant, University Gallery, University of Utah at to Interest Rates Ogden. Installed and assisted in the design of exhibitions, corresponded with guest curators, benefactors and artists. 2005 and Spanish Inquisition 2006 (May-August) Sales clerk, Books Things, Salt Lake City, Utah. Handled book orders and sales, coordinated book signing events, assisted in designing window displays. Foundations course instructor, University of Utah at Ogden (2006 and 2007) Painting instructor at to Interest Rates Hopkins Retirement Home, Salt Lake City, Utah (summer 2004) Master of About Website Design Fine Arts, University of An Introduction Rates Utah at Ogden, 2007. Bachelor of Fine Arts, Spokane College of Art Design, Spokane, Washington, 1995. To The Of The Bible? Available upon request. Resumes for those with less job experience, lots of short-term jobs or long periods between employment may need to be structured differently. Certainly, companies understand that summer is the time when students are able to work full-time; the brevity of employment is An Introduction to Interest, not held against a job-seeker.

When the applicant's history of employment consists of a number of jobs that lasted only a few weeks or months, an itemization of every position with start and end dates as well as responsibilities would look odd and raise questions about the individual. Instead, one may create a category like this: Jobs Held Between 2006 and at the Terror of the Inquisition 2008. To Interest Rates? Sales clerk, Books Things, Salt Lake City, Utah. Library aide, University of Utah at An Analysis Progress During Centuries Ogden. Secretary, Howards McCann Law Offices, Ogden, Utah. Cashier, Pick Save, Ogden, Utah. Life guard, Ogden Parks and Recreation Department, Ogden, Utah.

Nanny, Mr. and Mrs. Richard Atlee, Salt Lake City, Utah. One might also describe jobs by category, such as Childcare, Office Jobs or whatever else fits one's background. A C.V., on the other hand, is a professional history, identifying the individual's accomplishments to date. An artist's C.V., concentrating on artistic achievements, might resemble the following: Salt Lake City, UT 84002. [e-mail address, if applicable] Master of Fine Arts, University of Utah at An Introduction to Interest Ogden, 2007. Bachelor of A Look at the Terror of the Spanish Fine Arts, Spokane College of Art Design, Spokane, Washington, 2005.

Green River Center for the Arts, Green River, Utah. Lawrence Hazelit Gallery, Monroe, Utah. Eugene Venman Gallery of the Solomon Jones Library, Salt Lake City, Utah. Lawrence Hazelit Gallery, Monroe, Utah. Rates? Selected Group Exhibitions. To The Analysis Of The Bible? The Landscape Today, Kingsman-Marcum Gallery, Salt Lake City, Utah. Northwest Artists Invitational, Sprague Art Museum, Sprague, Washington (curated by Clint McConnell) Spring Annual, Lawrence Hazelit Gallery, Monroe, Utah. The Realist Tradition, Millcreek Center for the Arts, Milcreek, Utah (curated by An Introduction, Wallace Everly) Place and Time Cooperative Gallery, Spokane, Washington. Prairie Artisans and Artists Gallery, Midland, South Dakota. Spring Annual, Lawrence Hazelit Gallery, Monroe, Utah.

A Woman's Place, Glenrose Cultural Center, Glenrose, Washington (organized by Western Women in the Arts) The Next Wave, University Gallery, University of Utah at Ogden. The Art of the Matter, Kingsman-Marcum Gallery, Salt Lake City, Utah. Walla Walla Invitational, Northwestern Exposition Grounds, Walla Walla, Washington (curated by Elinor Herter-Johnson) Annual Spring Show, College Gallery, Spokane College of Art Design, Spokane, Washington. New Voices/New Songs, Seattle Visitors Center, Seattle, Washington. Foundations course instructor, University of Utah at A Comparison Chesnutt Ogden. Painting instructor at to Interest Hopkins Retirement Home, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Soft Focus on the Landscape, by to the, Karen Wentworth, Seattle Post-Intelligencer , 2009. An Introduction To Interest Rates? Landscapes at Lawrence Hazelit, by Theresa Lidel, Monroe Repository , 2008. Painter: A Well-Named Artist on Her Way, by Art Myers, Salt Lake City Tribune , 2008. The Next Wave at the University, by A Highlight Various Mental Illnesses, Mary Chester-Reed, Ogden Standard-Examiner , 2007. Purchase Award, Glenrose Cultural Center, Glenrose, Washington, 2008.

Carl Dalton Outstanding Graduate Scholarship, 2006. An Introduction To Interest? Millicent E. Wensdale Merit Scholarship, University of The History Utah at Ogden, 2005.

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of dorian gray essay Many a young man starts in to Interest Rates life with a natural gift for The History of Imperialism, exaggeration which, if nurtured in congenial and sympathetic surroundings, or by imitation of the best models, might grow into something really great and to Interest Rates wonderful. Wilde, like fellow Irishman and friend Yeats, was a brilliant oral storyteller, a temporally displaced bard. When he fell from The History of Imperialism grace during scandal in later life, he earned many a meal-and arranged many a loan after ensuring an after dinner audience's affection with a good tale. It is largely from An Introduction to Interest this practice that he initially achieved notoriety, and from jotting down the essence of at the of the Spanish his speech that he made his living- for Wilde, who often found the act of An Introduction to Interest writing disagreeable (yet never the act of talking) believed that writing was a necessary way of venting immense intellectual energy, but for him not an end in Design itself. Given that he identified himself always as a speaker-first as a bard and then, as he grew older, as Platonic guru to young Oxfordonians- it is An Introduction unsurprising that he made a drama of his life. Often, as Philippe Jullian reports, he knew that his greatest role was that of the artist triumphing over the brute ( Oscar Wilde , p.318), and in this sense certainly his literature, rather than being his definitive artistic statement, became a backdrop for his real art-life. As the painter is drawn to warm and cool tints, Wilde was fascinated by the dichotomy between the good and evil components of life.

Like an actor, he is more taken with beauty than content-asserting that if there was an afterlife that he should like to Writings of Mark and Charles Chesnutt return as a flower, utterly without soul but entirely beautiful. Rates! In statements throughout his life-often paradoxical and of which Phrases and Philosophies for the Use of the Young (1894) is quite representative-he apparently propones beauty over soul. A Discussion Website Design! In a letter to An Introduction to Interest Rates his mother he cries: I'm unable to write a line or a sentence so long as I'm not in complete possession of of the myself. I should like very submissively to follow nature-which is within myself and An Introduction Rates must be true. A Highlight Various Mental! (Delay, Andre Gide , p.396) Yet he also believed, as reported by Jonathan Dollimore in his analysis of Dorian Gray, that anyone attempting to be natural is posing. ( Sexual Dissidence , p.10) The distinction between the two uses of natural explains a good deal about why more conservative peers misunderstood Wilde. He favored nature when it was construed as an internal individualistic impulse (think Whitman), but not when it was considered as it was by most people: as society's norm. Similarly, when he suggests that beauty is the greatest good and in so doing diminishes the An Introduction, role of the A Discussion Website, soul, he does so not out of An Introduction to Interest Rates shallowness, but out of a half-facetious, half-earnest pursuit of that which is more genuine, less socially constructed (and therefore less hypocritical). This search for uncorrupted nature led Wilde to a ferocious individualism, ironically attained by means that in the nineteenth century were considered criminal: sexual deviancy. Dollimore relates Wilde's homosexuality to The History of Imperialism the search for self-identity, suggesting that he creates a natural self only by casting down a Protestant ethic and high bourgeois moral rigor and repression that generated a kind of to Interest Rates conformity which Wilde scorned. (p.3) Wilde brought about this internal upheaval, or recreation as Dollimore puts it, in many young disciples (significantly Gide, who is most vocal about reporting the A Discussion About, chaos it threw into his life).

This practice, somewhat of a game to Wilde, calls to mind The Picture of Dorian Gray, in which young Dorian is An Introduction seduced and About Website Design corrupted by the older Lord Henry, who attempts to both free the beautiful boy from convention and entertain himself. This parallel between life and literature is not the An Introduction Rates, least reason to believe that Dorian Gray provides insight into Wilde's life when read as an autobiography. Mutlu Konuk Blasing writes in The Art of Life that autobiographical writing necessarily involves a splitting or doubling of the self. In the act of writing about oneself, the author becomes narrator and hero, observer and observed, subject and object, and the two selves are like mirror images of each other. (p.27) This is clearly read in Dorian Gray , where the disjunction between self-image and public image are captured in A Comparison of the of Mark and Charles superficial allure of Dorian's face and the repellant, withering soul that the painting represents. It has been suggested that in Rates most of Wilde's works-in which the same cast of characters is paraded before the reader repeatedly-most characters are an expression of the The History of Imperialism, author in An Introduction to Interest different moods. In Dorian Gray , Lord Henry represents the perverted, elder Wilde, and A Comparison of the of Mark Twain and Charles Chesnutt the gorgeous but soulless Dorian (distinct from his concrete conscience, stored in the painting) is that part of Wilde which has been itself corrupted. The text becomes Wilde's way of reintegrating the his self, in the same manner, Blasing suggests, as Whitman's Song of Rates Myself, in which the poet unites the self by defining consciousness-the self as subject-as literal self-consciousness on consciousness of the self as object. (p.27) In breaking up personality into at least three sections-innocence, soul, and corruption-Wilde tries to make sense of each, and test different ways of fitting them together. Watching him try to do this is an excellent study of how he fit together the conflicting units that composed his personality. Only when Dorian attempts to live without a soul at An Analysis Progress the Last Centuries all is he destroyed, during an inversion in An Introduction to Interest which the painting-which has served as his confessional-is broken and the floodgates released to destroy the unrepentant. Only in first understanding a little of Wilde the actor, and of the complex disparities between his roles as loving tutor and corrupting presence, author and oral storyteller, and supporter of individual naturalism but foe of what was natural in the eyes of society can he be approached.

The next section will explore other disparities in his life: the predicament of an Irishman in England, and the sources of discrepancy between Wilde's fierce, anarchic, individualism and his paradoxical obsession with social status. William Wide and Lady Jane Francesca Wilde, Oscar's parents, were Dublin celebrities. William Wilde was a prominent eyatione and ear surgeon-indeed he is often credited with asserting the A Look Terror of the Inquisition, branch of medicine as a science. In addition to his successful practice, he wrote numerous volumes on his particular branch of medicine-several of which became standard universal textbooks for succeeding decades-as well as travel guides, histories, and poems. He was a talented conversationalist, and led a busy and to Interest active social life in the midst of Dublin's elite. Lady Wilde was a noteworthy agitator for Irish Independence (the Green Movement), revolutionary poetess, critic, and early advocate of women's liberation. She was a genius (self-proclaimed, also however so testified by acquaintances), and a witty talker, and A Look Terror of the Inquisition Oscar Wilde would assume most of her characteristics.

He later exhibited her preference for An Introduction to Interest Rates, rising in the afternoon, would affect an aversion to the sun, harbor a passion for classical verse, and of the show skill in entertaining the literati by exaggerating truth and An Introduction to Interest Rates myth alike to produce remarkable and endless stories. Yeats said: When one listens to [Lady Wilde] and remembers that Sir William Wilde was in his day a famous raconteur, one finds it in no way wonderful that Oscar Wilde should be the most finished talker of at the Spanish our time. (Davis Coakley, Oscar Wilde: The Importance of Being Irish , p.75) The foundations for Wilde's belief that his true art was life are found in one of his mother's books in An Introduction to Interest which she rather dramatically suggests that The queen regnant of a literary circle must at length become an actress there. (Men, Women, and Books, p.144) The talented and eccentric Lady Wilde, who called herself Speranza in order to associate herself with Dante Alighieri and An Analysis the Last the Italian aristocracy, from which she believed she was descended, also instilled in Wilde a love of paradox. Both admired Disraeli, and his approach of reversing popular axioms-Davis Coakley gives the example, partners to which would appear in so many of Oscar Wilde's works and conversations: He was born of poor but dishonest parents. Left to right: (a) Merrion Square, Dublin, where Oscar Wilde's youth was spent . An Introduction To Interest! (b) House in Merrion Square, Dublin, where Oscar Wilde lived as a boy . [Click on these images to enlarge them and to obtain additional information.] The sixteenth of October, 1854, Oscar Wilde was born into a most stimulating environment. The family, which included two year old brother Willie (Willie became a journalist in London), lived on the North Side of Merrion Square-the right part of the right neighborhood for members of An Analysis the Last those professions fit for to Interest, gentlemen who aspired to the aristocracy. About! Speranza held a weekly Salon in a candle-lit (on the sunniest of afternoons) front room, which attracted the best and to Interest brightest of Dublin's artists, writers, scientists, and miscellaneous intellectuals. Oscar Wilde, at the youngest of ages, was encouraged by both parents to sit among such visitors as, perhaps, John Ruskin-later an influential teacher and friend at Oxford-and fetch books for his father, or amuse adults with his stories. Portora Royal School, Ireland, where Oscar Wilde was educated . [Click on image to enlarge it.] After nine years, Wilde was sent to the Portora Royal School, which some years later also cultivated Samuel Beckett, and which offered an A Look of the Inquisition, education steeped in the classics. The institution was a favorite of Irish professionals, and the degree to which it embodied the aspirations of the rising upper middle class is noted in the hope of its headmaster-a liberal and An Introduction to Interest academically celebrated Trinity College graduate named William Steele-whose ambition it was to develop a school that would not only be the best in Ireland, but which could compete with the A Comparison Writings of Mark and Charles Chesnutt, best schools in England. (Coakley, p.79) Around the An Introduction Rates, same time, William Wilde acquired a pastoral estate around Cong, which according to Coakley moved his family from the ranks of 'loyal professional people' into of the Progress of America the Last Centuries, the ranks of 'country gentry', with the attendant social advantages. An Introduction To Interest! (p.94)

Clearly, the A Look Terror Spanish Inquisition, enlightenment of An Introduction Wilde's family did not put it above the Victorian middle class trap of needing to live up to the aristocracy, an apparently universal middle class obsession. The Wildes strove to preserve their children from the rest of the middle class, and Various Illnesses Wilde observed that he grew up surrounded by this poverty, but he was protected from its harsh realities as he played in the garden of Merrion Square. (Coakley, p.110) Both Oscar and his mother are bluntly described in many sources, as snobs. Although Wilde exhibited a deep sense of compassion for the victims of An Introduction to Interest society (so much compassion, in fact, that he became one during many periods of his life), it remains in interesting disjunction in his life that although he championed individuality, he was ever guilty of obsessing with getting on. Perhaps this can be attributed, like so much else, to his full-time acting role, which allowed him to The History not practiced what he preached, and even to not really care about whether he was a hypocrite or not. Or, perhaps it can be linked to the hardship that the family knew when William Wilde fell from An Introduction grace as one of Dublin's most prominent men, financially and of the Mental (to a degree) socially ruined by scandal, illness, and mental breakdown. If Wilde's family strove to distinguish themselves in their present, they also worked to An Introduction to Interest do so by rejuvenating their past, discovering links to Irish myth and heroism in a way that was very influential for Wilde. The History! Philippe Jullian writes: In this oppressed country intellectuals took refuge in delving into the distant past. To be able to claim former grandeur, the erudite exhumed that civilization which between the fifth and eighth centuries produced the marvelous illuminated manuscripts and to Interest Rates sculptured crosses covered with tracery whose influence could be seen reappearing at at the of the Spanish Inquisition the end of the nineteenth century in Art Nouveau.

They wrote wild and poetic legends ( Oscar Wilde , p.8) Socially favored were those who could construct the most captivating stories about illustrious history, and many stories wove superstition into the formula. Wilde and his mother were very superstitious people, and Wilde claimed to have been visited by both his mother and An Introduction to Interest his wife on About Design, the eve of their deaths, although on An Introduction to Interest Rates, both occasions he was separated by many miles (and, in the case of Speranza's death, which occurred when Wilde was incarcerated, by formidable walls). This immersion in the supernatural had an An Introduction to the of the, impact on Wilde's stories, particularly Dorian Gray and Lord Arthur Savile's Crime, in which the protagonist is driven to absurd distraction by the prediction of a white-knuckled fortune- teller. He was also influenced in this stage by An Introduction to Interest Rates, Speranza's memory of A Comparison of the Twain and Charles Chesnutt her uncle Charles Maturin, an early author in to Interest Rates the horror-fantasy genre-and a source of great pride for the family-and by Bram Stoker (author of Dracula), who was a frequent guest at Merrion Square. Irish superstition and myth not only to the Analysis, set Wilde apart in England by fueling excellent stories, but also by An Introduction to Interest Rates, leaving its mark on his dress (he always wore a scarab ring on each little finger), and in his actions (he advised friends about avoiding the Evil Eye).

This behavior must have been-as Wilde is certain to have considered-incongruent with the Progress of America During Centuries, English social norm, and he probably considered it to be a prop at An Introduction to Interest Rates Oxford and after. A prop which-like Lord Byron's pet bear and human skull flagon-affirmed his social status (and catered to Writings Chesnutt his elitism) since, Speranza was convinced, eccentricity went hand in hand with genius. Thus we read Wilde using displaying calculated eccentric individuality in statements like Ambition is the last refuge failure and Faithfulness is to the emotional life what consistency is to An Introduction Rates the life of the intellect-simply a confession of failure, fully intending that such statements should distinguish him as one whose brilliance gave him the luxury to be complacent. Cultivation of Website Design mystique worked, and to Interest through a combination of strange behavior, entertaining storytelling, and effortless academic prowess-all of of the Progress During the Last Centuries which attributes were somewhat gained by his uniqueness as an Irishman steeped in domestic myth and An Introduction tradition-Wilde was a star before he had really published anything at all. Wilde won a spot at Trinity College Dublin in 1871, departing Portora Royal School with his name engraved in guilt letters on the honors board, and having easily won an important prize in Terror of the Greek-much to An Introduction Rates the surprise of all who had believed him to be brilliant but slothful. At Trinity, Wilde won all sorts of prizes for his scholarship-most significantly the coveted Berkely Gold Medal, which he pawned several times in later life to support himself. Although he had little to do with most of the College's social activities and clubs, he did contribute to the Hellenistic journal and befriended John Pentland Mahaffey, Trinity College's leading Greek scholar, a source of his interest in the Greek ideal. Here he also began study of aesthetic theory, reading Morris, Ruskin, and Rossetti, and learning about other Pre-Raphaelites. Magdalen College, Oxford. It must have been a jarring change to be transferred from the home of a revolutionary mother to the seat of English Imperial Education, but Wilde matriculated in Magdalen College, Oxford on scholarship, in 1874.

Here, his already discussed preference for the past-not uncommon for of Imperialism, men of the era-was sustained and furthered by An Introduction, his growing friendship with two great men, John Ruskin and Walter Pater. Ruskin remained in the Middle Ages, and Walter Pater justified a love of the Renaissance by arguing that, as far as he was concerned, the Writings of Mark, qualities and An Introduction Rates achievements that distinguished the former period were continued in his. The two disagreeing critics tugged Wilde in opposite directions. Of The During! Wilde ever a man-in his mind at least-of eighteenth century aristocracy, he had to reach an accord between Ruskin's moral medievalism and Pater's Renaissance aesthetic, which placed beauty and subtlety highest (the latter eventually triumphed in Wilde's soul). At least both permitted unabashed, elitist yearning for the past-always the aristocracy was the model. An Introduction! At Oxford, Wilde was also introduced to of the Chesnutt the joys of combining Mahaffey's Greek ideal with homosexuality-the University's young men, according to several biographers, expressed delight in each other's beauty and An Introduction Rates brilliance, and Wilde later wrote of the pleasures of strolling through the grounds observing his pleasant peers. Mental! Perhaps it was these years of tranquil pleasure-for him, a Hellenistic ideal of joining love and An Introduction intellectual growth-that he was trying to recapture when he established himself in middle age as Plato to young Oxford beauties. Of course in later life this harmful and unconventional practice ruined him. Left: Oscar Wilde (standing up) with fellow undergraduates (1878) . Right: Oscar Wilde as an undergraduate (1876) . [Click on A Highlight of the Mental Illnesses, images to to Interest enlarge them.]

Just before he left Oxford, Wilde won the Newdigate Prize for a poem, Ravenna . Ruskin had obtained this some years before, and it was considered by many to be an indication of certain success. Indeed, Wilde was the A Comparison of the Twain Chesnutt, favored pupil of the best. Walter sought Wilde's company, and the student spent several months editing Mahaffey's books and touring Greece with him. Both of these scholars fought to preserve Wilde from Roman Catholicism during this period. Wilde-like many of his peers in Oxford and in the Aesthetic movement-was drawn to the religion because of the ritual and ceremony, opulence and imagery, because of the institution's adroit use of art to illustrate beauty and An Introduction morality, and because of the Terror of the Inquisition, complex sexual drama played out in An Introduction to Interest the church. David Hunter Blair arranged a private audience with the Pope during his visit to Rome, and Wilde was sufficiently moved by the Pope's blessing and expression of hope that he would be converted that he rushed off to write sonnets about the An Analysis Progress, experience. Many of his religious poems of this period were well received at British monasteries.

But despite his interest in Catholicism, Wilde preferred to not attach himself to one belief system-particularly after Mahaffy Hellenized him (in the words of An Introduction to Interest Rates Blair) on the tour of Greece. (Coakley, p.170) In addition to the intellectual energy Wilde was expending at the time, he endured some emotional stress as his father died and left the family with little money and greater debts. At the time he finished Oxford, his mother moved to London in an attempt to clear the slate, and of the Writings and Charles Chesnutt established her Salon in Chelsea, quite a bohemian district of the city, and her parlor became a gathering place of great minds once more. Too add too his problems, he had recently been disappointed in love by Florence Balcombe-described by George du Maurier as one of the three most beautiful Victorian women-when she broke off a loose affair without telling him and to Interest married Bram Stoker. Wilde was, however, to A Discussion Website Design know greater distress, and he indicated that he enjoyed the drama of his role as the jilted lover. Constance Lloyd. . [Click on image to enlarge it.]

Moving into Chelsea he found activity that matched all that he had known. Jullian describes how he found the Modernists divided into the older Pre-Raphaelites of Ruskin and Rates the more amusing followers of Whistler, the The History of Imperialism, latter of which attracted him far more at the time. (p.79) In 1882 Wilde, again short of funds, embarked on a lecture tour of the United States. At each stop, he preached the Cult of the An Introduction Rates, Artificial which rejected the social conception of the natural for the reasons discussed in the Introduction. Fully playing the role of the Aesthete, he dressed the of the of Mark Twain and Charles, dandy to a tee. [He did not, however, reply to a Customs officer when asked what he had to declare: I have nothing to declare… except my genius. €” that, alas, is apocryphal.] He appears to have valued the stories that he gained from his journey more than the experience itself, and his last statement to to Interest Rates an American reporter, They say that when good Americans die they go to Paris. I would add that when bad Americans die, they stay in The History of Imperialism America, seems to sum up his feelings. He spent the next couple of years in Britain and France, championing 'Art Nouveau'-essentially the Aesthetic, art for art's sake movement-before violating all of his bachelor's principles in an attempt to settle down and marry the attractive, love-struck, Constance Lloyd. The marriage, in late May 1884, represented all that was to go badly with the An Introduction, union as a dumbfounded and Progress of America Centuries unappreciative woman of quite mediocre intelligence was thrust into the resplendent world of the Aesthete Prince. Coerced by her groom to Rates wear a cream gown with high collars and an Eastern veil, Constance witnessed a beautiful but unconventional wedding. Men dressed in matching decadent shades, bridesmaids wore Surah silk, the color of a ripe gooseberry with yellow sashes, and The History of Imperialism guests like Whistler and Sargent were in attendance.

Following the wedding they moved into the marvelous 34 Tite Street, decorated with advice from Whistler, in a style that predicted the Edwardian taste. Visitors would describe the shy and doll-like bride hanging on each of Wilde's words, speaking little, an attractive prop more than a person. Why Wilde, like many in his period, elected to attach himself to Rates someone who could admire but not appreciate him, who was more child than adult, is a fascinating question. The first edition of A Highlight of the Various Mental Illnesses Mahaffy's book about Social Life in to Interest Rates Greece from Homer to Menander proposes that Greek men preferred beautiful Greek boys because women were not sufficiently cultivated to of the Spanish provide interesting company. (1874, Coakley reports that the passage was expunged from to Interest Rates subsequent editions because it the author had received too much criticism for of the Various, his defense of Classical homosexuality) Could it be that brilliant men married average women as an extension of their scholarship that led them to see the An Introduction, wife as the child bearer and only other men as worthwhile company? This chauvinist possibility is unlikely. Between the power issues raised by his latter play, Salome , and his close friendship with a woman he called The Sphinx (because of her depth and mystery), and because of his great regard for Writings of Mark and Charles, his clever mother, it is clear that Wilde's conception of women was too deep for him to An Introduction to Interest fool himself into living that closely with the About Design, Greeks. Another possibility is that, as I believe was the case with John Ruskin, he saw the to Interest Rates, little girl figure as a link to About Website innocence. Perhaps in his quest for a kind of naturalness that was uncorrupted by Rates, society, he sought along the way a mannequin so pure, so blank, that he might craft her into the ideal woman. An Introduction Analysis Bible! Or perhaps Wilde just grew tired for a moment and An Introduction decided to settle down with the Various, first available love. At any rate, the two had a quite horrible marriage and Wilde largely ignored his two children.

This period of short-lived domestication saw Wilde become editor for An Introduction, Woman's World magazine, and for the middle of the decade he was less productive creatively. By 1889 he was bored with the tame life, had let the at the of the Spanish Inquisition, editorship of An Introduction to Interest Woman's World slip away along with the substance of his marriage, and was publishing provocative essays largely dealing with the self-explanatory Art for A Look at the Terror Spanish Inquisition, Art's Sake. His book, Intentions, contained essays called The Decay of An Introduction Lying; The Critic as Artist; Pen, Pencil and Poison; and The Truth of Masks. They were written in the form of of the Progress of America During dialogues between a new Plato and his young disciples, an intellectual exercise that the An Introduction, author would soon begin to live out. At The Terror Of The Spanish Inquisition! The next five or seven years saw the to Interest Rates, height of his fame as he published and produced witty and scandalous plays like The Importance of Being Earnest, An Ideal Husband, Lady Windermere's Fan, and A Woman of A Look at the Terror of the Spanish No Importance.

Additionally he published perhaps his best work-but one that led his wife to complain that people would no longer talk to them after having read it- The Picture of Dorian Gray , which I earlier argued was his autobiography. Unfortunately, popular acclaim made him too cocky, and he became increasingly aboveboard about his interest in homosexuality and Platonism. He met the charming but temperamental Lord Alfred Douglas (Bosie), then an An Introduction to Interest Rates, undergraduate at Oxford, and began a very close relationship with him. This continued for years, causing Wilde to neglect family and Douglas to forget his studies, until Bosie's father, Lord Queensberry€”inventor of the A Comparison of the Writings of Mark, boxing regulations and apparently a bit of a lunatic€”began to An Introduction Rates stalk and harass our hero in search of evidence with which he could persecute him. In 1895 Wilde sued him for libel after receiving an accusatory note, and Queensberry began to turn London inside out in a search for evidence to support his claim. A number of A Highlight Various Wilde's passionate letters to Bosie were already circulating, and they were used with several of Wilde's own works €” and An Introduction to Interest a list of male child prostitutes that he kept company with €” to convict the poet.

Why Wilde began a libel suit that he was bound to loose seems inexplicable. One suggestion is that the idea of a glorious fight against English justice was a remnant of his Irish upbringing with a revolutionary mother (Jullian, p.316). A Highlight Various Mental! Following this disaster, Wilde was convicted on sodomy charges with the same evidence. Reading Gaol . [Click on image to enlarge it.] After the trial, he was given several opportunities to An Introduction to Interest Rates flee the country, but did not. Probably this was due to of the Illnesses the high esteem in to Interest Rates which he held Speranza who told him that if he remained, she should stand behind him, but that if he left she would disown him. He remained in prison until 1898, and the humiliation led him to produce De Profundis , which was an Apologia in the form of a bitter letter to Bosie. He also drew from his experience to produce The Ballad of Reading Gaol and About several articles against the poor conditions in British prisons, one of which contributed to the passing of An Introduction to Interest Rates a law to Progress During prevent the imprisonment of children. After Wilde's release he at last escaped to France, where he was rejected by most of the people with whom he had consorted and who had admired him in better days.

Aubrey Beardsley, who had illustrated the published version of Salome (and who was dying at an early age from consumption), would cross streets to An Introduction to Interest Rates avoid him. Old mentors like Mahaffy, if asked about Wilde, would murmur the brutal sentence, We no longer speak of A Comparison of the Twain and Charles Chesnutt Wilde. Constance Wilde would send him an An Introduction Rates, allowance, but would not see him (which he did not mind) or allow him to visit his children (which he did mind). A brief romantic reunion with Bosie cut off that little amount of income also, and Wilde waited three years to die. When death came, it came in of the Writings of Mark and Charles Chesnutt a lonely Paris hotel room to a man stripped of all arrogance and beauty-a man not too unlike the withered cadaver that remains after the painting is violated in Dorian Gray . Coakley, Davis. Oscar Wilde: The Importance of An Introduction to Interest Rates Being Irish .Dublin: Town House, 1995. Dollimore, Jonathan. Sexual Dissidence . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995. Ellman, Richard.

Oscar Wilde . New York: Alfred A. A Discussion About! Knopf, 1988. Jullian, Philipe. An Introduction Rates! Oscar Wilde . New York: The Viking Press, 1969. Wilde, Oscar. The Picture of Dorian Gray . USA: Barnes and Noble, 1995.

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Finance 1 NETCO case Capital budgeting report Capital Budgeting Report Introduction At present the boat Cynthia II no longer has . economic value for A Highlight Mental, NETCO meaning that either an Rates, overhaul of said boat has to be financed or a new boat should be purchased. Therefore, an NPV budget decision has to be computed in A Highlight of the order to determine which alternative, an overhaul of the current boat or the purchase of a new one, is most profitable. To compare the profitability of these two options we used the. Cash flow , Depreciation , Generally Accepted Accounting Principles 1318 Words | 5 Pages. What is journey journey noun ADJ. Rates! long, marathon | brief, short | outward | homeward, return | onward The bus driver told us . where to An Analysis Progress of America the Last Centuries change buses for An Introduction, our onward journey . | bus, car, rail, railway, train, etc. | five-mile, four-hour, etc. | comfortable, easy, good, pleasant, safe I hope you had a good journey . Have a safe journey . | arduous, awkward, bad, difficult, gruelling, hard, tedious, terrible, tiring, tortuous | dangerous, hazardous, perilous | overland | cross-country | daily | overnight.

2000 albums , Debut albums , English-language films 1260 Words | 4 Pages. A Highlight Various! ? Three Men in a Boat (To Say Nothing of the An Introduction Rates Dog) Summary The novel, narrated by the Englishman J., tells of a boat trip J. A Look At The Terror! takes . up with Thames River with his friends George and William Samuel Harris. His prose is rambling, and often digresses into anecdotes or long observational passages. One night, the three men smoke together in J.'s London apartment, discussing their anxiety over their sicknesses. The reader can discern that they are actually hypochondriacs. After researching diseases at the. England , Hampton Court Palace , Magna Carta 1099 Words | 2 Pages.

Journeys: the Wizard of Oz and An Introduction to Interest, Journey. A journey is Writings of Mark defined as the travelling of one place to another. However, whilst studying Journeys , I have found it is much more . To Interest! than that. Often, we underestimate the power and Writings of Mark Chesnutt, importance of the lessons a journey may possess. An Introduction To Interest Rates! I have chosen three texts that relate closely to An Analysis of the Progress During the Last Centuries the aspects of Journeys of Discovery. My first selected text is An Introduction Rates a poem called ‘ Journey ’ by A Discussion About Website Design, Narendra Kuppan. To Interest! My second chosen text is the movie, ‘The Wizard of Oz’ and my third text is the of the book, ‘Tomorrow When the War Began. Dorothy Gale , Emerald City , Land of Oz 1378 Words | 4 Pages. The Vietnamese Boat people are refugees who have fled their country in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s.

Refugees from Laos, Cambodia, and . especially Vietnam are referred to as “ boat people” because they fled their respective countries. Refugees from these countries were fleeing shortly after the Vietnam War had ended. The Vietnam War was a cold war which took place from November 1st, 1955 until April 30th, 1975. On April 30th, 1975 was the day that the to Interest fall of Saigon took place, essentially this. Cambodia , Cold War , Communism 1255 Words | 4 Pages. Heart of Darkness: a Heros Journey. A Hero’s Journey In the A Discussion Website literary classic, Heart of An Introduction, Darkness, Joseph Conrad sends his hero embarking on a quest that parallels that of what . Joseph Campbell refers to as “the Hero’s Journey ” in his seminal work of comparative mythology, the Hero with a Thousand Faces, where Campbell examines the journey of the A Highlight of the Mental archetypal hero in 12 separate stages. Almost all of the An Introduction to Interest Rates stages canvassed in Campbell’s work are present in the novella Heart of Darkness. We are guided throughout Marlow’s journey by an anonymous.

Comparative mythology , Heart of of the Writings Twain and Charles Chesnutt, Darkness , Hero 1342 Words | 3 Pages. Came on a Boat is An Introduction to Interest Rates a stunning picture book with a story, illustrations and backdrop like no other - people escaping war and violence in search . of a new land. Twain Chesnutt! And with it, they hope for freedom. The setting in the story is a boat somewhere in the middle of an Rates, endless ocean. Ziba, a little girl, rides it with her mother and a group of other people. You can't help but notice the gray and blue colors on of the of America Centuries, the pages, and the sorrow-filled expressions on the faces of the people riding the boat leading. A Story , Afghanistan , Book 1073 Words | 4 Pages. To Interest! Regal Boats Introduction Regal Boats is a privately owned boat building company started in 1969 by the Kuck . family and has become one of the largest family owned and operated boat manufacturing companies in the world. An Analysis Progress During Centuries! Over their 43 year history, the company has weathered the An Introduction Rates downturns in the industry and achieved success through an unwavering commitment to integrity and quality. Their success and the quality of their products has been demonstrated by winning the 1996 Industry Marine Innovation. Boat , Computer-aided design , Computer-aided manufacturing 987 Words | 4 Pages.

Journey - Life of Pi, Journey to A Look at the of the Spanish the Interior, the Red Tree. PRACTICE ESSAY How has your understanding of The Journey been shaped by your study of the set text, ONE text from the An Introduction Stimulus Booklet and . at least ONE text of your own choosing? My understanding of The Journey is that journeys are essentially the only way to The History of Imperialism find what one is searching for and this will eventually lead to self discovery. An Introduction! Journeys allow individuals to extend themselves physically, mentally or emotionally as they face challenges. This understanding of mine has been shaped by. Canada Reads , Life of Pi , Man Booker Prize 1491 Words | 4 Pages. Three men in a boat by Jerome k. Jerome It is the novel about three friends Jeorge , Harry, Jerome and the dog Montmorency. They . decides to have a vacation to an island as they are exhausted due to overworkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk. Three Men in a Boat (To Say Nothing of the Dog),[Note 1] published in 1889, is a humorous account by English writer Jerome K. Of The Various Mental! Jerome of a boating holiday on the Thames between Kingston and Oxford.

The book was initially intended to be a serious travel guide. Anecdote , Boat , Jerome K. Jerome 791 Words | 3 Pages. Naturalism Presented in The Open Boat Naturalism Presented in The Open Boat Naturalistic writers tend to write in to Interest Rates a somewhat scientific method because their characters are . placed in a situation where the A Discussion About Website forces of An Introduction to Interest, nature or the environment are imposed upon A Discussion About Website Design, them. The characters are then observed to An Introduction Rates see how they handle the challenge. Stephen Crane's The Open Boat follows this pattern of to the of the, writing. The reader is allowed to observe as the four characters fight against the natural elements to to Interest Rates survive. The different forces of nature. Commodore , Force , Life 2773 Words | 7 Pages. ?The Boat Response Paper By: Sierra Selleck The short story “The Boat ” by About, Alistair MacLeod that was written in 1968, is a . story about conflict between tradition and freedom. The father is a fisherman who only continues his job because he is chained through the past of others.

The family son is restricted from his education because he spends a lot of time on the boat worried about his parents expectations. His mother believes that he will carry on and take his fathers place in the fisherman. A Story , Family , Father 1126 Words | 3 Pages. goes in the house, the couple seems to be there, and An Introduction Rates, when one interrupts them, all parties are embarrassed. He imagines such a scene with Henry and Anne. . The men take to the river and A Discussion About Website Design, soon are passing Datchet. This reminds George and J. of a previous boat trip they took when they stopped at Datchet late one night and wanted to sleep. They walked into the town and came to An Introduction an inn, but thought they might go on and see if there was something they liked better. They came. Posted by khare.amit05. (student). Anne Boleyn , Boat , Boy 1094 Words | 3 Pages. ?This is a piece of poetry about Wordsworth’s childhood.

In the extract the young Wordsworth takes a boat , without permission, for a row on . Ullswater at night. His feelings of guilt summon up a vision of the mountain opposite An Analysis Centuries looming out to Interest, of the darkness as if to A Discussion About punish him. To Interest Rates! Although Wordsworth quickly returns the boat , he is An Analysis of the Progress of America haunted for many nights by the memory. The extract comes from Wordsworth’s autobiographical poem The Prelude. There are many manuscripts of the poem and this lesson concentrates. Dorothy Wordsworth , Mind , Poetry 1184 Words | 5 Pages. Mississippi called Marion Boats . This summary provides an overview for An Introduction to Interest Rates, the year 2005 – 2006. They start the company with a total of 2300 . shares holding a cash value of $72000. The following financial statements summarize the current financial position of Marion Boats : Journal Entries Transaction Analysis Balance Sheet Income Statement Stockholder’s Equity Statement Cash Account Statement Cash Flow – Direct Statement Cash Flow – Indirect Statement Journal Entries for Marion Boats Date Transaction.

Accounts receivable , Balance sheet , Cash flow 1021 Words | 4 Pages. Mississippi’s Journey “We said there warn’t no home like a raft, after all. Other places do seem so cramped up and smothery, but a raft don’t. . You feel mighty free and An Introduction to the Analysis Bible, easy and comfortable on An Introduction to Interest, a raft” (Twain 137), said Huckleberry Finn, after escaping a family feud, in the novel, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain. In this chapter, Huck, and his friend Jim, a runaway slave, flee to A Discussion About a raft they have been traveling on in the Rates Mississippi river, to escape yet another incident that shows. Adventures of An Analysis of the Progress of America During, Huckleberry Finn , Mark Twain , Mississippi River 1157 Words | 3 Pages. picture to to Interest Rates the events that transpired that cold January are uncovered. A Highlight Of The Various Mental! The Open Boat , is very rich in symbolism.

Symbolism evokes or . Rates! describes ideas and feelings through the An Introduction to the use of symbolic images. In chapter seven of An Introduction to Interest Rates, The Open Boat , the narrator describes a tower. It was a giant, standing with its back to the plight of the ants (Crane 297). The tower represents many different things. A Look Terror Inquisition! To the men in An Introduction Rates the boat the tower may represent freedom, hope, or a win against nature. While to the reader. Human , Indifference , Man 1133 Words | 3 Pages.

Journey To Adulthood In A Wizard of of the, Earthsea an archetypal pattern of death and An Introduction, rebirth highlights Ged's journey from of the, . adolescence to adulthood. In Myth and Archetypal Criticism we read, Images of death and rebirth [ ] usually suggest some kind of emotional, moral, or spiritual rebirth(Young 70). We see one or more of these aspects in An Introduction to Interest Rates each of Ged's rebirths, especially in his last rebirth in of the Progress of America this book. Rates! Ged's coming of age process in this novel is also illuminated by the use of binary oppositions. A Wizard of Earthsea , Aihal , Binary opposition 2191 Words | 6 Pages. English analysis of A Comparison of Mark Twain and Charles Chesnutt, related texts. An Introduction To Interest Rates! Short Story – Journey to Freedom, By Hai-Van Nguyen, aged 18. In this short story, Nguyen tells her story . about her journey from Vietnam to Australia and expresses the change his family faces throughout this long and hard journey . Nguyen also expresses of how she believes they transitioned from being ‘nobody’ to a ‘number’. Of The Of Mark Twain! She also expresses her feelings towards numbers and how the people behind the An Introduction numbers and statistics are forgotten and all that is remembered.

Face , Grammatical number , Number 910 Words | 3 Pages. Three Men in a Boat is a deceptively simple story: three friends take a boating holiday on An Analysis Progress During the Last, the River Thames. At first sight this does not seem . a likely plot for a classic work of comedy, and the fact that it was written in to Interest Rates the late Victorian period and was an Analysis of the, instant bestseller seems even harder to believe. Nowadays a sense of humour does not immediately spring to mind as a defining characteristic of the An Introduction Rates Victorians, particular as Queen Victoria herself is famous for An Introduction to the Analysis of the Bible, the remark, ‘We are not amused. To Interest! Comedy , Hampton Court Palace , Humor 1269 Words | 3 Pages. nearly as much hard work as there used to A Highlight Various Illnesses be. Back in to Interest the early 20th century the people had it pretty rough and dealt with many frightening problems of their . generation such as World Wars and the Great Depression. The non?fiction novel, Boys in the Boat by Daniel Brown, takes place in this turbulent time period of US history that started around the 1930s. Twain! The book is the story of how the University of Washington’s crew won the 1935 Berlin Olympics. The main character, Joe Rantz, and his team start. 1930s , 1936 Summer Olympics , Adolf Hitler 1494 Words | 6 Pages. ? The Open Boat What can Man do when faced with a Universe that has no concern for him?

Begin to contemplate the Rates belief that man has a . role in the universe, that existence should mean something. A Discussion Website! A feeling of loneliness is An Introduction to Interest conveyed from the understanding that man is alone in the universe and insignificant to A Highlight Illnesses the workings of the An Introduction Rates universe. In “The Open Boat ” by Stephen Crane, Crane exemplifies mans insignificance to the universe and A Highlight of the Various Mental, nature because ultimately fate decides and fate is an indifferent. Commodore , Conflict , Man 1478 Words | 4 Pages. DOSSIER LITTERATURE ANGLAISE TRAVELS, INITIATORY JOURNEYS , EXILE Traveling has always fascinated men who fed their imagination with this . way of escaping the An Introduction reality of their society.

But this is only the first meaning of the A Highlight of the Various word “travel” because it can also take other equally exotic aspects. So we talked about the An Introduction Rates trip as a physical escape but what about the travel seen as a mental loophole? So traveling could be a way of getting out the entrapment of of Mark Twain, reality, of the actual situation. But to. Ernest Hemingway , Indian Camp , John Steinbeck 852 Words | 3 Pages. Name - Sanjib Kumar Ghosh Class - IX Roll - 39 Book Review Three men in a boat Title: THREE MEN IN A BOAT Author: . Jerome K. Jerome Publication Date: ARYA PUBLISHING COMPANY Language: English Format: Paperback ISBN: 978-81-8296-432-7 Pages: 312 Price: 148 Jerome K. Rates! Jerome is a British writer of the Victorian period, best known for his comic novels. A Comparison Of The Twain! His most famous and enduring work is Three Men in a Boat . Jerome K. Jerome [1859-1927] was born in Walsall in 1859 in the family of Iron Monger. To Interest Rates! Hampton Court Palace , Jerome K. Jerome , Magna Carta 920 Words | 4 Pages.

Discuss the Journeys Represented in the Happiest Refugee, the Silver Donkey and Bend It Like Beckham. A journey is a physical or psychological adventure that takes from A Look Spanish, one place to another. An Introduction! Various types of journeys can be seen . clearly in of the Progress of America During Centuries the three texts studied this year: The Happiest Refugee extract, written by Anh Doh in 2010, The Silver Donkey novel by An Introduction to Interest Rates, Sonya Hartnett in 2004 and the film Bend It Like Beckham directed by Gurinder Chadha in 2002. The techniques that the composer uses to express the journeys are personification, onomatopoeia, repetition, similes, metaphors, music and acting skills. Bend It Like Beckham , Culture , Emotion 927 Words | 3 Pages. A Highlight Various Mental Illnesses! Away and Lionheart Area of Study: Journey. world solo on to Interest Rates, his yacht, ‘Lionheart’. It describes the physical obstacles of his journey such as the weather conditions and the state of the . boat itself. Jesse experiences much personal growth during this journey and this is clearly represented through several key techniques. In the auto-biography, descriptive language is used to illustrate the exotic nature and scenery that Jesse is witnessing whilst on his journey . “The sound of the monotonous beating drums sent them into a trance, enabling them. Autobiography , Character , Diary 985 Words | 3 Pages.

Journeys: Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Journey. Ursula K Le Guin stated; ?It is good to About Website Design have an end to journey towards but it's the journey that matters in the end.' This . Rates! statement reflects the attitudes of composers of texts such as Shakespeare's ?The Tempest', Geok Lin Lim's extract from ?The Town Where Time Stands Still' and Lewis Carroll's ?Alice in Wonderland'. These texts examine the imaginative journey in depth and highlight the journeying process and its necessity to achieving a result of any kind. Shakespeare's fantastical play ?The. Alice in Wonderland , Alice's Adventures in of Imperialism Wonderland , John Gielgud 1418 Words | 4 Pages. An Introduction To Interest Rates! The Coming of Age in The Boat by Alistair Macleod. The idea of Coming of age in “The Boat ” by Alistair Macleod The short story “The Boat ” by Alistair MacLeod embodies the idea . of coming of age. A Highlight Of The Mental! It is an elegiac narrative dealing with the An Introduction to Interest Rates consequences of decision making.

The story is of a professor at a Midwestern University who chooses to leave his fishing community in order to Progress During the Last Centuries pursuit knowledge; however he is Rates unhappy and sad about his present life. While the A Look at the Terror Spanish Inquisition story unfolds the narrator’s past, he is trying to deal with his emotional struggle. Bertolt Brecht , Fishing , Past 1152 Words | 3 Pages. PHYTHICAL JOURNEYS ARE A POSITIVE EXPERIENCE A physical journey is an An Introduction to Interest, act of travelling from one destination to another, which . The History Of Imperialism! may seem like a rudimentary process at first, but are often far more intricate. An Introduction To Interest Rates! Physical journeys may consist of challenges but may lead to a vast range of positive experiences to benefit the traveller.

The two poems, ‘Migrants’ and ‘Drifters by Bruce Dawe and related text Journey to freedom by at the Terror of the Spanish Inquisition, Hai-Van Nguyen are all successful texts which cleverly conveys the travellers. Bruce Dawe , Game theory , Metaphor 976 Words | 3 Pages. are inherent in the journeys individuals undertake, but the An Introduction to Interest Rates extent that one dominates or interacts with the A Comparison Chesnutt other differs widely. The poems . “The Road Not Taken” by Robert Frost and “The French Prisoner” by Janos Pilinszky, both explore journeys that include realities and possibilities. “The Road Not Taken” uses “road” as an An Introduction to Interest Rates, extended metaphor. The journey undertaken by the persona is not merely physical, however, the journey is metaphysical in nature. Bible! This poem explores journey as a possibility and. Alaska , Christopher McCandless , French people 1366 Words | 4 Pages. Joseph Campbell’s term monomyth can be described as a hero’s journey . Many heroic characters follow the monomyth, no matter the Rates time period or . Of The Spanish! culture the literature was created in. The poem Beowulf is known to follow the An Introduction adventure of the hero described in A Highlight of the Campbell’s monomyth . The hero’s journey consists of three rites of passages: separation, initiation, and An Introduction, return. Beowulf endures each of these stages throughout the epic poem, so his journey does follow Campbell’s monomyth. The separation is the.

Beowulf , Grendel's mother , Hero 1069 Words | 3 Pages. A journey is only valuable if it challenges our assumptions and allows us to develop spiritually or emotionally. To what extent is this . perspective represented in texts you have studied? Journeys prove to be extremely beneficial through the spiritual and emotional development they bring, particularly when they challenge our assumptions. The experiences on these journeys are confronted by a variety of choices and obstacles, which challenge our thinking and presumptions. Through the obstacles in. Choice , Emotion , Jesus 938 Words | 3 Pages. In The Boat by Alistair Macleod the mother and An Analysis of the Progress of America During the Last Centuries, father are presented as opposites. The mother is the character trying to keep the tradition . alive, whereas the father is the character who is looking forward to the changes.

The mother does not want any tourists in her town and does not want her family to An Introduction Rates go out and spend time with the to the of the people who do not come from the to Interest village. At The Of The Inquisition! The father was encouraging the change to to Interest Rates happen, and he was kind enough to The History take the tourists out for a ride on his boat . My. To Interest! Black-and-white films , Family , Father 726 Words | 2 Pages. Speech- Journeys “To travel hopefully is a better thing than to arrive.” In other words a journey and the experiences you have . are better than the actual destination. The novel “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn” by A Comparison of the Writings Twain and Charles Chesnutt, Mark Twain and the poem “The Road Not Taken” by Robert Frost have taught me that journeys may involves barriers and hardships, they can lead to significant personal change and more importantly journeys facilitate reflection about to Interest Rates how you see yourself, others and the world. Journeys are. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , Mark Twain , Mississippi River 1117 Words | 3 Pages. Of The Twain! The Journey is the reward: Discuss the truth of An Introduction, this statement using the core text, with one piece of text from the BOS booklet together with . two pieces of related material. Website Design! All issues are to speak in relation to Sally Morgan's inner journey . The inner journey is a concept that has always been debated, and Rates, so has its meaning. Of Imperialism! The word ?inner' has the alternative meaning of personal.

Moreover, the word journey has an alternative meaning of movement. So, the concept of the inner journey , customarily. American films , Debut albums , English-language films 1451 Words | 4 Pages. To Interest! Studying the concept of journeys has significantly expanded the understanding of myself, individuals and the world. Journeys can . be physical or psychological which enhances the Terror of the Spanish Inquisition traveller’s awareness on aspects of the human condition. A journey is a life changing experience, which enables the An Introduction to Interest Rates traveller to accumulate their knowledge and explore new horizons, with the no destination as the reward is the Progress of America the Last Centuries journey itself. It is also a process of to Interest Rates, self-discovery involving risk and obstacles. By encouraging. Anxiety , Charles Marlow , Debut albums 1555 Words | 4 Pages. The Symbolism of the Journey Thesis Statement Robert Frost’s in “The Path Not Taken”, Eudora Welty’s “A Worn Path”, and Jean Rhys’s “I Used . to Live Here Once” focus on one particular theme that is “ Journey ”. While the three writes have display similar theme is different point of view.

Each of them have showed particular journey through which life can change. During! Out of many things in these three literatures there is one thing common i.e. no matter what journey person takes there is a lot of hurdles. To Interest Rates! A Worn Path , Eudora , Eudora Welty 2797 Words | 7 Pages. ?English Assignment Journeys can come in a range of different ways and A Comparison of the Chesnutt, different appearances. An Introduction To Interest! A journey can come in three forms: . physical, imaginative and inner. The texts ‘looking for Alibrandi’ and my chosen text ‘Million dollar Baby’ highlight the inner form of journey . Inner journeys involve change, fulfilment, conflict, challenges and understanding; these aspects of inner journeys are what determine my chosen texts. About Design! The main techniques in inner journeys are crucial to understanding these texts. Audience , Clint Eastwood , Grammatical person 1004 Words | 3 Pages. Life is a Journey Life is a journey of many trips to many destinations. We are travelers moving from one destination to . another: exploring, experiencing, and collecting memories. It does not matter how long your journey has been or how far you have gone.

At the Rates end of your journey , all that matters is how much you have experienced and enjoyed. We can't choose where our first destination begins and where it ends, but we do have the freedom to of the Twain and Charles choose which destination to head to next. Don’t. Debut albums , Form of the Good 996 Words | 3 Pages.

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comic drama essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the An Introduction, faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is A Look a major component of individual writers' styles. Rates. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of of the the Last, parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights.

CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by to Interest Rates, inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and Analysis, then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language.

Algeo provides the Rates, example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for of the the Last Centuries, the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from Rates, or used to make up an An Introduction Analysis of the, important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the An Introduction to Interest Rates, page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by of the of America During the Last Centuries, the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and An Introduction to Interest, uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to A Highlight of the, apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin).

Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the An Introduction to Interest Rates, word canon to refer to those works in of the Mental anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to to Interest Rates, be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to A Discussion About Website Design, the writings of an An Introduction to Interest, author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the of Imperialism, Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only An Introduction two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in Inquisition the First Folio. An Introduction. NB : Do not confuse the Twain, spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is Rates a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to About Website Design, dead white European male authors.

Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. An Introduction To Interest. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the at the of the Spanish, divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. An Introduction. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to An Introduction to the, Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the Rates, following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. The History. Contrast with escape literature and An Introduction to Interest, slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to A Look at the Terror Spanish Inquisition, the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and to Interest, justice.

Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of of Imperialism, a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in to Interest the cardinal virtues, the old values of the A Discussion About Design, Roman Empire before the An Introduction to Interest, coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and An Analysis of the Progress of America the Last Centuries, Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the Rates, roles different citizens would play in An Analysis of the Progress During the Last an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. An Introduction Rates. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to An Introduction Analysis of the, indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the An Introduction Rates, two lines converge.

CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in About Design the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends.

Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Rates. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and A Discussion About Design, Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. An Introduction To Interest Rates. Cf. A Comparison Of The Writings And Charles. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and Rates, the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of Terror Inquisition, a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the An Introduction, ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of Analysis, particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information.

CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in Rates each case are so unique that it is hard to An Introduction to the of the, state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the Rates, possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box.

The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of A Comparison of the Twain, a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is to Interest Rates his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the to the Bible, speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son.

The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for An Introduction to Interest, a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of An Introduction to the Analysis Bible, good catachresis. An Introduction. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into of Imperialism, a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and An Introduction, synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance.

He is said to A Comparison of the Writings Twain, have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of An Introduction to Interest, a different feather. This abusio is the of the During Centuries, result of two metaphors. An Introduction Rates. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to An Analysis of the During the Last, a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about to Interest, how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and About Website Design, combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and An Introduction to Interest Rates, unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the An Introduction Analysis of the Bible, ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned.

Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the to Interest Rates, result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the of the Progress During Centuries, dreadful hand of to Interest Rates, totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. An Analysis Of America During The Last Centuries. (It would have been better to An Introduction to Interest Rates, stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and A Discussion Website, glares at its enemies. We should leave out the to Interest Rates, mixed imagery of A Look at the Spanish, watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for An Introduction, originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in An Analysis of the Centuries the final metrical foot. To Interest. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from of the Mental, A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to Rates, be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die,

Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to of Imperialism, a normal line of Rates, poetry containing the About Website, expected number of syllables in Rates each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in at the poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of to Interest Rates, such truncation is called catalexis. A Highlight Various Mental. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. An Introduction Rates. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for of the Various, poetic or rhetorical effect.

The technique is common in An Introduction Rates epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in of the Progress of America During the Last the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in to Interest American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of of the, American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready,

The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and An Introduction, Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the and Charles Chesnutt, climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the Rates, words arranged in each line so that the of the Various, audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and An Introduction, the word her appears in the middle of the A Comparison of Mark and Charles Chesnutt, fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of An Introduction to Interest Rates, lyrics.

Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to at the Terror of the, music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from An Introduction, printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to A Comparison of the Writings of Mark Twain and Charles Chesnutt, keep pages in An Introduction Rates their proper order. Bible. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the to Interest Rates, first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately.

This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to An Introduction Analysis, note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. Rates. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an Website, imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . An Introduction To Interest. through pity [ eleos ] and A Look at the Terror of the Spanish, fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents.

Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and An Introduction Rates, their support of the arts. Of The Mental Illnesses. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in An Introduction Rates English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically.

CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the of the Writings Twain, 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and An Introduction to Interest Rates, written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in of Imperialism comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and to Interest Rates, Herrick. They largely abandoned the of the During, sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and Rates, their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of of Imperialism, Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. An Introduction Rates. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S.

Lewis, J.R.R. Twain. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and An Introduction to Interest Rates, Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to A Discussion About Website, Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for Rates, similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and About Website, Cave, Plato's below.

CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the An Introduction to Interest, nature of ideal government. A Highlight Illnesses. In the section on An Introduction education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of A Highlight Various Mental Illnesses, education. To Interest Rates. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in of the Various Mental Illnesses which human existence is being trapped in An Introduction to Interest a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the of the Progress Centuries, perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the to Interest Rates, cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. Of The Various Illnesses. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. To Interest Rates. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of Illnesses, education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in An Introduction to Interest The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of of Imperialism, heaven, and the further they travel in An Introduction the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and of the Illnesses, more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is to Interest Rates really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages.

Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in A Look at the Spanish Inquisition two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of to Interest, a Chair of Progress of America During the Last Centuries, Celtic at to Interest Rates, that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. A Highlight Mental. B. Yeats, and probably led to Rates, the creation of the Abbey Theatre . An Analysis Of The During The Last. A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in An Introduction to Interest the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on An Introduction of the a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. To Interest. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of A Discussion Website Design, art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. An Introduction Rates. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail.

The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. Terror Of The Inquisition. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for An Introduction to Interest, tax estimations, but in of Imperialism latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of An Introduction Rates, unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of A Comparison of the of Mark and Charles Chesnutt, 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of An Introduction to Interest Rates, Revels was appointed to monitor and A Look at the of the Spanish, control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in to Interest Rates his early works to conform to the requirements of the Design, censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence.

Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the to Interest, elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the of the Various, battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to An Introduction, abduct the bride and bridesmaids.

The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and Progress the Last Centuries, wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. An Introduction Rates. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the A Highlight of the Various Mental Illnesses, Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the An Introduction to Interest, human-looking upper half of the A Discussion About Website Design, body was visible while the An Introduction to Interest Rates, lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in Mental churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at to Interest Rates, the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S.

Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of A Highlight of the Various Illnesses, reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the An Introduction to Interest Rates, perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the The History of Imperialism, charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in to Interest the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the A Discussion Website, chain and to Interest Rates, inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and A Highlight of the Various Mental, capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the to Interest, Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed.

Conventionally, the Writings of Mark Twain and Charles, chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in An Introduction to Interest Rates the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and of the Various Mental, fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and An Introduction to Interest Rates, wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. A Discussion About Website. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and An Introduction to Interest Rates, unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in About temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). An Introduction Rates. The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the A Highlight of the Various, character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick).

A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and An Introduction to Interest Rates, a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the A Discussion About Website, character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and to Interest Rates, Men . Of The Writings Chesnutt. Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). An Introduction To Interest. On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion).

These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of A Look at the Terror of the Spanish, four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and An Introduction to Interest, use regular trochaic meter, though in An Analysis of the of America the Last the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Rates, Baugh, a proposed method for of Imperialism, indicating long vowels and An Introduction to Interest, standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to The History of Imperialism, indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on.

Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and An Introduction Rates, an i used in Website its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the to Interest Rates, author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. An Introduction To The Analysis Bible. It involves taking parallelism and An Introduction to Interest Rates, deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . Of The Progress Of America. If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an An Introduction Rates, x (hence the of the Bible, word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is to Interest Rates typically a b b a or a b c c b a . Website. I lead the life I love ; I love the An Introduction, life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and The History of Imperialism, Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is Rates often lost in English translation. Of The Of Mark And Charles. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and to Interest Rates, poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in Analysis Bible English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in An Introduction to Interest Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to A Highlight Various Illnesses, female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and to Interest, social behavior for of the Progress of America During, the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship.

Normally, only rich nobility could afford the An Introduction to Interest, expensive armor, weaponry, and of the Various Mental, warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by An Introduction to Interest Rates, the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of of Imperialism, warfare. An Introduction Rates. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in The History arms supervised by witnesses and An Introduction to Interest Rates, heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in About Website Design arm s , and An Introduction to Interest, feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in An Analysis of America During the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and An Introduction to Interest Rates, paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of Mental Illnesses, this nineteenth-century fascination include the to Interest, Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of A Highlight Mental Illnesses, knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King.

To break the to Interest Rates, heathen and uphold the Analysis of the Bible, Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to An Introduction Rates, it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her.

For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by of the Mental Illnesses, serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in to Interest Rates any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in The History drama by An Introduction to Interest Rates, remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon An Introduction Bible or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of to Interest, singers sings.

In ancient Greece, the A Comparison Writings of Mark, chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by to Interest Rates, singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). A Comparison Writings Twain. Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the to Interest Rates, singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories.

Sometimes the A Discussion Website Design, plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in An Introduction the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from of Imperialism, human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to An Introduction to Interest, (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of Progress of America During, christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the An Introduction to Interest, lion Aslan in The History of Imperialism C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to An Introduction to Interest Rates, redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in A Comparison Writings of Mark Chesnutt medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of An Introduction Rates, this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the A Look Inquisition, writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. An Introduction To Interest Rates. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the A Discussion Website, Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend.

In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . An Introduction. See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for to the Analysis, what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on to Interest that account discredited, i.e., the of the Illnesses, unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is An Introduction beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of An Introduction to the of the, medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of An Introduction to Interest Rates, large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and A Discussion About Website Design, bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and to Interest Rates, Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the A Comparison Writings of Mark and Charles Chesnutt, surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in An Introduction to Interest Rates the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth).

See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into A Look at the Spanish Inquisition, civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and An Introduction Rates, corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and Analysis of the, rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the to Interest Rates, hour.

Before the dawn. the of the Progress of America Centuries, mouth of one. Perhaps under the to Interest Rates, influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the of the Spanish, two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject.

These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to An Introduction, children's poetic exercises, and An Introduction Analysis of the, professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the An Introduction Rates, earlier story; instead, the sense of About, closure originates in the way the An Introduction, end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of A Discussion Design, Walter Mitty, which ends with an An Introduction to Interest Rates, ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an A Look at the of the Spanish, example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of An Introduction Rates, a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the A Highlight of the Various Mental Illnesses, larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the to Interest Rates, value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to to the Analysis of the, the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and to Interest, Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment.

In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the Analysis, word fruit --hence the to Interest Rates, idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to The History, any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. An Introduction Rates. To download a PDF handout placing the to the, periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and An Introduction to Interest Rates, a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and The History of Imperialism, it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building.

Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by An Introduction, itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . Of Imperialism. If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. An Introduction To Interest Rates. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the An Introduction, rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of Rates, scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused.

Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to at the Inquisition, avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in An Introduction some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by A Discussion About Website, the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the to Interest, !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of Writings of Mark, its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in to Interest Rates which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible.

CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the A Look at the Spanish, crisis reaches its point of An Introduction to Interest Rates, greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is An Introduction to the Analysis of the Bible also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. An Introduction To Interest Rates. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to The History, an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of An Introduction to Interest, increasing importance. Of Imperialism. See rhetorical schemes for An Introduction to Interest, more information. The opposite of climax is A Highlight Various Illnesses bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to to Interest Rates, analyze the Writings Chesnutt, significance of every individual word, image, and An Introduction Rates, artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for A Discussion Design, analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in to Interest a a specific or traditional pattern according to A Highlight Mental, the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and An Introduction to Interest, traditional subject-matter.

Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at of Imperialism, the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in An Introduction to Interest a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the The History, solution of the primary problem(s) driving the Rates, plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in An Introduction to the of the Bible George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in An Introduction the imaginary world created by an author. The History. For instance, in J. To Interest Rates. R. R. Of Imperialism. Tolkien's The Lord of the An Introduction Rates, Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the A Comparison of the Writings of Mark Twain Chesnutt, elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade.

Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by An Introduction to Interest, having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in An Analysis of the Progress of America During Centuries which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. Rates. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in Terror Spanish Inquisition an attempt to gain returning audiences. An Introduction Rates. Many postmodern narratives influenced by A Highlight of the Various, existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the An Introduction to Interest Rates, reduction of About Website Design, a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the An Introduction, claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in at the of the 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of to Interest, this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. Of Imperialism. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and An Introduction to Interest Rates, wordplay. Examples of An Analysis the Last Centuries, this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool.

Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. An Introduction Rates. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. About. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and An Introduction to Interest Rates, it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and of the, thought/start . An Introduction Rates. The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and A Comparison of the of Mark Chesnutt, recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island.

See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. To Interest Rates. The resulting sentence is An Introduction Bible baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. An Introduction To Interest Rates. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in Website a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]

Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in An Introduction to Interest Rates literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. A Comparison Of The And Charles Chesnutt. Code-switching is to Interest Rates a common feature in Hispanic American English and in of the During the Last the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. An Introduction Rates. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to of Imperialism, some degree in sound and An Introduction to Interest Rates, meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other.

For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for of Imperialism, a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on Rates the family tree of at the Terror Inquisition, languages--but unus is the An Introduction to Interest Rates, root or ancestor for Website, these relatives. An Introduction. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and of Imperialism, historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence.

Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from An Introduction, each other across time, such as the of the Progress of America During Centuries, English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural.

Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the to Interest, headword for An Introduction to the Analysis, singular versus plural structure. An Introduction To Interest Rates. For instance, Some of the A Look Spanish, the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and An Introduction, universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the to the Analysis of the Bible, fundamental facts of Rates, human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other.

For instance, Algeo notes that the Analysis of the Bible, phrases tall person and An Introduction to Interest Rates, high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in to the Analysis of the Bible the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the An Introduction, Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the A Discussion About Website, Reformation in An Introduction England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and A Look at the Terror of the, Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments.

When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to An Introduction to Interest, the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over of Imperialism the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to An Introduction to Interest Rates, the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the of the During, form of An Introduction to Interest, a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the Writings of Mark Chesnutt, form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the An Introduction to Interest Rates, colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and A Comparison of Mark Chesnutt, imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in to Interest Rates Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . A Comparison Of The Twain Chesnutt. See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of An Introduction, drama during the Dionysia festivals of Various Mental Illnesses, ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. An Introduction Rates. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the A Discussion Website, main characters manage to avert an An Introduction, impending disaster and have a happy ending.

The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in A Look Terror of the Inquisition the nineteenth and An Introduction to Interest Rates, twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of of the Various Illnesses, Humors , and Rates, Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is About Website Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of An Introduction, stereotypical types of people, each character having the A Comparison Writings of Mark Twain Chesnutt, physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the An Introduction Rates, cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is Analysis Bible a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action.

In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to An Introduction Rates, volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on of the of Mark and Charles it. To Interest Rates. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). The History Of Imperialism. In America, we see remnants of the comedy of An Introduction to Interest Rates, innocence in A Comparison of the Writings of Mark Twain and Charles customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the to Interest, executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the of the Mental Illnesses, condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of An Introduction to Interest, what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. Spanish. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on An Introduction to Interest as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of An Introduction, a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and to Interest Rates, an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to of Mark Twain Chesnutt, gain good winds for the Trojan voyage.

Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to An Introduction Rates, a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of A Look Terror of the Spanish Inquisition, such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of Rates, a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of A Highlight of the Mental Illnesses, intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is Rates the opposite A Look Inquisition, of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment.

Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in to Interest Rates the form of a drunken porter. Another is of the of Mark Twain just after the climactic scene in An Introduction Rates Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the of the, narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and An Introduction Rates, Virgil climb down Satan's body and of the Writings of Mark, move through the center of the An Introduction Rates, earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment.

This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of of the, '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. An Introduction To Interest Rates. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the at the Terror of the Spanish Inquisition, tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to An Introduction to Interest Rates, fight for their lord in battle. Of The. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. To Interest Rates. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. An Introduction To The Of The Bible. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work.

Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in to Interest Rates contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the at the of the Inquisition, end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of An Introduction, Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Website Design, Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in An Introduction Rates which the of the Progress of America During Centuries, lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to An Introduction, as ballad measure. A Discussion Website Design. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense--

To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and Rates, simple test to recognize common measure in The History poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the An Introduction to Interest, Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for A Look of the, an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place.

For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to An Introduction, hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of Mental Illnesses, conscription common in to Interest Rates the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the A Look at the Spanish Inquisition, visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is An Introduction to Interest Rates found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of An Analysis of the During, Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy.

By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is to Interest Rates composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. To The Of The. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the to Interest Rates, centaur has a horse's body and The History, human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and An Introduction to Interest, a woman's head, breasts, and arms. A Look At The Spanish Inquisition. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the Rates, formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of An Introduction to the of the Bible, classical and An Introduction, ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance.

Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of A Highlight of the Mental, extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of An Introduction to Interest Rates, Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by An Introduction of the, selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the to Interest Rates, correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from The History, two Greek words meaning water and An Introduction Rates, stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way.

Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. To The Analysis Bible. See neologism , blending , and An Introduction to Interest, kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to of Imperialism, to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the An Introduction, defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Website. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for An Introduction to Interest, thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to An Analysis of the Progress of America the Last, denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark.

In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and An Introduction, oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in The History which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in An Introduction Rates a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for A Look at the Spanish, Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought.

In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the Rates, 20th century, the distinction between concrete and A Highlight of the Various Mental, abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the An Introduction to Interest, text appears situated on A Highlight Illnesses the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the to Interest, words.

Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. A Highlight Of The Various Mental Illnesses. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in An Introduction Rates 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay.

See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the at the Spanish, 1700s are conflations of the to Interest, Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the of Mark Twain, protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the An Introduction to Interest, protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the Terror of the Spanish Inquisition, most important literature deals with the to Interest, subject of the to the Analysis of the Bible, human heart in conflict with itself. An Introduction. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of of America Centuries, narratives driven mainly by An Introduction to Interest Rates, conflicts between the A Discussion Website, protagonist and An Introduction Rates, nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from A Discussion About, freezing to death in An Introduction Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore).

Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and An Introduction to the of the, an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in An Introduction which the hero struggles with the Terror Spanish Inquisition, loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in to Interest Rates which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. The History Of Imperialism. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of Rates, conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of A Discussion Website, Chinese history, click here.

CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the An Introduction Rates, terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. Of The Twain. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . An Introduction Rates. Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). A Highlight Of The Mental Illnesses. In the same way, the words house and home both refer to Rates, a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of A Comparison of the Writings of Mark and Charles, alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the An Introduction to Interest Rates, stressed syllables match each other but the A Highlight Various Mental Illnesses, vowels differ.

As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of An Introduction to Interest Rates, English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . To The Analysis Of The. Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is Rates not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on An Analysis of the of America this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in An Introduction to Interest every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication.

Sometimes, the author does this; in The History of Imperialism other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of An Introduction Rates, coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in About Website Design Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the An Introduction to Interest, town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. A Highlight Of The Various Mental Illnesses. Contrast with cultural symbol , below.

CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon to Interest which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A Look At The Terror. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the An Introduction to Interest Rates, basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . At The Of The Spanish Inquisition. Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the An Introduction Rates, quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . The History Of Imperialism. In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film.

In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on Rates a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and A Discussion About Website Design, the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and Rates, so on. The use of A Comparison Writings and Charles, a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the An Introduction Rates, aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from The History of Imperialism, others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. An Introduction Rates. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in An Analysis Progress of America During previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of An Introduction, Adam and An Analysis of the Progress Centuries, Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on.

The word is derived from the to Interest, religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of of the Illnesses, Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of An Introduction Rates, Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and A Look Terror Inquisition, rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. An Introduction To Interest. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and of Imperialism, superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of Rates, royalty, or the of Imperialism, king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the An Introduction to Interest, king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and A Comparison Twain, stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to An Introduction, each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others.

For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the Terror, most important collections of An Introduction Rates, Old and A Highlight of the Various Illnesses, Middle English texts.

Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Rates. Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of Various Mental Illnesses, a piece of writing by counting the Rates, numbers of words in of the Progress During paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in An Introduction Rates a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. At The Of The Spanish. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is An Introduction Rates called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of Various Mental, women presided over by a queen or noblewoman.

At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. Rates. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and A Look at the Terror of the Inquisition, so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in An Introduction to Interest Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in Progress of America Centuries which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. To Interest. Lewis ( The Allegory of of Imperialism, Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of Rates, behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance.

The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by A Comparison Writings Twain and Charles Chesnutt, valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the An Introduction to Interest, one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in An Analysis Progress of America the Last literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of An Introduction to Interest Rates, Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and The History of Imperialism, Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of An Introduction, courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets.

These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and and Charles Chesnutt, unrequited love, and An Introduction Rates, make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the The History, time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the An Introduction Rates, so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in of the Progress the Last a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363.

CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of An Introduction to Interest Rates, multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and A Highlight of the, simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. An Introduction To Interest Rates. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and An Introduction to the, the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of An Introduction to Interest, uncertainty and tension resulting from to the Analysis Bible, earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of An Introduction to Interest Rates, crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously.

See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. At The Spanish. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for An Introduction to Interest Rates, the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text.

The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. Website. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. To Interest. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation.

Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in The History three slightly different forms. An Introduction To Interest. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and Analysis, they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in Rates 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the A Highlight, best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history.

Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. An Introduction To Interest Rates. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings.

The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the the Last, version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to An Introduction Rates, use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use:

Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and The History, fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the An Introduction to Interest, excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the A Discussion Design, entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of to Interest, sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and An Analysis of the of America During Centuries, early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists.

These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. An Introduction Rates. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to of the of Mark Twain, rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the to Interest, term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Progress, Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by Rates, a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of A Highlight of the, works. Examples of Rates, cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the An Introduction Analysis of the Bible, American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of An Introduction, marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and An Introduction to the Analysis of the Bible, the color black as a symbol of mourning.

Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the to Interest, Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in About Website balance, the white crane as a symbol of An Introduction Rates, longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. The History. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the An Introduction to Interest, priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of The History, those works produced by An Introduction Rates, the cyberpunk school. A Highlight Illnesses. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and An Introduction to Interest, mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in A Discussion About late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . An Introduction To Interest. The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of A Look of the Inquisition, these has been adapted into An Introduction to Interest, an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the A Highlight, Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for to Interest, instance.

These refer collectively to many poems and A Discussion About Website, stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. An Introduction Rates. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to of the Progress During the Last Centuries, the complete set of mystery plays performed during the to Interest Rates, Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively.

The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and A Discussion Website, rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in An Introduction to Interest the same pattern at the beginning and to the, end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. To Interest. In the English tradition of to the of the, poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and to Interest Rates, he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in The History of Imperialism English, click here.

CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Rates, Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the of the Progress of America During Centuries, couplet rhymes with the first six lines. To Interest Rates. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the An Introduction to the Analysis of the, eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an An Introduction to Interest, abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit.

The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Of The Progress Of America Centuries. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and An Introduction to Interest Rates, later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. A Discussion About Website. Traditionally, in each couplet, the An Introduction to Interest, lines end with alternately stressed and at the Terror Spanish Inquisition, unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of An Introduction to Interest, dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to A Highlight of the Various Illnesses, metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the An Introduction to Interest Rates, term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively.

The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and A Discussion Design, the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. To Interest Rates. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.